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Highly Elastic and Moldable Polyester Biomaterial for Cardiac Tissue Engineering Applications

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† ‡ Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, and §Human Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Cite this: ACS Biomater. Sci. Eng. 2016, 2, 5, 780–788
Publication Date (Web):April 28, 2016
Copyright © 2016 American Chemical Society

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    Polyester biomaterials are used in tissue engineering as scaffolds for implantation of tissues developed in vitro. An ideal biodegradable elastomer for cardiac tissue engineering exhibits a relatively low Young’s modulus, with high elongation and tensile strength. Here we describe a novel polyester biomaterial that exhibits improved elastic properties for cardiac tissue engineering applications. We synthesized poly(octamethylene maleate (anhydride) 1,2,4-butanetricarboxylate) (124 polymer) prepolymer gel in a one-step polycondensation reaction. The prepolymer was then molded as desired and exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light to produce a cross-linked elastomer. 124 polymer exhibited highly elastic properties under aqueous conditions that were tunable according to the UV light exposure, monomer composition, and porosity of the cured elastomer. Its elastomeric properties fell within the range of adult heart myocardium, but they could also be optimized for higher elasticity for weaker immature constructs. The polymer showed relatively stable degradation characteristics, both hydrolytically and in a cellular environment, suggesting maintenance of material properties as a scaffold support for potential tissue implants. When assessed for cell interaction, this polymer supported rat cardiac cell attachment in vitro as well as comparable acute in vivo host response when compared to poly(l-lactic acid) control. This suggests the potential applicability of this material as an elastomer for cardiac tissue engineered constructs.

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    The Supporting Information is available free of charge on the ACS Publications website at DOI: 10.1021/acsbiomaterials.5b00525.

    • SEM images of nonporous and porous cross-linked polymer, Young’s modulus change over time, additional in vitro cytotoxicity assessment, long-term in vivo results, in depth description of design of experiments, and scaffold preparation technique (PDF)

    • Movie S1, 124 polymer tissue mesh with contracting cardiac tissue (AVI)

    • Movie S2, handling of 124 polymer tissue mesh (AVI)

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