ACS Publications. Most Trusted. Most Cited. Most Read
My Activity
CONTENT TYPES

Can N95 Respirators Be Reused after Disinfection? How Many Times?

  • Lei Liao
    Lei Liao
    4C Air, Inc., Sunnyvale, California 94089, United States
    More by Lei Liao
  • Wang Xiao
    Wang Xiao
    4C Air, Inc., Sunnyvale, California 94089, United States
    More by Wang Xiao
  • Mervin Zhao
    Mervin Zhao
    4C Air, Inc., Sunnyvale, California 94089, United States
    More by Mervin Zhao
  • Xuanze Yu
    Xuanze Yu
    4C Air, Inc., Sunnyvale, California 94089, United States
    More by Xuanze Yu
  • Haotian Wang
    Haotian Wang
    4C Air, Inc., Sunnyvale, California 94089, United States
    More by Haotian Wang
  • Qiqi Wang
    Qiqi Wang
    4C Air, Inc., Sunnyvale, California 94089, United States
    More by Qiqi Wang
  • Steven Chu
    Steven Chu
    Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, United States
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, United States
    More by Steven Chu
  • , and 
  • Yi Cui*
    Yi Cui
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, United States
    Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025, United States
    *Email: [email protected]
    More by Yi Cui
Cite this: ACS Nano 2020, 14, 5, 6348–6356
Publication Date (Web):May 5, 2020
https://doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.0c03597
Copyright © 2020 American Chemical Society
  • Open Access

Article Views

50605

Altmetric

-

Citations

LEARN ABOUT THESE METRICS
PDF (5 MB)
Supporting Info (1)»

Abstract

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to a major shortage of N95 respirators, which are essential for protecting healthcare professionals and the general public who may come into contact with the virus. Thus, it is essential to determine how we can reuse respirators and other personal protective equipment in these urgent times. We investigated multiple commonly used disinfection schemes on media with particle filtration efficiency of 95%. Heating was recently found to inactivate the virus in solution within 5 min at 70 °C and is among the most scalable, user-friendly methods for viral disinfection. We found that heat (≤85 °C) under various humidities (≤100% relative humidity, RH) was the most promising, nondestructive method for the preservation of filtration properties in meltblown fabrics as well as N95-grade respirators. At 85 °C, 30% RH, we were able to perform 50 cycles of heat treatment without significant changes in the filtration efficiency. At low humidity or dry conditions, temperatures up to 100 °C were not found to alter the filtration efficiency significantly within 20 cycles of treatment. Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation was a secondary choice, which was able to withstand 10 cycles of treatment and showed small degradation by 20 cycles. However, UV can potentially impact the material strength and subsequent sealing of respirators. Finally, treatments involving liquids and vapors require caution, as steam, alcohol, and household bleach all may lead to degradation of the filtration efficiency, leaving the user vulnerable to the viral aerosols.

  Note

This article is made available via the ACS COVID-19 subset for unrestricted RESEARCH re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for the duration of the World Health Organization (WHO) declaration of COVID-19 as a global pandemic.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an ongoing pandemic with over three million confirmed cases and new cases increasing by ∼10% per day (at the time of writing) (1) that has caused major disruptions to nearly all facets of everyday life around the world. The disease is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which was first detected in Wuhan, China. (2,3) The virus is likely of zoonotic origin and, like the SARS-CoV, enters human cells via the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). ACE2 is a membrane protein that is responsible for regulating vasoconstriction and blood pressure and serves as an entry point for coronaviruses found in the lungs, heart, kidneys, and intestines. SARS-CoV-2 utilizes ACE2 more efficiently than does SARS-CoV, which may explain why the human-to-human transmissibility of COVID-19 is so high. (4)
Once infected, the patient exhibits flu-like symptoms such as fever, chest tightness, dry cough, and, in some cases, severe pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) develops. (5−8) Because the incubation period is ca. 3–4 days but can be as long as 20 days, along with the presence of asymptomatic carriers, the virus has been extremely difficult to contain. (9) Although the initial mortality rate was estimated to be ca. 3.5% in China, compounding the longer incubation period and testing delays has led to new global estimates of ca. 5.7%. (10)
Although the precise mode SARS-CoV-2’s viral transmission is not known, a primary transmission mode in viruses such as SARS and influenza is through short-range aerosols and droplets. (11) When a person infected with a virus breathes, speaks, sings, coughs, or sneezes, micron-sized aerosols containing the virus are released into the air. Data gathered from influenza patients suggest that these aerosols are typically fine (<5 μm) or coarse (>5 μm). (11−13) Coarse particles can settle due to gravity within 1 h. Fine particles, however, especially those smaller than 1 μm, can essentially stay in the air nearly indefinitely. Droplets, or particles >10 μm, settle rapidly and are not typically deposited in the respiratory tract through means of aerosol inhalation. Particles larger than 5 μm typically only reach the upper respiratory tract, whereas fine particles <5 μm are critically able to reach the lower respiratory tract, similar to harmful particulate matter pollution (Figure 1). Although coughing and sneezing provide many aerosols, the size distribution and number of particles emitted during normal speech serve as a significant viral transmitter. (12) Singing has been found to be comparable to continuous coughing in the transmission of airborne pathogens, (14) which was demonstrated during a choir practice on March 10, 2020 in Washington state. Although the choir members did not touch each other or share music during the rehearsal, 45 out of the 60 members of the Skagit Valley Choir were diagnosed with the virus 3 weeks later, and two had died.

Figure 1

Figure 1. Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 through viral aerosols. Image of SARS-CoV-2 courtesy of the CDC.

For dangerous airborne particulates, including viral aerosols during the current COVID-19 pandemic, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends the usage of N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFR) as personal protective equipment for healthcare professionals. (15−17) The N95 grade is determined by the CDC’s National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) (document 42 CFR Part 84), which designates a minimum filtration efficiency of 95% for 0.3 μm (aerodynamic mass mean diameter) of sodium chloride aerosols. In addition to N95, there are N99 and N100 standards, which correspond to filtration efficiencies of 99% and 99.97%, respectively. For oil-based aerosols (DOP), NIOSH also has created grades R and P (with filtration efficiencies 95–99.97%). Elsewhere around the globe, the equivalent filtration grades to N95 are FFP2 (European Union), KN95 (China), DS/DL2 (Japan), and KF94 (South Korea). Although the actual SARS-CoV-2 virus is ca. 150 nm, (18) commonly found N95 respirators can offer protection against particles as small as 80 nm with 95% filtration efficiency (initial testing, not loaded). (19) With the actual viral aerosols in the ∼1 μm range, the N95 FFRs’ filtration efficiency should be sufficient for personal protection.
The N95 FFR is composed of multiple layers of, typically, polypropylene nonwoven fabrics (Figure 2A). (20) Among these layers, the most critical is that which is produced by the meltblown process. In typical FFRs, the meltblown layer is 100–1000 μm in thickness and composed of polypropylene microfibers with diameters in the range of ∼1–10 μm, as seen in the scanning electron microscope (SEM) images in Figure 2B,C. Due to the production method, meltblown fibers produce a lofty nonwoven material where the fibers can stack and create a three-dimensional network that has a porosity of 90%, (21) leading to high air permeability.

Figure 2

Figure 2. Meltblown fabrics in N95 FFRs. (A) Peeling apart a representative N95 FFR reveals multiple layers of nonwoven materials. (B) Scanning electron microscope (SEM) cross-section image reveals the middle meltblown layer has thinner fibers with thickness around 300 μm. (C) SEM image of meltblown fibers reveals a complicated randomly oriented network of fibers, with diameters in the range of ∼1–10 μm. (D) Schematic illustration of meltblown fibers (left) without and (right) with electret charging. In the left figure, smaller particles are able to pass through to the user, but particles are electrostatically captured in the case of an electret (right).

However, given that the fiber diameters are relatively small and the filters’ void space is large, the filtration efficiencies of meltblown fabrics by themselves should not be adequate for fine particle filtration (Figure 2D). To improve the filtration efficiency while keeping the same high air permeability, these fibers are charged through corona discharge and/or triboelectric means into quasi-permanent dipoles called electrets. (22,23) Once they are charged, the filter can significantly increase its filtration efficiency without adding any mass or density to the structure. In addition, whereas other filter media may decrease in efficiency when loading the filter with more aerosol (NaCl, DOP), the meltblown electrets are able to keep a relatively consistent efficiency throughout the test. (24)
The COVID-19 pandemic has led to a significant shortage of N95 FFRs, (25) especially among healthcare providers. Although the virus will eventually become inactive on the mask surface and it is unlikely to penetrate fully to the user’s intake side, a recent study shows that 72 h were required for the concentration of SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 viruses on plastic surfaces (40% RH and 21–23 °C) to be reduced by 3 orders of magnitude (from 103.7 to 100.6 TCID50 per mL of medium). (26) Assuming a similar longevity on FFR surfaces, it is important to develop procedures for the safe and frequent reuse of FFRs without reducing the filtration efficiency. The CDC has recommended many disinfection or sterilization methods, typically involving chemical, radiative, or temperature treatments. (27) In brief, the mechanisms of disinfection or sterilization of bacteria and viruses include protein denaturation (alcohols, heat), DNA/RNA disruption (UV, peroxides, oxidizers), and cellular disruption (phenolics, chlorides, aldehydes). Although none of these methods have been extensively evaluated for SARS-CoV-2 inactivation specifically, we tested methods that can be easily deployed within a hospital setting, and possibly accessible for the general population, with relatively high throughput for FFR reuse.

Results

ARTICLE SECTIONS
Jump To

Among the CDC forms of disinfection, we chose five commonly used and potentially scalable, user-friendly methods: (1) heat under various humidities (heat denaturation inactivates SARS-CoV with temperatures >65 °C in solution, and possibly SARS-CoV-2 with temperatures >70 °C for 5 min); (28−30) (2) steam (100 °C heat-based denature); (3) 75% alcohol (denaturing of the virus, based on the CDC); (4) household diluted chlorine-based solution (oxidative or chemical damage, based on the CDC); and (5) ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI was able to inactivate the SARS-CoV in solution with UV–C light at a fluence of ∼3.6 J/cm2). (28) An oven, a UV–C sterilizer cabinet (found in barbershops or salons), steam, or liquid sprays can all realistically be deployed in the modern hospital setting and potentially in homes if needed. We did not consider some other common but more inaccessible techniques (equipment such as electron beam irradiation or plasma generators can be expensive or dangerous) or techniques known to cause damage to the FFR. (31)
Due to the shortage of FFRs, data collected were tested on a meltblown fabric (20 g/m2) with initial efficiency ≥95% (full details are listed in the Methods), unless otherwise specified. These samples are representative of how the filtration efficiency in a N95 FFR may change given exposure to these treatments in the worst-case scenario (i.e., no protective layer of the FFR). All meltblown samples were characterized using an industry standard Automated Filter Tester 8130A (TSI, Inc.) with a flow rate of 32 L/min and NaCl aerosol (0.26 μm mass median diameter). We subjected the meltblown samples to the aforementioned five disinfection methods and summarized the data in Table 1.
Table 1. One-Time Disinfection Treatment on a Meltblown Fabrica
treatmentmode of applicationtreatment time (min)filtration efficiency (%)pressure drop (Pa)
initial samples  96.52 ± 1.378.7 ± 1.0
dry heat (75 °C)static-air oven3096.67 ± 0.656.0 ± 1.0
steambeaker of boiling water1095.16 ± 0.739.0 ± 1.0
ethanol (75%)immersion and air dryuntil dry56.33 ± 3.037.7 ± 0.6
chlorine-based (2%)light spray and air dry573.11 ± 7.329.0 ± 1.0
UVGI (254 nm, 8 W)sterilization cabinet3095.50 ± 1.597.0 ± 0.0
a

The data from the initial samples displayed here are used throughout the remainder of the text and represent the mean and standard deviation from 30 samples. For all other data here, three samples were used for each initial treatment.

