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Self-Reporting and Photothermally Enhanced Rapid Bacterial Killing on a Laser-Induced Graphene Mask

  • Libei Huang
    Libei Huang
    Department of Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 999077, Hong Kong, China
    More by Libei Huang
  • Siyu Xu
    Siyu Xu
    Department of Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 999077, Hong Kong, China
    More by Siyu Xu
  • Zhaoyu Wang
    Zhaoyu Wang
    Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Branch of Chinese National Engineering Research Center for Tissue Restoration and Reconstruction and Institute for Advanced Study, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China
    More by Zhaoyu Wang
  • Ke Xue
    Ke Xue
    Key Laboratory of Functional Polymer Materials of Ministry of Education, State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Institute of Polymer Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China
    More by Ke Xue
  • Jianjun Su
    Jianjun Su
    Department of Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 999077, Hong Kong, China
    More by Jianjun Su
  • Yun Song
    Yun Song
    Department of Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 999077, Hong Kong, China
    More by Yun Song
  • Sijie Chen
    Sijie Chen
    Ming Wai Lau Centre for Reparative Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Hong Kong, China
    More by Sijie Chen
  • Chunlei Zhu*
    Chunlei Zhu
    Key Laboratory of Functional Polymer Materials of Ministry of Education, State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Institute of Polymer Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China
    *Email: [email protected]
    More by Chunlei Zhu
  • Ben Zhong Tang*
    Ben Zhong Tang
    Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Branch of Chinese National Engineering Research Center for Tissue Restoration and Reconstruction and Institute for Advanced Study, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China
    SCUT-HKUST Joint Research Institute, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China
    HKUST-Shenzhen Research Institute, No. 9 Yuexing First Road, South Area, Hi-tech Park, Nanshan, Shenzhen 518057, China
    Center for Aggregation-Induced Emission, State Key Laboratory of Luminescent Materials and Devices, South China University of Technology, Tianhe Qu, Guangzhou 510640, China
    AIE Institute, Guangzhou Development District, Huangpu, Guangzhou 510530, China
    *Email: [email protected]
  • , and 
  • Ruquan Ye*
    Ruquan Ye
    Department of Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 999077, Hong Kong, China
    State Key Laboratory of Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong, 999077, Hong Kong, China
    *Email: [email protected]
    More by Ruquan Ye
Cite this: ACS Nano 2020, 14, 9, 12045–12053
Publication Date (Web):August 11, 2020
Copyright © 2020 American Chemical Society

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    Supporting Info (3)»


    Abstract Image

    Wearing face masks has been widely recommended to contain respiratory virus diseases, yet the improper use of masks poses a threat of jeopardizing the protection effect. We here identified the bacteria viability on common face masks and found that the majority of bacteria (90%) remain alive after 8 h. Using laser-induced graphene (LIG), the inhibition rate improves to ∼81%. Combined with the photothermal effect, 99.998% bacterial killing efficiency could be attained within 10 min. For aerosolized bacteria, LIG also showed superior antibacterial capacity. The LIG can be converted from a diversity of carbon precursors including biomaterials, which eases the supply stress and environmental pressure amid an outbreak. In addition, self-reporting of mask conditions is feasible using the moisture-induced electricity from gradient graphene. Our results improve the safe use of masks and benefit the environment.

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    Supporting Information

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    The Supporting Information is available free of charge at

    • Performance of a typical LIG hygroelectric generator under intermittent breaths (MP4)

    • Induced potential increased or decreased as the mask wearer exhales or inhales (MP4)

    • Contact angle of hydrophobic LIG, hydrophilic LIG, ACF and MBF; conversion of PI to LIG; Raman spectra of PI and LIG; optical images of LIG converted from different substrates; SEM images of LIG converted from different substrates; Raman spectra of LIG and its different substrates; photo of commercial masks used in bacterial viability experiment; growth of E. coli on an agar plate; UV–visible–NIR spectrum of LIG, ACF, and MBF; SEM images of ACF and MBF; infrared thermal images of LIG, ACF, and MBF; photo of setup used to collect aerosolized bacteria; schematic of the setup of pressure drop test; pressure drop versus airflow rate; optical image of LIG device for hygroelectricity generation; current time curve of LIG hygroelectric device; voltage output of multiple samples; optical image of LIG-based hygroelectric generator incorporated on a commercial mask; time-dependent change in breath-induced voltage; voltage output before and after wetting; cigar smoke collection setup; SEM images of cigar smoke; comparison of potential generated before and after different amounts of Staphylococcus epidermidis adhesion; comparison of potential generated before and after different amounts of simulated PM 2.5 loading; calibration of CFU and OD of E. coli; calibration of CFU and OD of Staphylococcus epidermidis (PDF)

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