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Enhancement of the Monolayer Tungsten Disulfide Exciton Photoluminescence with a Two-Dimensional Material/Air/Gallium Phosphide In-Plane Microcavity

  • Oliver Mey
    Oliver Mey
    Department of Physics and Materials Sciences Center, Philipps-Universität Marburg, 35032 Marburg, Germany
    More by Oliver Mey
  • Franziska Wall
    Franziska Wall
    Department of Physics and Materials Sciences Center, Philipps-Universität Marburg, 35032 Marburg, Germany
  • Lorenz Maximilian Schneider
    Lorenz Maximilian Schneider
    Department of Physics and Materials Sciences Center, Philipps-Universität Marburg, 35032 Marburg, Germany
  • Darius Günder
    Darius Günder
    Department of Physics and Materials Sciences Center, Philipps-Universität Marburg, 35032 Marburg, Germany
  • Frederik Walla
    Frederik Walla
    Physikalisches Institut, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität, 60438 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
  • Amin Soltani
    Amin Soltani
    Physikalisches Institut, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität, 60438 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
    More by Amin Soltani
  • Hartmut Roskos
    Hartmut Roskos
    Physikalisches Institut, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität, 60438 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
  • Ni Yao
    Ni Yao
    State Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Instrumentation, College of Optical Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China
    More by Ni Yao
  • Peng Qing
    Peng Qing
    State Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Instrumentation, College of Optical Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China
    More by Peng Qing
  • Wei Fang
    Wei Fang
    State Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Instrumentation, College of Optical Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China
    More by Wei Fang
  • , and 
  • Arash Rahimi-Iman*
    Arash Rahimi-Iman
    Department of Physics and Materials Sciences Center, Philipps-Universität Marburg, 35032 Marburg, Germany
    *E-mail: [email protected]
Cite this: ACS Nano 2019, 13, 5, 5259–5267
Publication Date (Web):April 24, 2019
https://doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.8b09659
Copyright © 2019 American Chemical Society

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    Abstract

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    Light–matter interactions with two-dimensional materials gained significant attention in recent years, leading to the reporting of weak and strong coupling regimes and effective nanolaser operation with various structures. Particularly, future applications involving monolayer materials in waveguide-coupled on-chip-integrated circuitry and valleytronic nanophotonics require controlling, directing, and optimizing photoluminescence. In this context, photoluminescence enhancement from monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides on patterned semiconducting substrates becomes attractive. It is demonstrated in our work using focused-ion-beam-etched GaP and monolayer WS2 suspended on hexagonal boron nitride buffer sheets. We present an optical microcavity approach capable of efficient in-plane and out-of-plane confinement of light, which results in a WS2 photoluminescence enhancement by a factor of 10 compared to that of the unstructured substrate at room temperature. The key concept is the combination of interference effects in both the horizontal direction using a bull’s-eye-shaped circular Bragg grating and in the vertical direction by means of a multiple-reflection model with optimized etch depth of circular air–GaP structures for maximum constructive interference effects of the applied pump and expected emission light.

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    The Supporting Information is available free of charge on the ACS Publications website at DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.8b09659.

    • Explanations regarding the design considerations and the multiple-reflection model, additional setup information, description of the stacking procedure, complementary atomic force microscopy measurements, spatial profile of the enhancement, and cavity-simulation results (PDF)

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    Cited By

    This article is cited by 21 publications.