From the first disinfection, we can clearly note that the solution-based methods (ethanol and chlorine-based solution) drastically degraded the filtration efficiency to unacceptable levels, while the pressure drop remained comparable. As the pressure drop remained constant, this indicated that the loftiness and structure of the meltblown were unchanged, and the resultant efficiency degradation is the result of less apparent static charge on the electret (Figure S1). It is hypothesized in the literature that small molecules such as solvents can adsorb onto the fabrics’ fibers and either screen or possibly lift the frozen charges of the electret, (32) which would decrease the filtration efficiency. In the case of disinfection with ethanol-based solutions, recent preliminary work also shows that vacuum drying may be able to restore the efficiency of FFRs. (33) It is also possible that the chlorine-based solution may degrade the efficiency less than the alcohol-based solution due to the higher water content. As polypropylene is hydrophobic, the chlorine-based solution may have a more difficult time penetrating the fabric and the static charge of fibers deeper within the meltblown may be less affected.
These initial results are mostly in agreement with a NIOSH-published report regarding the decontamination of whole FFRs, (34) though it placed more focus on gas-based methods, which could be suitable to well-controlled industrial-scale disinfection. However, this may not be practical for on-site disinfection within the current hospital and clinic infrastructure. The report found that bleach (immersion in a diluted solution) resulted in less of a drop in efficiency than our results indicated, but the authors noted that there were strong odors from off-gassing, which is another reason to exclude this as a method to consider for the end-user.
We chose to focus on the three remaining treatment methods to perform multiple treatment cycles. The meltblown fabrics after 10 cycles of each treatment are summarized in Figure 3 (data provided in Table S1). After three treatments of these three methods, the meltblown fabric still has characteristics similar to the initial sample. However, after five steam treatments, the efficiency has a sharp drop which continues at cycle 10 (Table S2). Similar to the alcohol- and chlorine-solution treatments, the pressure drop can be maintained at ∼8–9 Pa, but the efficiency degrades to around ∼80%, which would be concerning in an environment with high viral aerosol concentrations. As with the solution treatments, the pressure drops remained similar, which suggests it is also due to the decay of static charge. The dwelling time and frequency may be critical for how well the static charge can be preserved. If steam treatments saturate the fibers many times and condense water droplets on the fibers, it is possible that the static charge decays after multiple treatments. Because this decay is due to the direct water molecule contact with the fibers, it may be possible to alleviate the static decay if the fibers do not come into contact with the vapor directly (sealed container, apparatus, bag, etc.) and steam only serves as the heating element.

Figure 3

Figure 3. The 10 treatment cycle evolution of filtration characteristics. (A) Efficiency evolution where it is clear that steam treatment results in a degradation of efficiency. (B) Pressure drop evolution where it is not apparent that any structure or morphology change has occurred in the meltblown fabrics.

Given that steam also resulted in eventual efficiency degradation, we further determined the limits of temperature and humidity. We performed multiple humidity experiments (30%, 70%, and 100% RH) at 85 °C (20 min/cycle) and observed no appreciable degradation of efficiency at any humidity level (Figure 4A,B). At 85 °C, 30% RH, we observed no efficiency degradation over 50 cycles on a meltblown fabric (Figure 4C,D). Using less harsh conditions (75 °C, dry heat), the results are expectedly in agreement (Figure S2). These results are further confirmed when testing multiple N95-level FFRs from various countries (listed in Methods) at 85 °C, 30% and 100% RH for 20 cycles (Figure 4E,F). Testing conditions for the FFRs were under a flow rate of 85 L/min. From all the FFRs, we observed little change in the filtration properties, as all FFRs with filtration efficiency >95% were able to retain filtration efficiencies >95% after 20 cycles of heat treatment, even in a humid environment.

Figure 4

Figure 4. Temperature and humidity evolution of meltblown and FFR filtration characteristics. (A, B) Evolution of meltblown fabrics’ filtration characteristics at 85 °C under different humidities, efficiency (A) and pressure drop (B). (C, D) Evolution of filtration characteristics on a meltblown fabric under 85 °C, 30% RH, efficiency (C) and pressure drop (D). (E, F) Evolution of the filtration characteristics on an N95-level FFRs with 85 °C, under 30% and 100% RH (measured at a flow rate of 85 L/min), efficiency (E) and pressure drop (F). The left-to-right of all FFR brands is as follows: (1) initial (leftmost, solid pattern, tested in ambient conditions), (2) 85 °C, 30% RH 10 cycles, (3) 85 °C, 30% RH 20 cycles, (4) 85 °C, 100% RH 10 cycles, and (5) 85 °C, 100% RH 20 cycles. (G, H) Temperature dependence of meltblown fabrics’ filtration characteristics over 20 cycles with RH < 30%, efficiency (G) and pressure drop (H).

To determine the upper limit of applicable temperature, we tested low humidity conditions (≤30% RH) up to 125 °C (10 min/cycle), plotted in Figure 4G,H (data provided in Table S3), as higher temperatures should lead to a shorter minimum treatment time and an increase in the method turnover speed. There is little to no change in the filtration efficiency and pressure drop up to 100 °C in low-moisture conditions. However, at 125 °C, there is a sharp drop in the filtration efficiency while maintaining a constant pressure drop at around cycle 5. Similarly, the lack of pressure drop change indicates that the degradation is also due to the static decay. Considering the higher temperature, polypropylene’s melting point (130–170 °C), as well as the thin and fibrous nature of the media, it is possible that the higher temperature is enough to relax the microscopic charge state within the polymer, resulting in some of the quasi-stable polarization to become depolarized to their neutral state. From SEM images, we did not identify any morphological changes and did not observe any apparent physical deformations (Figure S3), which may support this conclusion. This effect is not as strong as direct solvent contact, which reduced the filtration efficiency to <80%, whereas 125 °C reduced the efficiency to ∼90%. The mechanism of efficiency degradation may differ, as the solvent may form molecular adsorption layers or possibly liberate charge traps, but higher temperatures provide energy to return some of the fibers’ polarized state to a relaxed state.
Heat was a promising scalable method that may be suitable for FFR reuse. We can conclude that the highest subjectable temperature to the FFR for repeated use with ≥95% efficiency is <100 °C. At temperatures of ≤85 °C, humidity does not seem to play a crucial role in the filtration properties, as FFRs tested at a near 100% RH at 85 °C were unaffected. However, as steam results in a decrease in efficiency, the humidity should be kept low if approaching 100 °C. The temperature range here may pose some limitations in the available equipment, but we believe the current hospital infrastructure, and possibly the general population, should be able to perform these treatments. This includes using dryers, ovens, circulators, or even hot air guns, all of which are relatively scalable and user-friendly. Although the most common method to inactivate SARS-CoV-2 in solution is 56 °C for 30 min in a laboratory setting, (35) repeated treatments at temperatures below 65 °C (30 min) is not advised, as it was the reported temperature required to inactivate SARS-CoV in solution and limit it to undetectable traces. (29) Because these prior inactivation tests occurred in solution, further study on the heat inactivation of aerosolized viruses is required.
It is important to note that the real-world use of FFRs may lead to contamination of the nonwoven layers with sweat and/or oral droplets (dirt, salts, or other chemicals/particles), which may negatively impact the efficiency (adsorption, charge degradation, or even physical damage after prolonged periods). If these contaminants impact the electrostatic ability of the respirator, the heat treatment would not be able to restore this charge and would, at best, keep the efficiency as is. Further work may be needed to test the degradation of efficiency after use and if such heating procedures on used FFRs are changed by the introduction of these usage-incurred contaminants.
Finally, we tested the effect of UVGI on meltblown samples up to 20 cycles (Figure 5). The UVGI sterilization cabinet here provides UV–C light centered at a wavelength of 254 nm with an intensity of 8 W. The UV–C light areal intensity distribution is not uniform inside the cabinet, and its exact value needs to be measured in the future for dose determination, as the necessary radiation to inactivate SARS-CoV was previously found to be above ∼3.6 J/cm2. (28) At 10 cycles, the data are in agreement with the NIOSH report, (34) but efficiency eventually decays to 93% at 20 cycles, making it unsuitable for N95-grade FFRs by itself.

Figure 5

Figure 5. Effect of UVGI on meltblown filtration characteristics. (A) Efficiency of meltblown fabric that slightly changes after 10 cycles of UVGI. (B) Pressure drop after UVGI treatments remains similar. The larger error bar in the initial data is due to the meltblown fabric originating from various locations on the roll, whereas the meltblown fabrics used in the treatment originated from a similar location on the roll.

Although UV radiation may possess enough energy to break the chemical bonds and degrade polypropylene, the dosage of the sterilization chamber is relatively low, and the material degrades slowly. This finding is supported by previous experiments that showed UV–C doses up to 950 J/cm2 did not appreciably change the filtration efficiency. (36) A possible concern regarding UVGI disinfection for FFRs relates to the UV penetration depth. Because UV–C has a wavelength around 250 nm and polypropylene is a UV absorber, it is difficult to conclude if smaller viral particles deep within the filter can be deactivated through UVGI. If the particles are of a larger size and remain localized on the surface, UVGI may be a candidate for FFR reuse. Furthermore, this means that UVGI requires FFRs not to be stacked, as the incident radiation will only be absorbed by the topmost surface. Another disadvantage is that UVGI was reported to significantly impact the mechanical strength of some FFRs with doses of around 1000 J/cm2. (36)
Therefore, UVGI may be a useful disinfection technique, but the exact exposure or intensity of the UV–C light fluence on the mask surface would need to be verified. The variation in UVGI intensity has been the cause of discrepancies in the literature, as 3M’s own internal reports recently showed that their UVGI treatments damaged particular FFRs, (37) whereas other reports show that UVGI cycling on multiple N95 FFRs had minimal or no impact. (31)
Most of our tests were performed on meltblown fabrics with an initial efficiency of >95% due to the current shortage of FFRs, leaving concern over whether other FFR components (straps, valves, nosepiece, foam, etc.) can change in these treatment environments. These components can impact the fit and sealing of the FFR, which is equally important as the FFR efficiency itself. From our experiments, we also used typical N95-grade FFRs to test the strap elasticity and structural integrity after heat treatments. We noted no apparent or qualitative change in the strap elasticity or fit compared with the untreated model for the heat treatments, and quantitative studies confirmed this finding. (38) Although no qualitative damage was observed on the UV-treated FFRs, quantitative tests revealed that UVGI treatments at this dosage can lead to improper fitting. (38)
Because actually donning and using the respirator impacts the structural stability of such components, particular care needs to be taken in the interpretation of these results. Previous reports indicated that FFRs can safely be worn up to five times, but beyond five times may result in a less-than-adequate fit. (39) During this crisis, users have to make sure that the fit of the FFRs after treatment is adequate and that they are not left vulnerable due to leakage. Mask producers or users may need to consider straps that are more robust for reuse or that can withstand treatment conditions.

Conclusions

ARTICLE SECTIONS
Jump To

In conclusion, COVID-19 is an extremely contagious disease that requires healthcare professionals to take caution with necessary protective equipment. The current shortage of N95 FFRs during this time of rapidly spreading infection may be mitigated by methods that will enable their safe reuse. We tested methods that may be suitable for the reuse of particulate respirators and hope our results will be useful in helping hospitals, health care facilities, and the public in formulating safe standard operating procedures so that virus inactivation is assured while not compromising mask protection. We reiterate that although these methods were not tested on FFRs that have been exposed to SARS-CoV-2, these methods use disinfection precedents set by either SARS-CoV or recent data based on inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 in solution. We found that of commonly deployable methods, heating (dry or in the presence humidity) <100 °C can preserve the filtration characteristics of a pristine N95 respirator. The UVGI (254 nm, 8 W) sterilizer cabinet used in these tests does not have enough dose to impact the filtration properties within a reasonable number of treatment cycles and may be considered for disinfection, however the exact dose output of the cabinet would need to be determined such that it is suitable for inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 with minimal FFR damage. Using steam to disinfect requires caution, as the treatments may seem to be suitable, but prolonged treatment may leave the user with unsuitable protection. Finally, we advise against liquid contact, such as alcohol solutions, chlorine-based solutions, or soaps to clean the respirator, as this will lead to a degradation in the static charge that is necessary for the FFR to meet the N95 standard.

