Interfacial Electron Beam Lithography: Chemical Monolayer Nanopatterning via Electron-Beam-Induced Interfacial Solid-Phase Oxidation
- Rivka Maoz*
- Jonathan BersonJonathan BersonDepartment of Materials and Interfaces, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 7610001, IsraelMore by Jonathan Berson
- Doron BurshtainDoron BurshtainDepartment of Materials and Interfaces, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 7610001, IsraelMore by Doron Burshtain
- Peter NelsonPeter NelsonDepartment of Materials and Interfaces, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 7610001, IsraelMore by Peter Nelson
- Ariel ZingerAriel ZingerDepartment of Materials and Interfaces, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 7610001, IsraelMore by Ariel Zinger
- Ora BittonOra BittonDepartment of Chemical Research Support, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 7610001, IsraelMore by Ora Bitton
- , and
- Jacob Sagiv*
Chemical nanopatterning—the deliberate nanoscale modification of the chemical nature of a solid surface—is conveniently realized using organic monolayer coatings to impart well-defined chemical functionalities to selected surface regions of the coated solid. Most monolayer patterning methods, however, exploit destructive processes that introduce topographic as well as other undesired structural and chemical transformations along with the desired surface chemical modification. In particular in electron beam lithography (EBL), organic monolayers have been used mainly as ultrathin resists capable of improving the resolution of patterning via local deposition or removal of material. On the basis of the recent discovery of a class of radiation-induced interfacial chemical transformations confined to the contact surface between two solids, we have advanced a direct, nondestructive EBL approach to chemical nanopatterning—interfacial electron beam lithography (IEBL)—demonstrated here by the e-beam-induced local oxidation of the −CH3 surface moieties of a highly ordered self-assembled n-alkylsilane monolayer to −COOH while fully preserving the monolayer structural integrity and molecular organization. In this conceptually different EBL process, the traditional resist is replaced by a thin film coating that acts as a site-activated reagent/catalyst in the chemical modification of the coated surface, here the top surface of the to-be-patterned monolayer. Structural and chemical transformations induced in the thin film coating and the underlying monolayer upon exposure to the electron beam were elucidated using a semiquantitative surface characterization methodology that combines multimode AFM imaging with postpatterning surface chemical modifications and quantitative micro-FTIR measurements. IEBL offers attractive opportunities in chemical nanopatterning, for example, by enabling the application of the advanced EBL technology to the straightforward nanoscale functionalization of the simplest commonly used organosilane monolayers.
This article is cited by 3 publications.
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