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Self-Extinguishing Additive Manufacturing Filament from a Unique Combination of Polylactic Acid and a Polyelectrolyte Complex

  • Thomas J. Kolibaba
    Thomas J. Kolibaba
    Department of Chemistry, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843 United States
  • Chin-Cheng Shih
    Chin-Cheng Shih
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843 United States
  • Simone Lazar
    Simone Lazar
    Department of Chemistry, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843 United States
    More by Simone Lazar
  • Bruce L. Tai*
    Bruce L. Tai
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843 United States
    *E-mail: [email protected] (B. L. Tai).
    More by Bruce L. Tai
  • , and 
  • Jaime C. Grunlan*
    Jaime C. Grunlan
    Department of Chemistry,  Department of Mechanical Engineering  and  Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843 United States
    *E-mail: [email protected] (J. C. Grunlan).
Cite this: ACS Materials Lett. 2020, 2, 1, 15–19
Publication Date (Web):November 19, 2019
https://doi.org/10.1021/acsmaterialslett.9b00393
Copyright © 2019 American Chemical Society

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    Abstract

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    Additive manufacturing, also known as 3D printing, has quickly become a widely used tool for rapid prototyping of complex parts. Most of the common filaments for the fused filament fabrication form of 3D printing are inherently flammable thermoplastics, which has led to numerous fires that pose a serious danger to lives and property. In an effort to improve the safety of these filaments, a unique composite of polylactic acid (PLA) and a flame-retardant polyelectrolyte complex, consisting of polyvinylamine and poly(sodium phosphate), was developed. This composite filament can be printed using an ordinary 3D printer under identical conditions to neat PLA. The filament and its printed parts are self-extinguishing in an open flame test and exhibit a 42% lower peak heat release rate, as measured by microscale combustion calorimetry. This unique filament concept solves a major safety problem for 3D printing and could be extended to other commonly used polymer filaments.

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    Supporting Information

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    The Supporting Information is available free of charge at https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsmaterialslett.9b00393.

    • Experimental information, DSC and TGA data of the pure PVA:PSP polyelectrolyte complex, images of 3D model used for printing as well as the sliced.stl file, char images following MCC (PDF)

    • Video of handheld blowtorch flame test of neat PLA, showing melt drip (MP4)

    • Video of handheld blowtorch flame test of PLA-PEC, showing self-extinguishing behavior (MP4)

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    Most electronic Supporting Information files are available without a subscription to ACS Web Editions. Such files may be downloaded by article for research use (if there is a public use license linked to the relevant article, that license may permit other uses). Permission may be obtained from ACS for other uses through requests via the RightsLink permission system: http://pubs.acs.org/page/copyright/permissions.html.

    Cited By

    This article is cited by 8 publications.

    1. Fu-Rong Zeng, Bo-Wen Liu, Zi-Hao Wang, Jia-Yan Zhang, Xue-Lian Chen, Hai-Bo Zhao, Yu-Zhong Wang. Recyclable Biophenolic Nanospheres for Sustainable and Durable Multifunctional Applications in Thermosets. ACS Materials Letters 2023, 5 (6) , 1692-1702. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsmaterialslett.3c00403
    2. Ming-Jun Chen, Simone Lazar, Thomas J. Kolibaba, Ruiqing Shen, Yufeng Quan, Qingsheng Wang, Hsu-Cheng Chiang, Bethany Palen, Jaime C. Grunlan. Environmentally Benign and Self-Extinguishing Multilayer Nanocoating for Protection of Flammable Foam. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2020, 12 (43) , 49130-49137. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c15329
    3. Thomas J. Kolibaba, Callie I. Higgins, Nathan C. Crawford, Joseph R. Samaniuk, Jason P. Killgore. Sustainable Additive Manufacturing of Polyelectrolyte Photopolymer Complexes. Advanced Materials Technologies 2023, 8 (9) https://doi.org/10.1002/admt.202201681
    4. Thomas Nazé, Franck Poutch, Fanny Bonnet, Maude Jimenez, Serge Bourbigot. Impact of additive manufacturing on reaction to fire. Journal of Fire Sciences 2023, 41 (3) , 53-72. https://doi.org/10.1177/07349041231158990
    5. Teboho Clement Mokhena, Emmanuel Rotimi Sadiku, Suprakas Sinha Ray, Mokgaotsa Jonas Mochane, Kgabo Phillemon Matabola, Mpho Motloung. Flame retardancy efficacy of phytic acid: An overview. Journal of Applied Polymer Science 2022, 139 (27) https://doi.org/10.1002/app.52495
    6. Matthew S. Thompson. Current status and future roles of additives in 3D printing—A perspective. Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 2022, 28 (1) , 3-16. https://doi.org/10.1002/vnl.21887
    7. Thomas J. Kolibaba, Aman Nigam, Bruce L. Tai, Jaime C. Grunlan. Environmentally Benign Flame Retardant Polyamide‐6 Filament for Additive Manufacturing. Macromolecular Materials and Engineering 2021, 306 (9) https://doi.org/10.1002/mame.202100245
    8. Henri Vahabi, Fouad Laoutid, Mehrshad Mehrpouya, Mohammad Reza Saeb, Philippe Dubois. Flame retardant polymer materials: An update and the future for 3D printing developments. Materials Science and Engineering: R: Reports 2021, 144 , 100604. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mser.2020.100604

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