Methods

ARTICLE SECTIONS
Jump To

Sample Preparation

Meltblown fabric was procured from Guangdong Meltblown Technology Co., Ltd. under the sample name TM95 with a 20 g/m2 basis weight and initial filtration efficiency of ≥95%. All of the meltblown samples used were from this source. Each sample was cut to approximately 15 cm × 15 cm. All sample testing was performed on an Automated Filter Tester 8130A (TSI, Inc.) using a flow rate of 32 L/min and NaCl as the aerosol (0.26 μm mass median diameter). Each average measurement contains at least three individual sample measurements.
We chose disposable N95-grade FFRs for testing: 3M 8210 (NIOSH N95), 4C Air, Inc. (GB2626 KN95), ESound (GB2626 KN95), and Onnuriplan (KFDA KF94). These FFRs are referred to as “3M”, “4C”, “ES”, and “OP”, respectively, in figures. Full FFR testing used a flow rate of 85 L/min.
Scanning electron microscope images were recorded using a Phenom Pro SEM, at 10 kV.

Heat Treatment

Samples were loaded into a preheated five-sided heating chamber (Across International, LLC or SH-642, ESPEC) at the temperatures and times given in the main text. Dry heat was applied using the Across International vacuum heating oven under ambient conditions. In the case of the SH-642, the humidity was set to the lowest value (30% RH up to 85 °C; above 85 °C, the humidity is <30% but cannot be controlled). High humidity (100% RH) was simulated via sealing meltblown fabrics, or FFRs, inside a polyethylene bag with 0.3 mL of water and placing them inside the SH-642 chamber. The resting time between cycles was 10 min for the 75 and 85 °C treatments and 5 min for the 100 and 125 °C treatments. After resting, the samples were returned to the chamber to begin the next cycle. We initially chose 75 °C due to the presence of blanket warming ovens in hospital environments that can reach ∼80 °C. Further experiments used 85 °C, in the event that 75 °C is insufficient to inactivate SARS-CoV-2. Microwaving was not considered as many FFRs contain metals which may spark and melt the fabric.

Steam Treatment

Three samples were stacked on top of a beaker with boiling water inside (at around 15 cm above the water). The samples were left on top of the beaker and steamed for 10 min, and afterward they were left to air-dry completely (to touch). Samples were either tested or placed back on top of the beaker to continue the next treatment cycle.

Alcohol Treatment

Samples were immersed into a solution of 75% ethanol and left to air-dry (hanging) and subsequently tested.

Chlorine Solution Treatment

Samples were sprayed with approximately 0.3–0.5 mL of household chlorine-based disinfectant (∼2% NaClO). Samples were left to air-dry and off-gas completely,while hanging. Samples were tested.

UVGI

Samples were placed into a UV sterilizer cabinet (CHS-208A), with a 254 nm, 8 W lamp, and 475 cm2 internal area. Samples were irradiated for 30 min and left to stand under ambient conditions for 10 min per cycle. Samples were either returned to the chamber for the next cycle or tested.

Supporting Information

ARTICLE SECTIONS
Jump To

The Supporting Information is available free of charge at https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsnano.0c03597.

  • Additional SEM images, plots, and tables with compiled data (PDF)

Terms & Conditions

Most electronic Supporting Information files are available without a subscription to ACS Web Editions. Such files may be downloaded by article for research use (if there is a public use license linked to the relevant article, that license may permit other uses). Permission may be obtained from ACS for other uses through requests via the RightsLink permission system: http://pubs.acs.org/page/copyright/permissions.html.

Author Information

ARTICLE SECTIONS
Jump To

  • Corresponding Author
    • Yi Cui - Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, United StatesStanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025, United StatesOrcidhttp://orcid.org/0000-0002-6103-6352 Email: [email protected]
  • Authors
    • Lei Liao - 4C Air, Inc., Sunnyvale, California 94089, United States
    • Wang Xiao - 4C Air, Inc., Sunnyvale, California 94089, United States
    • Mervin Zhao - 4C Air, Inc., Sunnyvale, California 94089, United StatesOrcidhttp://orcid.org/0000-0002-7313-7150
    • Xuanze Yu - 4C Air, Inc., Sunnyvale, California 94089, United States
    • Haotian Wang - 4C Air, Inc., Sunnyvale, California 94089, United States
    • Qiqi Wang - 4C Air, Inc., Sunnyvale, California 94089, United States
    • Steven Chu - Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, United StatesDepartment of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, United States
  • Notes
    The authors declare the following competing financial interest(s): Professors Steven Chu and Yi Cui are founders and shareholders of the company 4C Air, Inc. They are inventors on patent PCT /US2015/065608. All other authors are employees of 4C Air, Inc.

Acknowledgments

ARTICLE SECTIONS
Jump To

We would like to thank L. Chu and A. Price at Stanford Medicine for the helpful discussion.

References

ARTICLE SECTIONS
Jump To

This article references 39 other publications.

  1. 1
    Dong, E.; Du, H.; Gardner, L. An Interactive Web-Based Dashboard to Track COVID-19 in Real Time. Lancet Infect. Dis. 2020, 20, 533534,  DOI: 10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30120-1
  2. 2
    Zhou, P.; Yang, X.-L.; Wang, X.-G.; Hu, B.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, W.; Si, H.-R.; Zhu, Y.; Li, B.; Huang, C.-L.; Chen, H.-D.; Chen, J.; Luo, Y.; Guo, H.; Jiang, R.-D.; Liu, M.-Q.; Chen, Y.; Shen, X.-R.; Wang, X.; Zheng, X.-S. A Pneumonia Outbreak Associated with a New Coronavirus of Probable Bat Origin. Nature 2020, 579, 270273,  DOI: 10.1038/s41586-020-2012-7
  3. 3
    Wu, F.; Zhao, S.; Yu, B.; Chen, Y.-M.; Wang, W.; Song, Z.-G.; Hu, Y.; Tao, Z.-W.; Tian, J.-H.; Pei, Y.-Y.; Yuan, M.-L.; Zhang, Y.-L.; Dai, F.-H.; Liu, Y.; Wang, Q.-M.; Zheng, J.-J.; Xu, L.; Holmes, E. C.; Zhang, Y.-Z. A New Coronavirus Associated with Human Respiratory Disease in China. Nature 2020, 579, 265269,  DOI: 10.1038/s41586-020-2008-3
  4. 4
    Letko, M.; Marzi, A.; Munster, V. Functional Assessment of Cell Entry and Receptor Usage for SARS-CoV-2 and Other Lineage B Betacoronaviruses. Nat. Microbiol. 2020, 5, 562569,  DOI: 10.1038/s41564-020-0688-y
  5. 5
    Guan, W.-J.; Ni, Z.-Y.; Hu, Y.; Liang, W.-H.; Ou, C.-Q.; He, J.-X.; Liu, L.; Shan, H.; Lei, C.-L.; Hui, D. S. C.; Du, B.; Li, L.-J.; Zeng, G.; Yuen, K.-Y.; Chen, R.-C.; Tang, C.-L.; Wang, T.; Chen, P.-Y.; Xiang, J.; Li, S.-Y. Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in China. N. Engl. J. Med. 2020, 382, 17081720,  DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa2002032
  6. 6
    Holshue, M. L.; DeBolt, C.; Lindquist, S.; Lofy, K. H.; Wiesman, J.; Bruce, H.; Spitters, C.; Ericson, K.; Wilkerson, S.; Tural, A.; Diaz, G.; Cohn, A.; Fox, L. A.; Patel, A.; Gerber, S. I.; Kim, L.; Tong, S.; Lu, X.; Lindstrom, S.; Pallansch, M. A. First Case of 2019 Novel Coronavirus in the United States. N. Engl. J. Med. 2020, 382, 929936,  DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa2001191
  7. 7
    Zhu, N.; Zhang, D.; Wang, W.; Li, X.; Yang, B.; Song, J.; Zhao, X.; Huang, B.; Shi, W.; Lu, R.; Niu, P.; Zhan, F.; Ma, X.; Wang, D.; Xu, W.; Wu, G.; Gao, G. F.; Tan, W. A Novel Coronavirus from Patients with Pneumonia in China, 2019. N. Engl. J. Med. 2020, 382, 727733,  DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa2001017
  8. 8
    Wang, F. S.; Zhang, C. What to Do Next to Control the 2019-NCoV Epidemic?. Lancet 2020, 395, 391393,  DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30300-7
  9. 9
    Bai, Y.; Yao, L.; Wei, T.; Tian, F.; Jin, D.-Y.; Chen, L.; Wang, M. Presumed Asymptomatic Carrier Transmission of COVID-19. JAMA 2020, 323, 1406,  DOI: 10.1001/jama.2020.2565
  10. 10
    Baud, D.; Qi, X.; Nielsen-Saines, K.; Musso, D.; Pomar, L.; Favre, G. Real Estimates of Mortality Following COVID-19 Infection. Lancet Infect. Dis. 2020,  DOI: 10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30195-X
  11. 11
    Tellier, R. Review of Aerosol Transmission of Influenza A Virus. Emerging Infect. Dis. 2006, 12, 16571662,  DOI: 10.3201/eid1211.060426
  12. 12
    Yan, J.; Grantham, M.; Pantelic, J.; De Mesquita, P. J. B.; Albert, B.; Liu, F.; Ehrman, S.; Milton, D. K. Infectious Virus in Exhaled Breath of Symptomatic Seasonal Influenza Cases from a College Community. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 2018, 115, 10811086,  DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1716561115
  13. 13
    Lindsley, W. G.; Blachere, F. M.; Thewlis, R. E.; Vishnu, A.; Davis, K. A.; Cao, G.; Palmer, J. E.; Clark, K. E.; Fisher, M. A.; Khakoo, R.; Beezhold, D. H. Measurements of Airborne Influenza Virus in Aerosol Particles from Human Coughs. PLoS One 2010, 5 (5), e15100,  DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0015100
  14. 14
    Loudon, R. G.; Roberts, R. M. Singing and the Dissemination of Tuberculosis. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 1968, 98, 297300
  15. 15
    CDC Laboratory Performance Evaluation of N95 Filtering Facepiece Respirators, 1996. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 1998, 47, 1045
  16. 16
    Rosenstock, L. 42 CFR Part 84: Respiratory Protective Devices Implications for Tuberculosis Protection. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 1995, 16, 529531,  DOI: 10.1086/647174
  17. 17
    NIOSH Interim Guidance on Infection Control Measures for 2009 H1N1 Influenza in Healthcare Settings, Including Protection of Healthcare Personnel. Miss. RN 2009, 71, 1318
  18. 18
    Matsuyama, S.; Nao, N.; Shirato, K.; Kawase, M.; Saito, S.; Takayama, I.; Nagata, N.; Sekizuka, T.; Katoh, H.; Kato, F.; Sakata, M.; Tahara, M.; Kutsuna, S.; Ohmagari, N.; Kuroda, M.; Suzuki, T.; Kageyama, T.; Takeda, M. Enhanced Isolation of SARS-CoV-2 by TMPRSS2- Expressing Cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 2020, 117, 70017003,  DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2002589117
  19. 19
    Bałazy, A.; Toivola, M.; Adhikari, A.; Sivasubramani, S. K.; Reponen, T.; Grinshpun, S. A. Do N95 Respirators Provide 95% Protection Level against Airborne Viruses, and How Adequate Are Surgical Masks?. Am. J. Infect. Control 2006, 34, 5157,  DOI: 10.1016/j.ajic.2005.08.018
  20. 20
    Wall, T. H.; Hansen, P. E. Filtering Web for Face Masks and Face Masks Made Therefrom. US3316904A, 1967.
  21. 21
    Ghosal, A.; Sinha-Ray, S.; Yarin, A. L.; Pourdeyhimi, B. Numerical Prediction of the Effect of Uptake Velocity on Three-Dimensional Structure, Porosity and Permeability of Meltblown Nonwoven Laydown. Polymer 2016, 85, 1927,  DOI: 10.1016/j.polymer.2016.01.013
  22. 22
    Kubik, D. A.; Davis, C. I. Melt-Blown Fibrous Electrets. US4215682A, 1980.
  23. 23
    Angadjivand, S. A.; Jones, M. E.; Meyer, D. E. Electret Filter Media. US6119691A, 1994.
  24. 24
    Barrett, L. W.; Rousseau, A. D. Aerosol Loading Performance of Electret Filter Media. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 1998, 59, 532539,  DOI: 10.1080/15428119891010703
  25. 25
    Ranney, M. L.; Griffeth, V.; Jha, A. K. Critical Supply Shortages — The Need for Ventilators and Personal Protective Equipment during the Covid-19 Pandemic. N. Engl. J. Med. 2020, 382, e41  DOI: 10.1056/NEJMp2006141
  26. 26
    van Doremalen, N.; Bushmaker, T.; Morris, D. H.; Holbrook, M. G.; Gamble, A.; Williamson, B. N.; Tamin, A.; Harcourt, J. L.; Thornburg, N. J.; Gerber, S. I.; Lloyd-Smith, J. O.; de Wit, E.; Munster, V. J. Aerosol and Surface Stability of SARS-CoV-2 as Compared with SARS-CoV-1. N. Engl. J. Med. 2020, 382, 15641567,  DOI: 10.1056/NEJMc2004973
  27. 27
    Rutala, W. A.; Weber, D. J. Guideline for Disinfection and Sterilization in Healthcare Facilities (2008); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Atlanta, GA, 2008; pp 1163. https://www.cdc.gov/infectioncontrol/guidelines/disinfection/index.html (accessed 2020/03/28).
  28. 28
    Darnell, M. E. R.; Subbarao, K.; Feinstone, S. M.; Taylor, D. R. Inactivation of the Coronavirus That Induces Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, SARS-CoV. J. Virol. Methods 2004, 121, 8591,  DOI: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2004.06.006
  29. 29
    Rabenau, H. F.; Cinatl, J.; Morgenstern, B.; Bauer, G.; Preiser, W.; Doerr, H. W. Stability and Inactivation of SARS Coronavirus. Med. Microbiol. Immunol. 2005, 194, 16,  DOI: 10.1007/s00430-004-0219-0
  30. 30
    Chin, A. W. H.; Chu, J. T. S.; Perera, M. R. A.; Hui, K. P. Y.; Yen, H.-L.; Chan, M. C. W.; Peiris, M.; Poon, L. L. M. Stability of SARS-CoV-2 in Different Environmental Conditions. Lancet Microbe 2020,  DOI: 10.1016/S2666-5247(20)30003-3
  31. 31
    Bergman, M. S.; Viscusi, D. J.; Heimbuch, B. K.; Wander, J. D.; Sambol, A. R.; Shaffer, R. E. Evaluation of Multiple (3-Cycle) Decontamination Processing for Filtering Facepiece Respirators. J. Eng. Fibers Fabr. 2010, 5, 3341,  DOI: 10.1177/155892501000500405
  32. 32
    Xiao, H.; Song, Y.; Chen, G. Correlation between Charge Decay and Solvent Effect for Melt-Blown Polypropylene Electret Filter Fabrics. J. Electrost. 2014, 72, 311314,  DOI: 10.1016/j.elstat.2014.05.006
  33. 33
    Nazeeri, A. I.; Hilburn, I. A.; Wu, D.-A.; Mohammed, K. A.; Badal, D. Y.; Chan, M. H. W.; Kirschvink, J. L. An Efficient Ethanol-Vacuum Method for the Decontamination and Restoration of Polypropylene Microfiber Medical Masks & Respirators. medRxiv, 2020. https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.12.20059709v1 (accessed 2020/04/28).
  34. 34
    Viscusi, D. J.; Bergman, M. S.; Eimer, B. C.; Shaffer, R. E. Evaluation of Five Decontamination Methods for Filtering Facepiece Respirators. Ann. Occup. Hyg. 2009, 53, 815827,  DOI: 10.1093/annhyg/mep070
  35. 35
    Yang, P.; Wang, X. COVID-19: A New Challenge for Human Beings. Cell. Mol. Immunol. 2020, 17, 555557,  DOI: 10.1038/s41423-020-0407-x
  36. 36
    Lindsley, W. G.; Martin, S. B.; Thewlis, R. E.; Sarkisian, K.; Nwoko, J. O.; Mead, K. R.; Noti, J. D. Effects of Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation (UVGI) on N95 Respirator Filtration Performance and Structural Integrity. J. Occup. Environ. Hyg. 2015, 12, 509517,  DOI: 10.1080/15459624.2015.1018518
  37. 37
    Disinfection of Filtering Facepiece Respirators; 3M: St. Paul, MN, 2020; pp 13.
  38. 38
    Price, A. Dp.; Cui, Y.; Liao, L.; Xiao, W.; Yu, X.; Wang, H.; Zhao, M.; Wang, Q.; Chu, S.; Chu, L. F. Is the Fit of N95 Facial Masks Effected by Disinfection? A Study of Heat and UV Disinfection Methods Using the OSHA Protocol Fit Test. medRxiv, 2020. https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.14.20062810v1 (accessed 2020/04/28).
  39. 39
    Bergman, M. S.; Viscusi, D. J.; Zhuang, Z.; Palmiero, A. J.; Powell, J. B.; Shaffer, R. E. Impact of Multiple Consecutive Donnings on Filtering Facepiece Respirator Fit. Am. J. Infect. Control 2012, 40, 375380,  DOI: 10.1016/j.ajic.2011.05.003