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    2. Aymen Mahmoudi, Meryem Bouaziz, Niels Chapuis, Geoffroy Kremer, Julien Chaste, Davide Romanin, Marco Pala, François Bertran, Patrick Le Fèvre, Iann C. Gerber, Gilles Patriarche, Fabrice Oehler, Xavier Wallart, Abdelkarim Ouerghi. Quasi van der Waals Epitaxy of Rhombohedral-Stacked Bilayer WSe2 on GaP(111) Heterostructure. ACS Nano 2023, 17 (21) , 21307-21316. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.3c05818
    3. Peng Zhang, Ningyan Cheng, Mengjiao Li, Bin Zhou, Ce Bian, Yi Wei, Xingguo Wang, Huaning Jiang, Lihong Bao, Yenfu Lin, Zhigao Hu, Yi Du, Yongji Gong. Transition-Metal Substitution-Induced Lattice Strain and Electrical Polarity Reversal in Monolayer WS2. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2020, 12 (16) , 18650-18659. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.9b22004
    4. Li Wang, Zach N. Nilsson, Muhammad Tahir, Hua Chen, Justin B. Sambur. Influence of the Substrate on the Optical and Photo-electrochemical Properties of Monolayer MoS2. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2020, 12 (13) , 15034-15042. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.9b21230
    5. Ruiyan Li, Tingting Zou, Xiuyun Li, Zhi Yu, Jianjun Yang. Development of periodically concentric rings within microcavity upon femtosecond laser irradiation. Optics Express 2023, 31 (11) , 17836. https://doi.org/10.1364/OE.486531
    6. Le-Yi Zhao, Hai Wang, Hai-Yu Wang, Qiang Zhou, Xu-Lin Zhang, Tong Cui, Lei Wang, Tian-Yu Liu, Yu-Xiao Han, Yang Luo, Yuan-Yuan Yue, Mu-Sen Song, Hong-Bo Sun. Ultrafast modulation of valley dynamics in multiple WS2 − Ag gratings strong coupling system. PhotoniX 2022, 3 (1) https://doi.org/10.1186/s43074-022-00049-1
    7. T. V. Raziman, C. Peter Visser, Shaojun Wang, Jaime Gómez Rivas, Alberto G. Curto. Exciton Diffusion and Annihilation in Nanophotonic Purcell Landscapes. Advanced Optical Materials 2022, 10 (17) , 2200103. https://doi.org/10.1002/adom.202200103
    8. Matthias M. Wiecha, Amin Soltani, Hartmut G. Roskos. Terahertz Nano-Imaging with s-SNOM. 2022https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.99102
    9. Kun Ye, Lixuan Liu, Congpu Mu, Kun Zhai, Shiliang Guo, Bochong Wang, Anmin Nie, Shuhan Meng, Fusheng Wen, Jianyong Xiang, Tianyu Xue, Ming Kang, Yongji Gong, Yongjun Tian, Zhongyuan Liu. Broadband light absorption and photoresponse enhancement in monolayer WSe2 crystal coupled to Sb2O3 microresonators. Nano Research 2022, 15 (5) , 4653-4660. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12274-021-4033-4
    10. Avra S. Bandyopadhyay, Anupama B. Kaul. Spectroscopic, structural, and strain-dependent analysis of suspended bulk WSe2 sheets. Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B 2022, 40 (2) https://doi.org/10.1116/6.0001371
    11. Christopher R. Gubbin, Simone De Liberato, Thomas G. Folland. Surface phonon polaritons for infrared optoelectronics. Journal of Applied Physics 2022, 131 (3) https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0064234
    12. Chunrui Han, Yu Wang, Weihu Zhou, Minpeng Liang, Jianting Ye. Strong anisotropic enhancement of photoluminescence in WS2 integrated with plasmonic nanowire array. Scientific Reports 2021, 11 (1) https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-89136-0
    13. Gintaras Valušis, Alvydas Lisauskas, Hui Yuan, Wojciech Knap, Hartmut G. Roskos. Roadmap of Terahertz Imaging 2021. Sensors 2021, 21 (12) , 4092. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21124092
    14. Arash Rahimi-Iman. Conclusion and Outlook. 2021, 229-253. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-69352-7_8
    15. Arash Rahimi-Iman. Introduction. 2021, 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-69352-7_1
    16. Arash Rahimi-Iman. Structuring Possibilities. 2021, 209-228. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-69352-7_7
    17. Arash Rahimi-Iman. Optical Measurement Techniques. 2021, 133-185. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-69352-7_5
    18. Arash Rahimi-Iman. Entering a Two-Dimensional Materials World. 2021, 17-59. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-69352-7_2
    19. Wen Du, Caihong Li, Jiachen Sun, Hao Xu, Peng Yu, Aobo Ren, Jiang Wu, Zhiming Wang. Nanolasers Based on 2D Materials. Laser & Photonics Reviews 2020, 14 (12) https://doi.org/10.1002/lpor.202000271
    20. Arash Rahimi‐Iman. Advances in Functional Nanomaterials Science. Annalen der Physik 2020, 532 (9) https://doi.org/10.1002/andp.202000015
    21. Yongju He, Chuan-Cun Shu, Yu Guo, Mengqiu Long, Hui Xu. Visualizing ultrasmall silica–CTAB hybrid nanoparticles for generating high photoluminescence. Journal of Materials Chemistry C 2020, 8 (19) , 6413-6421. https://doi.org/10.1039/D0TC00797H

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