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Alloying and Embedding of Cu-Core/Ag-Shell Nanowires for Ultrastable Stretchable and Transparent Electrodes

  • Bowen Zhang
    Bowen Zhang
    Department of Adaptive Machine Systems, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Yamadaoka 2-1, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan
    The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research (ISIR), Osaka University, Mihogaoka 8-1, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047, Japan
    More by Bowen Zhang
  • Wanli Li*
    Wanli Li
    The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research (ISIR), Osaka University, Mihogaoka 8-1, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047, Japan
    *E-mail: [email protected] (W.L.).
    More by Wanli Li
  • Masaya Nogi
    Masaya Nogi
    The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research (ISIR), Osaka University, Mihogaoka 8-1, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047, Japan
    More by Masaya Nogi
  • Chuantong Chen
    Chuantong Chen
    The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research (ISIR), Osaka University, Mihogaoka 8-1, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047, Japan
  • Yang Yang
    Yang Yang
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352, United States
    More by Yang Yang
  • Tohru Sugahara
    Tohru Sugahara
    The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research (ISIR), Osaka University, Mihogaoka 8-1, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047, Japan
  • Hirotaka Koga
    Hirotaka Koga
    The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research (ISIR), Osaka University, Mihogaoka 8-1, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047, Japan
  • , and 
  • Katsuaki Suganuma*
    Katsuaki Suganuma
    The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research (ISIR), Osaka University, Mihogaoka 8-1, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047, Japan
    *E-mail: [email protected] (K.S.).
Cite this: ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2019, 11, 20, 18540–18547
Publication Date (Web):May 6, 2019
https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.9b04169
Copyright © 2019 American Chemical Society

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    Abstract

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    In this paper, transparent electrodes with dense Cu@Ag alloy nanowires embedded in the stretchable substrates are successfully fabricated by a high-intensity pulsed light (HIPL) technique within one step. The intense light energy not only induces rapid mutual dissolution between the Cu core and the Ag shell to form dense Cu@Ag alloy nanowires but also embeds the newly formed alloy nanowires into the stretchable substrates. The combination of alloy nanowires and embedded structures greatly improve the thermal stability of the transparent electrodes that maintain a high conductivity unchanged in both high temperature (140 °C) and high humidity (85 °C, 85% RH) for at least 500 h, which is much better than previous reports. The transparent electrodes also exhibit high electromechanical stability due to the strong adhesion between alloy nanowires and substrates, which remain stable after 1000 stretching–relaxation cycles at 30% strain. Stretchable and transparent heaters based on the alloyed and embedded electrodes have a wide outputting temperature range (up to 130 °C) and show excellent thermal stability and stretchability (up to 60% strain) due to the alloy nanowires and embedded structures. To sum up, this study proposes the combination of alloying and embedding structures to greatly improve the stability of Cu nanowire-based stretchable transparent electrodes, showing a huge application prospect in the field of stretchable and wearable electronics.

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    The Supporting Information is available free of charge on the ACS Publications website at DOI: 10.1021/acsami.9b04169.

    • Transmittance of the samples under different strain, surface roughness of the Cu@Ag core–shell nanowires/PU electrodes (T = 89%) treated with light energies of 0, 0.8, 2.4, to 3.2 J/cm2, crystal structure of Cu@Ag nanowire electrodes treated with different light energies, and microstructural changes of CuNW and TAE electrodes after exposure to standard harsh environments for 10 and 50 h (PDF)

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