Cited By

ARTICLE SECTIONS
Jump To

This article is cited by 318 publications.

  1. Kai Liu, Qi You, Rohil Jawed, Dong Han, Yufei Miao, Xiang Gu, Junming Dong, Christopher J. Butch, Yiqing Wang. Purine-Doped g-C3N4-Modified Fabrics for Personal Protective Masks with Rapid and Sustained Antibacterial Activity. ACS Applied Bio Materials 2024, 7 (5) , 2911-2923. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsabm.3c01288
  2. Baoying Dai, Chenchen Gao, Jiahao Guo, Meng Ding, Qinglin Xu, Shaoxiong He, Yongbin Mou, Heng Dong, Mingao Hu, Zhuo Dai, Yu Zhang, Yannan Xie, Zhiqun Lin. A Robust Pyro-phototronic Route to Markedly Enhanced Photocatalytic Disinfection. Nano Letters 2024, 24 (16) , 4816-4825. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.3c05098
  3. Yuanqiang Xu, Xiaomin Zhang, Tienan Zhao, Ying Li, Yu Zhang, Hui Huang, Yongchun Zeng. Radiative Thermal Management in Face Masks with a Micro/Nanofibrous Filter. Nano Letters 2024, 24 (15) , 4462-4470. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.4c00308
  4. Katarina E. Goodge, Wendy A. Alwala, Margaret W. Frey. Nanoweb for Nanobugs: Nanofiber Filter Media for Face Masks. ACS Applied Nano Materials 2024, 7 (6) , 6120-6129. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsanm.3c06034
  5. Hyunsik Kim, Yanbo Fang, Yoontaek Oh, Vesselin N. Shanov, Hodon Ryu, Soryong Chae. Engineered Electrically Heatable Face Masks for Direct Inactivation of Aerosolized Viruses on the Mask Surfaces. ACS ES&T Engineering 2024, 4 (2) , 401-408. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsestengg.3c00365
  6. Jaehyeong Bae, Jiyoung Lee, Won-Tae Hwang, Doo-Young Youn, Hyunsub Song, Jaewan Ahn, Jong-Seok Nam, Ji-Soo Jang, Doo-won Kim, Woosung Jo, Taek-Soo Kim, Hyeon-Jeong Suk, Pan-Kee Bae, Il-Doo Kim. Advancing Breathability of Respiratory Nanofilter by Optimizing Pore Structure and Alignment in Nanofiber Networks. ACS Nano 2024, 18 (2) , 1371-1380. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.3c06060
  7. Marquise D. Bell, Kai Ye, Te Faye Yap, Anoop Rajappan, Zhen Liu, Yizhi Jane Tao, Daniel J. Preston. Rapid In Situ Thermal Decontamination of Wearable Composite Textile Materials. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2023, 15 (37) , 44521-44532. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.3c09063
  8. Dhanya Venkataraman, Elnaz Shabani, Kartik Joshi, Olivia Widjaja, Jay Hoon Park. Comparative Investigation of Electrospun and Centrifugal Spun Polylactic Acid for Filtration Performance and Reusability. ACS Applied Engineering Materials 2023, 1 (8) , 2315-2323. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsaenm.3c00353
  9. Guangyao Wang, Lin Sun, Boxuan Zhao, Yueguang Fang, Ye Qi, Guiling Ning, Junwei Ye. Reusable Electrospun Nanofibrous Membranes with Antibacterial Activity for Air Filtration. ACS Applied Nano Materials 2023, 6 (12) , 10872-10880. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsanm.3c02263
  10. Xinyu Li, Guiying Zhu, Mengke Tang, Tian Li, Cunmin Wang, Xinyi Song, Shenghui Zhang, Jintuo Zhu, Xinjian He, Minna Hakkarainen, Huan Xu. Biodegradable MOFilters for Effective Air Filtration and Sterilization by Coupling MOF Functionalization and Mechanical Polarization of Fibrous Poly(lactic acid). ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2023, 15 (22) , 26812-26823. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.3c03932
  11. Yushan Yang, Hanwei Wang, Chao Wang, Yipeng Chen, Baokang Dang, Ming Liu, Xiaochun Zhang, Yingying Li, Qingfeng Sun. Dual-Network Structured Nanofibrous Membranes with Superelevated Interception Probability for Extrafine Particles. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2023, 15 (11) , 15036-15046. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.3c01385
  12. Louise Wittmann, Joseph Garnier, Naomi Sakata, Elisabeth Auzias, Martin Dumoulin, Nathanaël Barlier, Théotime Bergese, Lara Leclerc, Florence Grattard, Paul O. Verhoeven, Jérémie Pourchez, Claude Botella, Jean-Marie Bluet, Béatrice Vacher, José Penuelas. Structure, Morphology, and Surface Chemistry of Surgical Masks and Their Evolution up to 10 Washing Cycles. ACS Applied Polymer Materials 2023, 5 (3) , 2282-2288. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsapm.3c00145
  13. Yingying Zhong, Xin Ting Zheng, Suqing Zhao, Xiaodi Su, Xian Jun Loh. Stimuli-Activable Metal-Bearing Nanomaterials and Precise On-Demand Antibacterial Strategies. ACS Nano 2022, 16 (12) , 19840-19872. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.2c08262
  14. Lidia Kuo, Benjamin J. Luijten, Siyang Li, Ana C. M. de Moraes, Anthony J. Silvaroli, Shay G. Wallace, Janan Hui, Julia R. Downing, Kenneth R. Shull, Mark C. Hersam. Sterilizable and Reusable UV-Resistant Graphene–Polyurethane Elastomer Composites. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2022, 14 (47) , 53241-53249. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.2c17791
  15. Weili Shao, Yuting Zhang, Ning Sun, Junli Li, Fan Liu, Jianxin He. Polystyrene/Fluorinated Polyurethane Electrospinning Nanofiber Membranes Incorporated with Graphene Oxide–Halamine as Mask Filter Materials for Reusable Antibacterial Applications. ACS Applied Nano Materials 2022, 5 (9) , 13573-13582. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsanm.2c03269
  16. Yue Ma, Cheng Huang, Zheng Zhang, Linlin Xiao, Qingli Dong, Gang Sun. Controlled Surface Radical Graft Polymerization of N-Halamine Monomers on Polyester Fabrics and Potential Application in Bioprotective Medical Scrubs. ACS Applied Polymer Materials 2022, 4 (9) , 6760-6769. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsapm.2c01223
  17. Mirco Sorci, Tanner D. Fink, Vaishali Sharma, Sneha Singh, Ruiwen Chen, Brigitte L. Arduini, Katharine Dovidenko, Caryn L. Heldt, Edmund F. Palermo, R. Helen Zha. Virucidal N95 Respirator Face Masks via Ultrathin Surface-Grafted Quaternary Ammonium Polymer Coatings. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2022, 14 (22) , 25135-25146. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.2c04165
  18. Zhen Tang, Shiquan Lin, Zhong Lin Wang. Effect of Surface Pre-Charging and Electric Field on the Contact Electrification between Liquid and Solid. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C 2022, 126 (20) , 8897-8905. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcc.2c01713
  19. Hassan Nageh, Merna H. Emam, Fedaa Ali, Nasra F. Abdel Fattah, Mohamed Taha, Rehab Amin, Elbadawy A. Kamoun, Samah A. Loutfy, Amal Kasry. Zinc Oxide Nanoparticle-Loaded Electrospun Polyvinylidene Fluoride Nanofibers as a Potential Face Protector against Respiratory Viral Infections. ACS Omega 2022, 7 (17) , 14887-14896. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.2c00458
  20. Dan Chen, Lianwei Tang, Yunming Wang, Yongyao Tan, Yue Fu, Weihao Cai, Zhaohan Yu, Shuang Sun, Jiaqi Zheng, Jingqiang Cui, Guosheng Wang, Yang Liu, Huamin Zhou. Speaking-Induced Charge-Laden Face Masks with Durable Protectiveness and Wearing Breathability. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2022, 14 (15) , 17774-17782. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.2c01077
  21. Taslim Ur Rashid, Sadia Sharmeen, Shanta Biswas. Effectiveness of N95 Masks against SARS-CoV-2: Performance Efficiency, Concerns, and Future Directions. ACS Chemical Health & Safety 2022, 29 (2) , 135-164. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.chas.1c00016
  22. Sumin Han, Euna Oh, Erin Keltie, Jong Sung Kim, Hyo-Jick Choi. Engineering of Materials for Respiratory Protection: Salt-Coated Antimicrobial Fabrics for Their Application in Respiratory Devices. Accounts of Materials Research 2022, 3 (3) , 297-308. https://doi.org/10.1021/accountsmr.1c00188
  23. Zhi Yao, Ming Xia, Ziyin Xiong, Yi Wu, Pan Cheng, Qin Cheng, Jia Xu, Dong Wang, Ke Liu. A Hierarchical Structure of Flower-Like Zinc Oxide and Poly(Vinyl Alcohol-co-Ethylene) Nanofiber Hybrid Membranes for High-Performance Air Filters. ACS Omega 2022, 7 (3) , 3030-3036. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.1c06114
  24. Hannah M. Dewey, Jaron M. Jones, Mike R. Keating, Januka Budhathoki-Uprety. Increased Use of Disinfectants During the COVID-19 Pandemic and Its Potential Impacts on Health and Safety. ACS Chemical Health & Safety 2022, 29 (1) , 27-38. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.chas.1c00026
  25. Jenna MacPhee, Tracy Kinyenye, Brian J. MacLean, Erwan Bertin, Geniece L. Hallett-Tapley. Investigating the Photothermal Disinfecting Properties of Light-Activated Silver Nanoparticles. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 2021, 60 (48) , 17390-17398. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.iecr.1c03165
  26. Sriram S. K S Narayanan, Xudong Wang, Jose Paul, Vladislav Paley, Zijian Weng, Libin Ye, Ying Zhong. Disinfection and Electrostatic Recovery of N95 Respirators by Corona Discharge for Safe Reuse. Environmental Science & Technology 2021, 55 (22) , 15351-15360. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.1c02649
  27. Prerona Gogoi, Sunil Kumar Singh, Ankur Pandey, Arun Chattopadhyay, Partho Sarathi Gooh Pattader. Nanometer-Thick Superhydrophobic Coating Renders Cloth Mask Potentially Effective against Aerosol-Driven Infections. ACS Applied Bio Materials 2021, 4 (11) , 7921-7931. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsabm.1c00851
  28. Jinwook Lee, Seojin Jung, Hanjou Park, Jooyoun Kim. Bifunctional ZIF-8 Grown Webs for Advanced Filtration of Particulate and Gaseous Matters: Effect of Charging Process on the Electrostatic Capture of Nanoparticles and Sulfur Dioxide. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2021, 13 (42) , 50401-50410. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c15734
  29. Chavis A. Stackhouse, Shan Yan, Lei Wang, Kim Kisslinger, Ryan Tappero, Ashley R. Head, Killian R. Tallman, Esther S. Takeuchi, David C. Bock, Kenneth J. Takeuchi, Amy C. Marschilok. Characterization of Materials Used as Face Coverings for Respiratory Protection. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2021, 13 (40) , 47996-48008. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c11200
  30. Simona G. Fine, Pan He, Jiaxing Huang. Self-Charging Textile Woven from Dissimilar Household Fibers for Air Filtration: A Proof of Concept. ACS Omega 2021, 6 (40) , 26311-26317. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.1c03412
  31. Shan Yan, Chavis A. Stackhouse, Iradwikanari Waluyo, Adrian Hunt, Kim Kisslinger, Ashley R. Head, David C. Bock, Esther S. Takeuchi, Kenneth J. Takeuchi, Lei Wang, Amy C. Marschilok. Reusing Face Covering Masks: Probing the Impact of Heat Treatment. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering 2021, 9 (40) , 13545-13558. https://doi.org/10.1021/acssuschemeng.1c04530
  32. Zhangbin Yang, Jun Zhang. Bioinspired Radiative Cooling Structure with Randomly Stacked Fibers for Efficient All-Day Passive Cooling. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2021, 13 (36) , 43387-43395. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c12267
  33. Bin Li, Dong Wang, Michelle M. S. Lee, Wei Wang, Qingqin Tan, Zhaoyan Zhao, Ben Zhong Tang, Xi Huang. Fabrics Attached with Highly Efficient Aggregation-Induced Emission Photosensitizer: Toward Self-Antiviral Personal Protective Equipment. ACS Nano 2021, 15 (8) , 13857-13870. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.1c06071
