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Doping of Cr in Graphene Using Electron Beam Manipulation for Functional Defect Engineering

  • Ondrej Dyck*
    Ondrej Dyck
    Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830, United States
    *Email: [email protected]
    More by Ondrej Dyck
  • Mina Yoon
    Mina Yoon
    Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830, United States
    More by Mina Yoon
  • Lizhi Zhang
    Lizhi Zhang
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996, United States
    More by Lizhi Zhang
  • Andrew R. Lupini
    Andrew R. Lupini
    Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830, United States
  • Jacob L. Swett
    Jacob L. Swett
    Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PH, U.K.
  • , and 
  • Stephen Jesse
    Stephen Jesse
    Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830, United States
Cite this: ACS Appl. Nano Mater. 2020, 3, 11, 10855–10863
Publication Date (Web):October 28, 2020
https://doi.org/10.1021/acsanm.0c02118
Copyright © 2020 American Chemical Society

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    Abstract

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    Chromium atoms in graphene have been proposed to exhibit magnetic moments and spin-selective conducting states depending on the local bonding geometry within the graphene structure, which could lead to interesting applications in spintronics. Despite this interest, there are few direct experimental reports of Cr dopants in graphene even though it is theorized to be stable. Here, we demonstrate the introduction of single Cr dopant atoms into the graphene lattice and onto graphene edges through the controlled use of a focused electron beam in a scanning transmission electron microscope. We show local control of doping locations, and when coupled with targeted in situ milling during scanning of the e-beam, these strategies demonstrate an important component of the fabrication of tailored nanostructured devices in the electron microscope. The approach is validated with first-principles calculations to understand synthesis pathways during fabrication and reveal the energetics and local properties of Cr atoms embedded in graphene; for example, Cr doping can convert graphene into a magnetic and semiconducting material, which suggests Cr-doped graphene can be used as a building block for potential electronic devices and a means to construct them.

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    This article is cited by 24 publications.

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