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High-Temperature Fire Resistance and Self-Extinguishing Behavior of Cellular Graphene

  • Martin Šilhavík
    Martin Šilhavík
    Department of Thin Films and Nanostructures, Institute of Physics of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Cukrovarnická 10/112, 162 00 Prague, Czech Republic
  • Prabhat Kumar
    Prabhat Kumar
    Department of Thin Films and Nanostructures, Institute of Physics of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Cukrovarnická 10/112, 162 00 Prague, Czech Republic
  • Zahid Ali Zafar
    Zahid Ali Zafar
    Department of Thin Films and Nanostructures, Institute of Physics of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Cukrovarnická 10/112, 162 00 Prague, Czech Republic
    Department of Physical Chemistry and Macromolecular Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, Hlavova 2030, 128 00 Prague, Czech Republic
  • Robert Král
    Robert Král
    Department of Optical Materials, Institute of Physics of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Cukrovarnická 10/112, 162 00 Prague, Czech Republic
    More by Robert Král
  • Petra Zemenová
    Petra Zemenová
    Department of Optical Materials, Institute of Physics of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Cukrovarnická 10/112, 162 00 Prague, Czech Republic
  • Alexandra Falvey
    Alexandra Falvey
    Department of Optical Materials, Institute of Physics of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Cukrovarnická 10/112, 162 00 Prague, Czech Republic
  • Petr Jiříček
    Petr Jiříček
    Department of Optical Materials, Institute of Physics of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Cukrovarnická 10/112, 162 00 Prague, Czech Republic
  • Jana Houdková
    Jana Houdková
    Department of Optical Materials, Institute of Physics of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Cukrovarnická 10/112, 162 00 Prague, Czech Republic
  • , and 
  • Jiří Červenka*
    Jiří Červenka
    Department of Thin Films and Nanostructures, Institute of Physics of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Cukrovarnická 10/112, 162 00 Prague, Czech Republic
    *Email: [email protected]
Cite this: ACS Nano 2022, 16, 11, 19403–19411
Publication Date (Web):November 11, 2022
https://doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.2c09076
Copyright © 2022 American Chemical Society

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    Abstract

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    The ability to protect materials from fire is vital to many industrial applications and life safety systems. Although various chemical treatments and protective coatings have proven effective as flame retardants, they provide only temporary prevention, as they do not change the inherent flammability of a given material. In this study, we demonstrate that a simple change of the microstructure can significantly boost the fire resistance of an atomically thin material well above its oxidation stability temperature. We show that free-standing graphene layers arranged in a three-dimensional (3D) cellular network exhibit completely different flammability and combustion rates from a graphene layer placed on a substrate. Covalently cross-linked cellular graphene aerogels can resist flames in air up to 1500 °C for a minute without degrading their structure or properties. In contrast, graphene on a substrate ignites immediately above 550 °C and burns down in a few seconds. Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric studies reveal that the exceptional fire-retardant and self-extinguishing properties of cellular graphene originate from the ability to prevent carbonyl defect formation and capture nonflammable carbon dioxide gas in the pores. Our findings provide important information for understanding graphene’s fire-retardant mechanism in 3D structures/assemblies, which can be used to enhance flame resistance of carbon-based materials, prevent fires, and limit fire damage.

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    Supporting Information

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    The Supporting Information is available free of charge at https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsnano.2c09076.

    • Video S1: Elasticity of cellular graphene aerogel in propane flame (AVI)

    • Video S2: Temperature gradient across the graphene aerogel exposed to flames (AVI)

    • Video S3: Cellular graphene aerogel under hydrogen flame (AVI)

    • Video S4: Cellular graphene aerogel under IPA flame (AVI)

    • Video S5: Cellular graphene aerogel under candle flame (AVI)

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    Most electronic Supporting Information files are available without a subscription to ACS Web Editions. Such files may be downloaded by article for research use (if there is a public use license linked to the relevant article, that license may permit other uses). Permission may be obtained from ACS for other uses through requests via the RightsLink permission system: http://pubs.acs.org/page/copyright/permissions.html.

    Cited By

    This article is cited by 2 publications.

    1. Yijing Zhao, Haobo Qi, Xinyu Dong, Yong Yang, Wei Zhai. Customizable Resilient Multifunctional Graphene Aerogels via Blend-spinning assisted Freeze Casting. ACS Nano 2023, 17 (16) , 15615-15628. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.3c02491
    2. Prabhat Kumar, Martin Šilhavík, Zahid Ali Zafar, Jiří Červenka. Universal Strategy for Reversing Aging and Defects in Graphene Oxide for Highly Conductive Graphene Aerogels. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C 2023, 127 (22) , 10599-10608. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcc.3c01534

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