  34. Daozhi Shen, Ming Xiao, Xiaoye Zhao, Yu Xiao, Walter W. Duley, Y. Norman Zhou. Multifunctional Self-Powered Electronics Based on a Reusable Low-Cost Polypropylene Fabric Triboelectric Nanogenerator. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2021, 13 (29) , 34266-34273. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c07791
  35. Qiang Li, Yongchao Yin, Daxian Cao, Ying Wang, Pengcheng Luan, Xiao Sun, Wentao Liang, Hongli Zhu. Photocatalytic Rejuvenation Enabled Self-Sanitizing, Reusable, and Biodegradable Masks against COVID-19. ACS Nano 2021, 15 (7) , 11992-12005. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.1c03249
  36. Walaa A. Abbas, Basamat S. Shaheen, Loujain G. Ghanem, Ibrahim M. Badawy, Mohamed M. Abodouh, Shrouk M. Abdou, Suher Zada, Nageh K. Allam. Cost-Effective Face Mask Filter Based on Hybrid Composite Nanofibrous Layers with High Filtration Efficiency. Langmuir 2021, 37 (24) , 7492-7502. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.1c00926
  37. James Malloy, Alberto Quintana, Christopher J. Jensen, Kai Liu. Efficient and Robust Metallic Nanowire Foams for Deep Submicrometer Particulate Filtration. Nano Letters 2021, 21 (7) , 2968-2974. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.1c00050
  38. Jinyeop Lee, Cheolwoo Bong, Wanyoung Lim, Pan Kee Bae, Abdurhaman Teyib Abafogi, Seung Ho Baek, Yong-Beom Shin, Moon Soo Bak, Sungsu Park. Fast and Easy Disinfection of Coronavirus-Contaminated Face Masks Using Ozone Gas Produced by a Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Generator. Environmental Science & Technology Letters 2021, 8 (4) , 339-344. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.estlett.1c00089
  39. Nicolas Castaño, Seth C. Cordts, Myra Kurosu Jalil, Kevin S. Zhang, Saisneha Koppaka, Alison D. Bick, Rajorshi Paul, Sindy K. Y. Tang. Fomite Transmission, Physicochemical Origin of Virus–Surface Interactions, and Disinfection Strategies for Enveloped Viruses with Applications to SARS-CoV-2. ACS Omega 2021, 6 (10) , 6509-6527. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.0c06335
  40. Ilaria Armentano, Marco Barbanera, Eleonora Carota, Silvia Crognale, Marco Marconi, Stefano Rossi, Gianluca Rubino, Mauro Scungio, Juri Taborri, Giuseppe Calabrò. Polymer Materials for Respiratory Protection: Processing, End Use, and Testing Methods. ACS Applied Polymer Materials 2021, 3 (2) , 531-548. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsapm.0c01151
  41. Sean A. MacIsaac, Crystal L. Sweeney, Graham A. Gagnon. Instrument Hacking: Repurposing and Recoding a Multiwell Instrument for Automated, High-Throughput Monochromatic UV Photooxidation of Organic Compounds. ACS ES&T Engineering 2021, 1 (2) , 281-288. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsestengg.0c00123
  42. Yufei Cao, Jun Ge. Study of Specific Receptor Binding Mode Suggests a Possible Enzymatic Disinfectant for SARS-CoV-2. Langmuir 2021, 37 (5) , 1707-1713. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.0c02911
  43. Jie Shi, Yuanzuo Zou, Jie-Xin Wang, Xiao-Fei Zeng, Guang-Wen Chu, Bao-Chang Sun, Dan Wang, Jian-Feng Chen. Investigation on Designing Meltblown Fibers for the Filtering Layer of a Mask by Cross-Scale Simulations. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 2021, 60 (4) , 1962-1971. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.iecr.0c06232
  44. Jean Schmitt, Lewis S. Jones, Elise A. Aeby, Christian Gloor, Berthold Moser, Jing Wang. Protection Level and Reusability of a Modified Full-Face Snorkel Mask as Alternative Personal Protective Equipment for Healthcare Workers during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Chemical Research in Toxicology 2021, 34 (1) , 110-118. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemrestox.0c00371
  45. Sumit Kumar, Mamata Karmacharya, Shalik Ram Joshi, Oleksandra Gulenko, Juhee Park, Gun-Ho Kim, Yoon-Kyoung Cho. Photoactive Antiviral Face Mask with Self-Sterilization and Reusability. Nano Letters 2021, 21 (1) , 337-343. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.0c03725
  46. Hye Ryoung Lee, Lei Liao, Wang Xiao, Arturas Vailionis, Antonio J. Ricco, Robin White, Yoshio Nishi, Wah Chiu, Steven Chu, Yi Cui. Three-Dimensional Analysis of Particle Distribution on Filter Layers inside N95 Respirators by Deep Learning. Nano Letters 2021, 21 (1) , 651-657. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.0c04230
  47. Elnaz Esmizadeh, Boon Peng Chang, Dylan Jubinville, Ewomazino Ojogbo, Curtis Seto, Costas Tzoganakis, Tizazu H. Mekonnen. Can Medical-Grade Gloves Provide Protection after Repeated Disinfection?. ACS Applied Polymer Materials 2021, 3 (1) , 445-454. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsapm.0c01202
  48. Xiaoli Shan, Han Zhang, Cihui Liu, Liyan Yu, Yunsong Di, Xiaowei Zhang, Lifeng Dong, Zhixing Gan. Reusable Self-Sterilization Masks Based on Electrothermal Graphene Filters. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2020, 12 (50) , 56579-56586. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c16754
  49. Wonjun Yim, Diyi Cheng, Shiv H. Patel, Rui Kou, Ying Shirley Meng, Jesse V. Jokerst. KN95 and N95 Respirators Retain Filtration Efficiency despite a Loss of Dipole Charge during Decontamination. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2020, 12 (49) , 54473-54480. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c17333
  50. Peixin Tang, Zheng Zhang, Ahmed Y El-Moghazy, Nicharee Wisuthiphaet, Nitin Nitin, Gang Sun. Daylight-Induced Antibacterial and Antiviral Cotton Cloth for Offensive Personal Protection. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2020, 12 (44) , 49442-49451. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c15540
  51. Weidong He, Yinghe Guo, Hanchao Gao, Jingxian Liu, Yang Yue, Jing Wang. Evaluation of Regeneration Processes for Filtering Facepiece Respirators in Terms of the Bacteria Inactivation Efficiency and Influences on Filtration Performance. ACS Nano 2020, 14 (10) , 13161-13171. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.0c04782
  52. Rafael K. Campos, Jing Jin, Grace H. Rafael, Mervin Zhao, Lei Liao, Graham Simmons, Steven Chu, Scott C. Weaver, Wah Chiu, Yi Cui. Decontamination of SARS-CoV-2 and Other RNA Viruses from N95 Level Meltblown Polypropylene Fabric Using Heat under Different Humidities. ACS Nano 2020, 14 (10) , 14017-14025. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.0c06565
  53. Lei Zhao, Yuhang Qi, Paolo Luzzatto-Fegiz, Yi Cui, Yangying Zhu. COVID-19: Effects of Environmental Conditions on the Propagation of Respiratory Droplets. Nano Letters 2020, 20 (10) , 7744-7750. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.0c03331
  54. Chamteut Oh, Elbashir Araud, Joseph V. Puthussery, Hezi Bai, Gemma G. Clark, Leyi Wang, Vishal Verma, Thanh H. Nguyen. Dry Heat as a Decontamination Method for N95 Respirator Reuse. Environmental Science & Technology Letters 2020, 7 (9) , 677-682. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.estlett.0c00534
  55. Andrea N. Giordano, Casey R. Christopher. Repurposing Best Teaching Practices for Remote Learning Environments: Chemistry in the News and Oral Examinations During COVID-19. Journal of Chemical Education 2020, 97 (9) , 2815-2818. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jchemed.0c00753
  56. Hong Zhong, Zhaoran Zhu, Peng You, Jing Lin, Chi Fai Cheung, Vivien L. Lu, Feng Yan, Ching-Yuen Chan, Guijun Li. Plasmonic and Superhydrophobic Self-Decontaminating N95 Respirators. ACS Nano 2020, 14 (7) , 8846-8854. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.0c03504
  57. Frankie Wood-Black, Jeff Lewin, Michael B. Blayney, Lusiana Galindo, Robert Foreman, Marina Zelivyanskaya, Marc Reid. Highlights: Reusing Masks, Face Covering Efficacy, Plant Restarts, and More. ACS Chemical Health & Safety 2020, 27 (4) , 204-208. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.chas.0c00069
  58. Mervin Zhao, Lei Liao, Wang Xiao, Xuanze Yu, Haotian Wang, Qiqi Wang, Ying Ling Lin, F. Selcen Kilinc-Balci, Amy Price, Larry Chu, May C. Chu, Steven Chu, Yi Cui. Household Materials Selection for Homemade Cloth Face Coverings and Their Filtration Efficiency Enhancement with Triboelectric Charging. Nano Letters 2020, 20 (7) , 5544-5552. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.0c02211
  59. Muhammad Zaryab Waleed, Khezina Rafiq, Muhammad Zeeshan Abid, Muhammad Burhan, Raed H. Althomali, Shahid Iqbal, Ejaz Hussain. Unveiling the impact of textile materials to prevent viral infections: Urgency for awareness and public safety†. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering 2024, 12 (3) , 112713. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2024.112713
  60. Jianxing Niu, Yuansheng Zheng, Md All Amin Newton, Binjie Xin. Tri-layer gradient structured micro/nanofibrous nonwovens for high filtration efficiency and low air resistance. Textile Research Journal 2024, 94 (11-12) , 1420-1433. https://doi.org/10.1177/00405175241228227
  61. Trisha Greenhalgh, C. Raina MacIntyre, Michael G. Baker, Shovon Bhattacharjee, Abrar A. Chughtai, David Fisman, Mohana Kunasekaran, Amanda Kvalsvig, Deborah Lupton, Matt Oliver, Essa Tawfiq, Mark Ungrin, Joe Vipond, , Linsey Marr. Masks and respirators for prevention of respiratory infections: a state of the science review. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 2024, 103 https://doi.org/10.1128/cmr.00124-23
  62. Ramya Prabhu B, Bhamy Maithry Shenoy, Manish Verma, Soumyashant Nayak, Gopalkrishna Hegde, Neena S. John. Self-cleaning formulations of mixed metal oxide-silver micro-nano structures with spiky coronae as antimicrobial coatings for fabrics and surfaces. Materials Advances 2024, 5 (10) , 4293-4310. https://doi.org/10.1039/D3MA00951C
  63. Federica Zaccagnini, Daniela De Biase, Francesca Bovieri, Giovanni Perotto, Erica Quagliarini, Irene Bavasso, Giorgio Mangino, Marco Iuliano, Antonella Calogero, Giovanna Romeo, Dharmendra Pratap Singh, Filippo Pierini, Giulio Caracciolo, Francesca Petronella, Luciano De Sio. Multifunctional FFP2 Face Mask for White Light Disinfection and Pathogens Detection using Hybrid Nanostructures and Optical Metasurfaces. Small 2024, 12 https://doi.org/10.1002/smll.202400531
  64. Xiaofang Lin, Wenbo Sun, Minggang Lin, Ting Chen, Kangming Duan, Huiting Lin, Chuyang Zhang, Huan Qi. Bicomponent core/sheath melt-blown fibers for air filtration with ultra-low resistance. RSC Advances 2024, 14 (20) , 14100-14113. https://doi.org/10.1039/D4RA02174F
  65. Qiaoyang Sun, Tianpeng Wen, Tao Liu, Jingkun Yu. Carbon powders transforming from waste PP materials for optimization of 8 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia nano-powders. 2024https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-4001594/v1
  66. Charlène Delorme, Louis Docquer, Chloé Fedi, Julie Henry‐Barriol, Manon Robert, Claude Botella, Béatrice Vacher, Lara Leclerc, Florence Grattard, Paul O. Verhoeven, Jérémie Pourchez, José Penuelas. Investigating Surgical Mask Thermal Degradation via X‐Ray Techniques for Efficient Reuse. ChemNanoMat 2024, 29 https://doi.org/10.1002/cnma.202300570
  67. Rajan Kumar Gangadhari, Pradeep Kumar Tarei, Pushpendu Chand, Meysam Rabiee, Dursun Delen. Navigating the new normal: Redefining N95 respirator design with an integrated text mining and quality function deployment-based optimization model. Computers & Industrial Engineering 2024, 189 , 109962. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cie.2024.109962
