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3D Printed Mask Frames Improve the Inward Protection Efficiency of a Cloth Mask

  • Yuxin Tong
    Yuxin Tong
    Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, United States
    More by Yuxin Tong
  • Jin Pan
    Jin Pan
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, United States
    More by Jin Pan
  • Ezgi Kucukdeger
    Ezgi Kucukdeger
    Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, United States
  • Ashley L. Johnson
    Ashley L. Johnson
    Myers-Lawson School of Construction, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, United States
  • Linsey C. Marr
    Linsey C. Marr
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, United States
  • , and 
  • Blake N. Johnson*
    Blake N. Johnson
    Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, United States
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, United States
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, United States
    *E-mail: [email protected]. Phone: 540-231-0755.
Cite this: ACS EST Engg. 2021, 1, 6, 1000–1008
Publication Date (Web):April 28, 2021
https://doi.org/10.1021/acsestengg.1c00028
Copyright © 2021 American Chemical Society

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    Abstract

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    Here, we show that improving the fit of a cloth mask using a low-cost 3D-printed frame significantly improves its inward protection efficiency for airborne particles known to transmit SARS-CoV-2. We found that a 3D-printed flexible frame (i.e., brace) increased the inward protection efficiency of a cotton-based cloth mask by 13–43% for particles ranging in size from 0.5–2 μm relative to the efficiency obtained in the absence of the frame. For example, the use of a flexible form-fitting frame increased the inward protection efficiency for 0.5 and 1 μm particles by 31 and 40%, respectively. Rapid prototyping of the mask frame geometry and material properties was also highlighted for optimization of the facial contact area and mechanical matching. This work demonstrates the opportunity for leveraging additive manufacturing processes for rapid prototyping of personalized and form-fitting personal protective equipment components at home and at point-of-care settings, such as mask frames.

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    The Supporting Information is available free of charge at https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsestengg.1c00028.

    • Photographs of mask frames sized for adult females and children that demonstrate the ability to scale the device size, data associated with the calculation of mask inward protection efficiency and peripheral inward leakage, and a 3D model of the form-fitting mask frame (model S1) (PDF)

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    Cited By

    This article is cited by 8 publications.

    1. Jiajia Fu, Tianxing Liu, S Salvia Binte Touhid, Feiya Fu, Xiangdong Liu. Functional Textile Materials for Blocking COVID-19 Transmission. ACS Nano 2023, 17 (3) , 1739-1763. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.2c08894
    2. Jordan E. Krechmer, Brennan Phillips, Nicholas Chaloux, Russell Shomberg, Conner Daube, Gaurav Manchanda, Sam Murray, Alex McCarthy, Rodrigo Fonseca, Jinen Thakkar, Brice Loose, Scott C. Herndon, John T. Jayne, Douglas R. Worsnop, Manjula R. Canagaratna. Chemical Emissions from Cured and Uncured 3D-Printed Ventilator Patient Circuit Medical Parts. ACS Omega 2021, 6 (45) , 30726-30733. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.1c04695
    3. Yurun Tian, Anirudh Sridhar, Chai Wah Wu, Simon A. Levin, Kathleen M. Carley, H. Vincent Poor, Osman Yağan. Role of masks in mitigating viral spread on networks. Physical Review E 2023, 108 (1) https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.108.014306
    4. Joelle M. Segovia, Ching-Hsuan Huang, Maxwell Mamishev, Nanhsun Yuan, Jiayang He, Igor Novosselov. Performance of Textile Mask Materials in Varied Humidity: Filtration Efficiency, Breathability, and Quality Factor. Applied Sciences 2022, 12 (18) , 9360. https://doi.org/10.3390/app12189360
    5. Ruohan Xu, Libin Yang, Zhao Qin. Design, manufacture, and testing of customized sterilizable respirator. Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials 2022, 131 , 105248. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmbbm.2022.105248
    6. Mika Morishima, Akari Yoneda. Necessary conditions of the length and correct way of wearing of a nonmedical mask for younger Japanese women. Textile Research Journal 2022, 92 (13-14) , 2340-2356. https://doi.org/10.1177/00405175221077044
    7. Satya S. Patra, Jyotishree Nath, Subhasmita Panda, Trupti Das, Boopathy Ramasamy. Evaluating the filtration efficiency of commercial facemasks’ materials against respiratory aerosol droplets. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 2022, 72 (1) , 3-9. https://doi.org/10.1080/10962247.2021.1948459
    8. Michal Husák, Václav Kaczmarczyk, Ondřej Baštán, Jakub Arm. Disadvantage of the FDM method for printing protective masks against COVID-19 and solution. IFAC-PapersOnLine 2022, 55 (4) , 13-18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ifacol.2022.06.002

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