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Novel Interfacial Bulk Heterojunction Technique for Enhanced Response in ZnO Nanogenerator

  • Rajagopalan Pandey
    Rajagopalan Pandey
    Mechatronics and Instrumentation Laboratory, Discipline of Metallurgy Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Indore 453552, India
    Nano Materials and Systems Laboratory, Department of Mechatronics Engineering, Jeju National University, Jeju 63243, South Korea
  • Nirmal Prasanth Maria Joseph Raj
    Nirmal Prasanth Maria Joseph Raj
    Nano Materials and Systems Laboratory, Department of Mechatronics Engineering, Jeju National University, Jeju 63243, South Korea
  • Vipul Singh
    Vipul Singh
    Molecular and Nano-electronics Research Group (MNRG), Discipline of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Indore 453552, India
    More by Vipul Singh
  • Palani Iyamperumal Anand*
    Palani Iyamperumal Anand
    Mechatronics and Instrumentation Laboratory, Discipline of Metallurgy Engineering and Materials Science  and  Mechatronics and Instrumentation Laboratory, Discipline of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Indore 453552, India
    *E-mail: [email protected] (P.I.A.).
  • , and 
  • Sang-Jae Kim*
    Sang-Jae Kim
    Nano Materials and Systems Laboratory, Department of Mechatronics Engineering, Jeju National University, Jeju 63243, South Korea
    *E-mail: kimsangj@[email protected] (S.-J.K.).
    More by Sang-Jae Kim
Cite this: ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2019, 11, 6, 6078–6088
Publication Date (Web):January 8, 2019
https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.8b19321
Copyright © 2019 American Chemical Society

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    Abstract

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    In this paper, a direct sustainable approach for the development of a n-ZnO:p-CuO heterojunction (ZCH) through a simple grinding is reported to be an effective technique to enhance the piezoelectric performance of ZCH/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) nanocomposite-based nanogenerators (ZP-PNGs). We have first optimized the best concentration for ZnO/PDMS nanocomposite for the realization of the piezoelectric nanogenerator. Later, with the same configuration, we implemented a novel, simple, facile, frugal, and inexpensive technique to fabricate ZCH. The heterojunction results in the improved charge transfer characteristics, low capacitance, and charge nullification contributing to the enhanced piezoelectric output. This reflects in the improvement of the peak-to-peak piezoelectric potential of the device from 2.7 to 9 V. The instantaneous max power density was found to be 0.2 mW/m2. The device can work as a force sensor with improved sensitivity of 1.7 V/N compared to 1.05 V/N of the intrinsic device. The device is being systematically studied for load matching and capacitor charging to demonstrate its practicability. Furthermore, we tested our device to harness the biomechanical energy from day-to-day life activities. Finally, the device was used to fabricate sustainable piezoelectric-based smart urinal systems for low-income group countries.

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    The Supporting Information is available free of charge on the ACS Publications website at DOI: 10.1021/acsami.8b19321.

    • Graphs of X-ray diffraction of the ZnO:C10 sample; reliability studies of the ZnO–Z20 sample; IVdark plot for ZnO and ZnO:C10; graph of effective power density calculation; graphs of charging and discharging of 22, 100, and 200 nF capacitors; circuit diagram for PSU (PDF)

    • Sensor detects a signal and opens the wall to flush for 7.5 s and signals as a green LED on the board (AVI)

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