  68. Zongyi Tan, Haiyang Deng, Huali Ou, Zhianqi Liao, Xinni Wu, Ruijuan Liu, Huase Ou. Microplastics and volatile organic compounds released from face masks after disinfection: Layers and materials differences. Science of The Total Environment 2024, 917 , 170286. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2024.170286
  69. Yuankang Xiong (熊元康), Rong Wang (王戎), Thomas Gasser, Philippe Ciais, Josep Peñuelas, Jordi Sardans, James H. Clark, Junji Cao (曹军骥), Xiaofan Xing (邢晓帆), Siqing Xu (徐思清), Yifei Deng (邓艺菲), Lin Wang (王琳), Jianmin Chen (陈建民), Xu Tang (汤绪), Renhe Zhang (张人禾). Potential impacts of pandemics on global warming, agricultural production, and biodiversity loss. One Earth 2024, 2 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oneear.2024.02.012
  70. Yan Li, Lu-Bin Zhong, Qi-Jun Zhang, Chao-Yang Guo, Bu-Qing He, Mohammad Younas, Yu-Ming Zheng. Highly breathable and durable waterproof polyimide electrospun nanofibrous membrane for potential reusable protective clothing application: Preparation, characterization and performance. Journal of Membrane Science 2024, 693 , 122354. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.memsci.2023.122354
  71. Zohre Farahmandkia, Leila Ghorbani, Hessam Mirshahabi, Mohammad Reza Mehrasbi. The Effect of Decontamination Methods on the Functionality of N95 Respirators in Particle Removal and SARS-CoV-2 Eradication. Journal of Human Environment and Health Promotion 2024, 10 (1) , 33-43. https://doi.org/10.61186/jhehp.10.1.33
  72. Lucas Gomes Rabello, Roberto Carlos da Conceição Ribeiro, José Carlos Costa da Silva Pinto, Rossana Mara da Silva Moreira Thiré. Chemical recycling of green poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV)-based air filters through hydrolysis. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering 2024, 12 (1) , 111816. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2023.111816
  73. Yuanqiang Xu, Xiaomin Zhang, Ying Li, Yu Zhang, Tienan Zhao, Yongchun Zeng. Radiative cooling face mask based on mixed micro- and nanofibrous fabric. Chemical Engineering Journal 2024, 481 , 148722. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2024.148722
  74. Pasquale Giungato, Bianca Moramarco, Roberto Leonardo Rana, Caterina Tricase. Carbon footprint of FFP2 protective facial masks against SARS-CoV-2 used in the food sector: effect of materials and dry sanitisation. British Food Journal 2024, 126 (1) , 33-47. https://doi.org/10.1108/BFJ-09-2022-0773
  75. Jia-Hua Yeh, Suhendro Purbo Prakoso, Leon Lukhas Santoso, Shi-Ju Chen, Bryan Chiang, Ju-Chieh Cheng, Ru-Ning Zhang, Yu-Cheng Chiu. A sustainable biomass-based electret for face mask and non-volatile transistor memory. Organic Electronics 2024, 124 , 106944. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orgel.2023.106944
  76. Zhaobo Zhang, Mahmut S. Ersan, Paul Westerhoff, Pierre Herckes. Do Surface Charges on Polymeric Filters and Airborne Particles Control the Removal of Nanoscale Aerosols by Polymeric Facial Masks?. Toxics 2024, 12 (1) , 3. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics12010003
  77. Shengyu Qin, Zichen Wang, Yunxiao Ren, Yinuo Yu, Yixian Xiao, Jiajun Chen, Jianying Zhang, Shuoning Zhang, Chang Sun, Jiumei Xiao, Lanying Zhang, Wei Hu, Huai Yang. A meltblown cloth reinforced partially fluorinated solid polymer electrolyte for ultrastable lithium metal batteries. Nano Energy 2024, 119 , 109075. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nanoen.2023.109075
  78. Guangyao Wang, Dingwen Xiao, Yueguang Fang, Guiling Ning, Junwei Ye. Polarity-dominated chitosan biguanide hydrochloride-based nanofibrous membrane with antibacterial activity for long-lasting air filtration. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 2024, 254 , 127729. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2023.127729
  79. Lihong Jiang, Xinlin Liu, Junling Lv, Gaojie Li, Peiyuan Yang, Yumeng Ma, Haiyang Zou, Zhong Lin Wang. Fluid-based triboelectric nanogenerators: unveiling the prolific landscape of renewable energy harvesting and beyond. Energy & Environmental Science 2024, 58 https://doi.org/10.1039/D4EE00482E
  80. Ishika Nag. Development of an engineered face mask with optimized nanoparticle layering for filtration of air pollutants and viral pathogens. Environmental Engineering Research 2023, 28 (6) , 230003-0. https://doi.org/10.4491/eer.2023.003
  81. Fangdong Zou, Qi Zhou, Xinhou Wang. Numerical analysis of airflow fields in new modified melt-blowing dies. Textile Research Journal 2023, 93 (23-24) , 5153-5167. https://doi.org/10.1177/00405175231194792
  82. Buddhi Pushpawela, Peter Chea, Ryan Ward, Richard C. Flagan. Quantification of face seal leakage using parallel resistance model. Physics of Fluids 2023, 35 (12) https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0177717
  83. Moussa Benboubker, Bouchra Oumokhtar, Fouzia Hmami, Khalil El Mabrouk, Leena Alami, Btissam Arhoune, Mohammed Faouzi Belahsen, Boujamaa El Marnissi, Abdelhamid Massik, Lahbib Hibaoui, Ahmed Aboutajeddine. Filtration efficiency assessment of decontaminated FFP2 masks for safe re-use: Study conducted as part of the Covid-19 response plan at HASSAN II University Hospital in Morocco. 2023https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.1003774
  84. Zhuo Chen, Qinghua Zhao, Jiahui Chen, Tao Mei, Wenwen Wang, Mufang Li, Dong Wang. N-Halamine-Based Polypropylene Melt-Blown Nonwoven Fabric with Superhydrophilicity and Antibacterial Properties for Face Masks. Polymers 2023, 15 (21) , 4335. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15214335
  85. Meijia Gu, Luojia Chen, Rui Hu, Qingrong Chen, Jianbo Liu, Lianrong Wang, Shi Chen. Aggregation-induced emission: recent applications in infectious diseases. Science China Chemistry 2023, 66 (11) , 2986-3005. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11426-023-1825-7
  86. Yilin Wang, Songnan Hu, Yian Chen, Haisong Qi. High-efficiency air filter aerogel resembling blood cell with heterogeneous epitaxial growth of zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 anchored on tunicate cellulose nanofibers for integrated air cleaning. Chemical Engineering Journal 2023, 475 , 146415. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2023.146415
  87. Xinyu Li, Fuhu Han, Shencheng Fan, Yu Liu, Jieyu Zhang, Jing Li. Recycling of discarded face masks for modification and use in SBS-modified bitumen. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 2023, 30 (54) , 115152-115163. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-023-30570-0
  88. Hui Wang, Qiang Zhou, Jing Sun, Wei Ye, Yong Fan, Jie Zhao. Solar-induced self-healing superhydrophobic masks with photo-sterilization and reusability. Colloid and Interface Science Communications 2023, 57 , 100760. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colcom.2023.100760
  89. Hei Man Wong, Cheok Hong Mun, Weng Keong Loke, Wei Qi Lim, Geraldine Wei Yen Chee, Sook Lan Tan, Jye Yng Teo, Yi Yan Yang, Hendrix Tanoto, Xian Jun Loh, Chen Ee Lee, Chuanwen Tiang, Wei Yee Wan, Charlene Cheong, Kue Bien How, Moi Lin Ling, Ban Hock Tan. Moist heat as a promising method to decontaminate N95 masks: A large scale clinical study comparing four decontamination modalities—moist heat, steam, ultraviolet-C irradiation, and hydrogen peroxide plasma. International Journal of Infectious Diseases 2023, 136 , 151-157. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2023.09.016
  90. Nilkamal Mahanta, Uday Shanker Dixit. A Study on Degradation of N95 Respirator After Disinfecting it by Various Techniques. Journal of The Institution of Engineers (India): Series C 2023, 104 (5) , 887-895. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40032-023-00978-1
  91. Qiaoyang Sun, Tao Liu, Tianpeng Wen, Jingkun Yu. Coupling of carbonization method with high-energy ball milling: Towards submicron-sized graphite powders transforming from waste COVID-19 masks. Materials Chemistry and Physics 2023, 307 , 128134. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matchemphys.2023.128134
  92. Jennifer Soto, Chase Linsley, Yang Song, Binru Chen, Jun Fang, Josephine Neyyan, Raul Davila, Brandon Lee, Benjamin Wu, Song Li. Engineering Materials and Devices for the Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment of COVID-19 and Infectious Diseases. Nanomaterials 2023, 13 (17) , 2455. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13172455
  93. Yue Yang, Yuchen Yang, Jianying Huang, Shuhui Li, Zheyi Meng, Weilong Cai, Yuekun Lai. Electrospun Nanocomposite Fibrous Membranes for Sustainable Face Mask Based on Triboelectric Nanogenerator with High Air Filtration Efficiency. Advanced Fiber Materials 2023, 5 (4) , 1505-1518. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42765-023-00299-z
  94. Martin Adrian, Irfan Dwi Aditya, Muhammad Miftahul Munir. New approach in evaluating mask filtration efficiency using low-cost PM2.5 sensor and mobile mannequin method. Atmospheric Pollution Research 2023, 14 (8) , 101840. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apr.2023.101840
  95. Ceilidh Bray, Peter T. Vanberkel. A framework for comparing N95 and elastomeric facepiece respirators on cost and function for healthcare use during a pandemic- A literature review. Health Policy 2023, 134 , 104857. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthpol.2023.104857
  96. Younseong Song, Yong-ki Lee, Yujin Lee, Won-Tae Hwang, Jiyoung Lee, Seonghyeon Park, Nahyun Park, Hyunsub Song, Hogi Kim, Kyoung G. Lee, Il-Doo Kim, Yoosik Kim, Sung Gap Im. Anti-viral, anti-bacterial, but non-cytotoxic nanocoating for reusable face mask with efficient filtration, breathability, and robustness in humid environment. Chemical Engineering Journal 2023, 470 , 144224. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2023.144224
  97. Him Cheng Wong, Shi Ke Ong, Erik Birgersson, Mei Chee Tan, Hong Yee Low. Hierarchical isoporous membrane filters for simultaneous reduction of pressure drop and efficient removal of nanoscale airborne contaminants. Applied Materials Today 2023, 33 , 101856. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmt.2023.101856
  98. Yi Lu, Yi-Xuan Liu, Yong Wang, Robert Oestreich, Zi-Yan Xu, Wen Zhang, Philipp Hügenell, Christoph Janiak, Xiao-Yu Yang. A facile spray-pressing synthesis approach for reusable photothermal masks. iScience 2023, 26 (8) , 107286. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2023.107286
  99. Jiwang Chen, Yuanyuan Rao, Jiawei Huang, Nianlong Cheng, Guangyu Zhou, Shasha Feng, Zhaoxiang Zhong, Weihong Xing. Multi-functional nanofiber membranes with asymmetric wettability and pine-needle-like structure for enhanced moisture-wicking. Chemical Engineering Journal 2023, 468 , 143709. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2023.143709
  100. Yunhan Jiang, Yulong Fu, Xiaojie Xu, Xiaoguang Guo, Feiyu Wang, Xin Xu, Yao-Wei Huang, Jiyan Shi, Chaofeng Shen. Production of singlet oxygen from photosensitizer erythrosine for facile inactivation of coronavirus on mask. Environment International 2023, 177 , 107994. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2023.107994
Load more citations
  • Abstract

