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Direct Visualization of Nucleation and Growth Processes of Solid Electrolyte Interphase Film Using in Situ Atomic Force Microscopy

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Key Laboratory of Molecular Nanostructure and Nanotechnology and Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Science, CAS Research/Education Center for Excellence in Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, P.R. China
University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, P.R. China
Cite this: ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2017, 9, 26, 22063–22067
Publication Date (Web):June 8, 2017
https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.7b05613
Copyright © 2017 American Chemical Society

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    Abstract

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    An understanding of the formation mechanism of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) film at the nanoscale is paramount because it is one of the key issues at interfaces in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Herein, we explored the nucleation, growth, and formation of SEI film on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) substrate in ionic liquid-based electrolytes 1-butyl-1-methyl-pyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide ([BMP]+[FSI]) and 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([BMP]+[TFSI]) by in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) and found that the types of anions have significant influence on the structure of the formed SEI. In [BMP]+[FSI] containing LiFSI, a compact and thin SEI film prefers to grow in the plane of HOPG substrate, while a rough and loose film tends to form in [BMP]+[TFSI] containing LiTFSI. On the basis of in situ AFM observations, the relationship between the SEI structure and the electrochemical performance was clarified.

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    The Supporting Information is available free of charge on the ACS Publications website at DOI: 10.1021/acsami.7b05613.

    • Cyclic voltammograms of graphite electrode recorded in [BMP]+[TFSI] containing 0.5 M LiFSI, detailed AFM images with cross section profiles, and XPS spectra of the HOPG polarized to 1 V in [BMP]+[FSI] containing 0.5 M LiFSI (PDF)

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