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Rational Design of 2D Manganese Phosphate Hydrate Nanosheets as Pseudocapacitive Electrodes

  • Kumar Raju*
    Kumar Raju
    Energy Centre, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Pretoria 0001, South Africa
    *E-mail: [email protected] (K.R.).
    More by Kumar Raju
  • Hyungkyu Han
    Hyungkyu Han
    Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, United States
    More by Hyungkyu Han
  • Dhinesh Babu Velusamy
    Dhinesh Babu Velusamy
    Division of Physical Sciences and Engineering, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal 23955-6900, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
  • Qiu Jiang
    Qiu Jiang
    Division of Physical Sciences and Engineering, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal 23955-6900, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
    More by Qiu Jiang
  • Huachao Yang
    Huachao Yang
    State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310027, China
    More by Huachao Yang
  • Funeka P. Nkosi
    Funeka P. Nkosi
    Department of Chemistry-Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, SE-75121 Uppsala, Sweden
  • Nithyadharseni Palaniyandy
    Nithyadharseni Palaniyandy
    Energy Centre, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Pretoria 0001, South Africa
  • Katlego Makgopa
    Katlego Makgopa
    Department of Chemistry, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria 0001, South Africa
  • Zheng Bo
    Zheng Bo
    State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310027, China
    More by Zheng Bo
  • , and 
  • Kenneth I. Ozoemena*
    Kenneth I. Ozoemena
    Molecular Sciences Institute, School of Chemistry, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Johannesburg 2050, South Africa
    *E-mail: [email protected] (K.I.O.).
Cite this: ACS Energy Lett. 2020, 5, 1, 23–30
Publication Date (Web):November 19, 2019
Copyright © 2019 American Chemical Society

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    Abstract Image

    A new class of 2D nanosheets of nitrogen-integrated phosphate-rich ammonium manganese phosphate hydrate, (NH4MnPO4·H2O) (AMP), has been developed as pseudocapacitive electrode materials. The optimized electrodes exhibited device capacitances of 48.4 and 65.4 F/g for symmetric and asymmetric configurations, respectively. The devices showed excellent energy and power (e.g., 29.4 Wh/kg and 133 kW/kg for asymmetric cells) with extraordinary capacitance retention (e.g., >93%, 100 000 cycles at 5 A/g for asymmetric cells) that surpass those of most of the reported values. The huge pseudocapacitance of AMP is attributed to several factors, including the electroactive sites containing NH4+ ions, the conductive inorganic layers, intercalated water interactions of Mn2+···H2O, redox-active phosphate ions, and the 2D nanosheets. AMP-based all-solid-state flexible asymmetric devices exhibited >95% capacitance retention upon 1000 repetitive charge–discharge cycles. This study opens doors to elegant strategies of unlocking the rich physicoelectrochemical properties of 2D AMP for next-generation pseudocapacitors.

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    • Detailed experimental procedures, including microwave-assisted synthesis of the novel layered materials, structural analysis, BET, electrode fabrication, testing and device fabrication, and tables providing BET data, EIS data, and a comparison of energy and power densities (PDF)

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