    Figure 1

    Figure 1. Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 through viral aerosols. Image of SARS-CoV-2 courtesy of the CDC.

    Figure 2

    Figure 2. Meltblown fabrics in N95 FFRs. (A) Peeling apart a representative N95 FFR reveals multiple layers of nonwoven materials. (B) Scanning electron microscope (SEM) cross-section image reveals the middle meltblown layer has thinner fibers with thickness around 300 μm. (C) SEM image of meltblown fibers reveals a complicated randomly oriented network of fibers, with diameters in the range of ∼1–10 μm. (D) Schematic illustration of meltblown fibers (left) without and (right) with electret charging. In the left figure, smaller particles are able to pass through to the user, but particles are electrostatically captured in the case of an electret (right).

    Figure 3

    Figure 3. The 10 treatment cycle evolution of filtration characteristics. (A) Efficiency evolution where it is clear that steam treatment results in a degradation of efficiency. (B) Pressure drop evolution where it is not apparent that any structure or morphology change has occurred in the meltblown fabrics.

    Figure 4

    Figure 4. Temperature and humidity evolution of meltblown and FFR filtration characteristics. (A, B) Evolution of meltblown fabrics’ filtration characteristics at 85 °C under different humidities, efficiency (A) and pressure drop (B). (C, D) Evolution of filtration characteristics on a meltblown fabric under 85 °C, 30% RH, efficiency (C) and pressure drop (D). (E, F) Evolution of the filtration characteristics on an N95-level FFRs with 85 °C, under 30% and 100% RH (measured at a flow rate of 85 L/min), efficiency (E) and pressure drop (F). The left-to-right of all FFR brands is as follows: (1) initial (leftmost, solid pattern, tested in ambient conditions), (2) 85 °C, 30% RH 10 cycles, (3) 85 °C, 30% RH 20 cycles, (4) 85 °C, 100% RH 10 cycles, and (5) 85 °C, 100% RH 20 cycles. (G, H) Temperature dependence of meltblown fabrics’ filtration characteristics over 20 cycles with RH < 30%, efficiency (G) and pressure drop (H).

    Figure 5

    Figure 5. Effect of UVGI on meltblown filtration characteristics. (A) Efficiency of meltblown fabric that slightly changes after 10 cycles of UVGI. (B) Pressure drop after UVGI treatments remains similar. The larger error bar in the initial data is due to the meltblown fabric originating from various locations on the roll, whereas the meltblown fabrics used in the treatment originated from a similar location on the roll.

  • References

    ARTICLE SECTIONS
    Jump To

    This article references 39 other publications.

    1. 1
      Dong, E.; Du, H.; Gardner, L. An Interactive Web-Based Dashboard to Track COVID-19 in Real Time. Lancet Infect. Dis. 2020, 20, 533534,  DOI: 10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30120-1
    2. 2
      Zhou, P.; Yang, X.-L.; Wang, X.-G.; Hu, B.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, W.; Si, H.-R.; Zhu, Y.; Li, B.; Huang, C.-L.; Chen, H.-D.; Chen, J.; Luo, Y.; Guo, H.; Jiang, R.-D.; Liu, M.-Q.; Chen, Y.; Shen, X.-R.; Wang, X.; Zheng, X.-S. A Pneumonia Outbreak Associated with a New Coronavirus of Probable Bat Origin. Nature 2020, 579, 270273,  DOI: 10.1038/s41586-020-2012-7
    3. 3
      Wu, F.; Zhao, S.; Yu, B.; Chen, Y.-M.; Wang, W.; Song, Z.-G.; Hu, Y.; Tao, Z.-W.; Tian, J.-H.; Pei, Y.-Y.; Yuan, M.-L.; Zhang, Y.-L.; Dai, F.-H.; Liu, Y.; Wang, Q.-M.; Zheng, J.-J.; Xu, L.; Holmes, E. C.; Zhang, Y.-Z. A New Coronavirus Associated with Human Respiratory Disease in China. Nature 2020, 579, 265269,  DOI: 10.1038/s41586-020-2008-3
    4. 4
      Letko, M.; Marzi, A.; Munster, V. Functional Assessment of Cell Entry and Receptor Usage for SARS-CoV-2 and Other Lineage B Betacoronaviruses. Nat. Microbiol. 2020, 5, 562569,  DOI: 10.1038/s41564-020-0688-y
    5. 5
      Guan, W.-J.; Ni, Z.-Y.; Hu, Y.; Liang, W.-H.; Ou, C.-Q.; He, J.-X.; Liu, L.; Shan, H.; Lei, C.-L.; Hui, D. S. C.; Du, B.; Li, L.-J.; Zeng, G.; Yuen, K.-Y.; Chen, R.-C.; Tang, C.-L.; Wang, T.; Chen, P.-Y.; Xiang, J.; Li, S.-Y. Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in China. N. Engl. J. Med. 2020, 382, 17081720,  DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa2002032
    6. 6
      Holshue, M. L.; DeBolt, C.; Lindquist, S.; Lofy, K. H.; Wiesman, J.; Bruce, H.; Spitters, C.; Ericson, K.; Wilkerson, S.; Tural, A.; Diaz, G.; Cohn, A.; Fox, L. A.; Patel, A.; Gerber, S. I.; Kim, L.; Tong, S.; Lu, X.; Lindstrom, S.; Pallansch, M. A. First Case of 2019 Novel Coronavirus in the United States. N. Engl. J. Med. 2020, 382, 929936,  DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa2001191
    7. 7
      Zhu, N.; Zhang, D.; Wang, W.; Li, X.; Yang, B.; Song, J.; Zhao, X.; Huang, B.; Shi, W.; Lu, R.; Niu, P.; Zhan, F.; Ma, X.; Wang, D.; Xu, W.; Wu, G.; Gao, G. F.; Tan, W. A Novel Coronavirus from Patients with Pneumonia in China, 2019. N. Engl. J. Med. 2020, 382, 727733,  DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa2001017
    8. 8
      Wang, F. S.; Zhang, C. What to Do Next to Control the 2019-NCoV Epidemic?. Lancet 2020, 395, 391393,  DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30300-7
    9. 9
      Bai, Y.; Yao, L.; Wei, T.; Tian, F.; Jin, D.-Y.; Chen, L.; Wang, M. Presumed Asymptomatic Carrier Transmission of COVID-19. JAMA 2020, 323, 1406,  DOI: 10.1001/jama.2020.2565
    10. 10
      Baud, D.; Qi, X.; Nielsen-Saines, K.; Musso, D.; Pomar, L.; Favre, G. Real Estimates of Mortality Following COVID-19 Infection. Lancet Infect. Dis. 2020,  DOI: 10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30195-X
    11. 11
      Tellier, R. Review of Aerosol Transmission of Influenza A Virus. Emerging Infect. Dis. 2006, 12, 16571662,  DOI: 10.3201/eid1211.060426
    12. 12
      Yan, J.; Grantham, M.; Pantelic, J.; De Mesquita, P. J. B.; Albert, B.; Liu, F.; Ehrman, S.; Milton, D. K. Infectious Virus in Exhaled Breath of Symptomatic Seasonal Influenza Cases from a College Community. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 2018, 115, 10811086,  DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1716561115
    13. 13
      Lindsley, W. G.; Blachere, F. M.; Thewlis, R. E.; Vishnu, A.; Davis, K. A.; Cao, G.; Palmer, J. E.; Clark, K. E.; Fisher, M. A.; Khakoo, R.; Beezhold, D. H. Measurements of Airborne Influenza Virus in Aerosol Particles from Human Coughs. PLoS One 2010, 5 (5), e15100,  DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0015100
    14. 14
      Loudon, R. G.; Roberts, R. M. Singing and the Dissemination of Tuberculosis. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 1968, 98, 297300
    15. 15
      CDC Laboratory Performance Evaluation of N95 Filtering Facepiece Respirators, 1996. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 1998, 47, 1045
    16. 16
      Rosenstock, L. 42 CFR Part 84: Respiratory Protective Devices Implications for Tuberculosis Protection. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 1995, 16, 529531,  DOI: 10.1086/647174
    17. 17
      NIOSH Interim Guidance on Infection Control Measures for 2009 H1N1 Influenza in Healthcare Settings, Including Protection of Healthcare Personnel. Miss. RN 2009, 71, 1318
    18. 18
      Matsuyama, S.; Nao, N.; Shirato, K.; Kawase, M.; Saito, S.; Takayama, I.; Nagata, N.; Sekizuka, T.; Katoh, H.; Kato, F.; Sakata, M.; Tahara, M.; Kutsuna, S.; Ohmagari, N.; Kuroda, M.; Suzuki, T.; Kageyama, T.; Takeda, M. Enhanced Isolation of SARS-CoV-2 by TMPRSS2- Expressing Cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 2020, 117, 70017003,  DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2002589117
    19. 19
      Bałazy, A.; Toivola, M.; Adhikari, A.; Sivasubramani, S. K.; Reponen, T.; Grinshpun, S. A. Do N95 Respirators Provide 95% Protection Level against Airborne Viruses, and How Adequate Are Surgical Masks?. Am. J. Infect. Control 2006, 34, 5157,  DOI: 10.1016/j.ajic.2005.08.018
    20. 20
      Wall, T. H.; Hansen, P. E. Filtering Web for Face Masks and Face Masks Made Therefrom. US3316904A, 1967.
    21. 21
      Ghosal, A.; Sinha-Ray, S.; Yarin, A. L.; Pourdeyhimi, B. Numerical Prediction of the Effect of Uptake Velocity on Three-Dimensional Structure, Porosity and Permeability of Meltblown Nonwoven Laydown. Polymer 2016, 85, 1927,  DOI: 10.1016/j.polymer.2016.01.013
    22. 22
      Kubik, D. A.; Davis, C. I. Melt-Blown Fibrous Electrets. US4215682A, 1980.
    23. 23
      Angadjivand, S. A.; Jones, M. E.; Meyer, D. E. Electret Filter Media. US6119691A, 1994.
    24. 24
      Barrett, L. W.; Rousseau, A. D. Aerosol Loading Performance of Electret Filter Media. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 1998, 59, 532539,  DOI: 10.1080/15428119891010703
    25. 25
      Ranney, M. L.; Griffeth, V.; Jha, A. K. Critical Supply Shortages — The Need for Ventilators and Personal Protective Equipment during the Covid-19 Pandemic. N. Engl. J. Med. 2020, 382, e41  DOI: 10.1056/NEJMp2006141
    26. 26
      van Doremalen, N.; Bushmaker, T.; Morris, D. H.; Holbrook, M. G.; Gamble, A.; Williamson, B. N.; Tamin, A.; Harcourt, J. L.; Thornburg, N. J.; Gerber, S. I.; Lloyd-Smith, J. O.; de Wit, E.; Munster, V. J. Aerosol and Surface Stability of SARS-CoV-2 as Compared with SARS-CoV-1. N. Engl. J. Med. 2020, 382, 15641567,  DOI: 10.1056/NEJMc2004973
    27. 27
      Rutala, W. A.; Weber, D. J. Guideline for Disinfection and Sterilization in Healthcare Facilities (2008); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Atlanta, GA, 2008; pp 1163. https://www.cdc.gov/infectioncontrol/guidelines/disinfection/index.html (accessed 2020/03/28).
    28. 28
      Darnell, M. E. R.; Subbarao, K.; Feinstone, S. M.; Taylor, D. R. Inactivation of the Coronavirus That Induces Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, SARS-CoV. J. Virol. Methods 2004, 121, 8591,  DOI: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2004.06.006
    29. 29
      Rabenau, H. F.; Cinatl, J.; Morgenstern, B.; Bauer, G.; Preiser, W.; Doerr, H. W. Stability and Inactivation of SARS Coronavirus. Med. Microbiol. Immunol. 2005, 194, 16,  DOI: 10.1007/s00430-004-0219-0
    30. 30
      Chin, A. W. H.; Chu, J. T. S.; Perera, M. R. A.; Hui, K. P. Y.; Yen, H.-L.; Chan, M. C. W.; Peiris, M.; Poon, L. L. M. Stability of SARS-CoV-2 in Different Environmental Conditions. Lancet Microbe 2020,  DOI: 10.1016/S2666-5247(20)30003-3
    31. 31
      Bergman, M. S.; Viscusi, D. J.; Heimbuch, B. K.; Wander, J. D.; Sambol, A. R.; Shaffer, R. E. Evaluation of Multiple (3-Cycle) Decontamination Processing for Filtering Facepiece Respirators. J. Eng. Fibers Fabr. 2010, 5, 3341,  DOI: 10.1177/155892501000500405
    32. 32
      Xiao, H.; Song, Y.; Chen, G. Correlation between Charge Decay and Solvent Effect for Melt-Blown Polypropylene Electret Filter Fabrics. J. Electrost. 2014, 72, 311314,  DOI: 10.1016/j.elstat.2014.05.006
    33. 33
      Nazeeri, A. I.; Hilburn, I. A.; Wu, D.-A.; Mohammed, K. A.; Badal, D. Y.; Chan, M. H. W.; Kirschvink, J. L. An Efficient Ethanol-Vacuum Method for the Decontamination and Restoration of Polypropylene Microfiber Medical Masks & Respirators. medRxiv, 2020. https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.12.20059709v1 (accessed 2020/04/28).
    34. 34
      Viscusi, D. J.; Bergman, M. S.; Eimer, B. C.; Shaffer, R. E. Evaluation of Five Decontamination Methods for Filtering Facepiece Respirators. Ann. Occup. Hyg. 2009, 53, 815827,  DOI: 10.1093/annhyg/mep070
    35. 35
      Yang, P.; Wang, X. COVID-19: A New Challenge for Human Beings. Cell. Mol. Immunol. 2020, 17, 555557,  DOI: 10.1038/s41423-020-0407-x
    36. 36
      Lindsley, W. G.; Martin, S. B.; Thewlis, R. E.; Sarkisian, K.; Nwoko, J. O.; Mead, K. R.; Noti, J. D. Effects of Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation (UVGI) on N95 Respirator Filtration Performance and Structural Integrity. J. Occup. Environ. Hyg. 2015, 12, 509517,  DOI: 10.1080/15459624.2015.1018518
    37. 37
      Disinfection of Filtering Facepiece Respirators; 3M: St. Paul, MN, 2020; pp 13.
    38. 38
      Price, A. Dp.; Cui, Y.; Liao, L.; Xiao, W.; Yu, X.; Wang, H.; Zhao, M.; Wang, Q.; Chu, S.; Chu, L. F. Is the Fit of N95 Facial Masks Effected by Disinfection? A Study of Heat and UV Disinfection Methods Using the OSHA Protocol Fit Test. medRxiv, 2020. https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.14.20062810v1 (accessed 2020/04/28).
    39. 39
      Bergman, M. S.; Viscusi, D. J.; Zhuang, Z.; Palmiero, A. J.; Powell, J. B.; Shaffer, R. E. Impact of Multiple Consecutive Donnings on Filtering Facepiece Respirator Fit. Am. J. Infect. Control 2012, 40, 375380,  DOI: 10.1016/j.ajic.2011.05.003
  • Supporting Information

    Supporting Information

    ARTICLE SECTIONS
    Jump To

    The Supporting Information is available free of charge at https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsnano.0c03597.

    • Additional SEM images, plots, and tables with compiled data (PDF)


    Terms & Conditions

    Most electronic Supporting Information files are available without a subscription to ACS Web Editions. Such files may be downloaded by article for research use (if there is a public use license linked to the relevant article, that license may permit other uses). Permission may be obtained from ACS for other uses through requests via the RightsLink permission system: http://pubs.acs.org/page/copyright/permissions.html.

Pair your accounts.

Export articles to Mendeley

Get article recommendations from ACS based on references in your Mendeley library.

Pair your accounts.

Export articles to Mendeley

Get article recommendations from ACS based on references in your Mendeley library.

You’ve supercharged your research process with ACS and Mendeley!

STEP 1:
Click to create an ACS ID

Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

MENDELEY PAIRING EXPIRED
Your Mendeley pairing has expired. Please reconnect