ACS Publications. Most Trusted. Most Cited. Most Read
My Activity
CONTENT TYPES

Figure 1Loading Img

The Subjective Effects of Psychedelics Are Necessary for Their Enduring Therapeutic Effects

  • David B. Yaden
    David B. Yaden
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, United States
    Center for Psychedelic and Consciousness Research, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, United States
  •  and 
  • Roland R. Griffiths*
    Roland R. Griffiths
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, United States
    Center for Psychedelic and Consciousness Research, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, United States
    Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, United States
    *Email: [email protected]. Tel.: 410-550-0034.
Cite this: ACS Pharmacol. Transl. Sci. 2021, 4, 2, 568–572
Publication Date (Web):December 10, 2020
https://doi.org/10.1021/acsptsci.0c00194

Copyright © 2020 American Chemical Society. This publication is available under these Terms of Use.

  • Free to Read

Article Views

25815

Altmetric

-

Citations

LEARN ABOUT THESE METRICS
PDF (1018 KB)

Abstract

Classic psychedelics produce altered states of consciousness that individuals often interpret as meaningful experiences. Across a number of human studies, when the participant-rated intensity of the overall drug effects are statistically controlled for, certain subjective effects predict therapeutic and other desirable outcomes. Underlying neurobiological mechanisms are likely necessary but not sufficient to confer full and enduring beneficial effects. We propose that the subjective effects of psychedelics are necessary for their enduring beneficial effects and that these subjective effects account for the majority of their benefit.

This publication is licensed for personal use by The American Chemical Society.

SPECIAL ISSUE

This article is part of the Psychedelics special issue.

Introduction

ARTICLE SECTIONS
Jump To

The classic psychedelics are a structurally diverse group of compounds that are partial agonists at 5-HT2A serotonin receptors and produce a unique profile of subjective effects. (1) These compounds include tryptamines such as psilocybin (the main psychoactive constituent in psychedelic mushrooms), N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT, an ingredient of the plant admixture ayahuasca), phenethlyamines such as mescaline (from peyote and other cacti), and the ergotamines (such as lysergic acid diethylamide, LSD). Pharmacological blocking of the 5-HT2A receptor blocks many subjective and other major effects of psychedelics in humans and infrahuman animals. (2)
These classic psychedelics have low toxicity and limited abuse liability, (3) and several recent studies have investigated their treatment potential for mood and substance use disorders. (4−9) While favorable outcomes have been observed when psychedelics are taken under supportive conditions, questions remain regarding their mechanisms of action. Here we argue that some subjective effects occasioned by moderate to high doses of psychedelics in humans are necessary for their full and enduring therapeutic and otherwise beneficial outcomes. In this article, subjective effects refer to first-person experience, which is empirically measured by self-report data. Our view is neatly captured by the thought experiment (which we elaborate on later in this piece): would psychedelics confer their therapeutic benefits if they were administrated to someone who was under heavy sedation? We suspect the answer is no.
Our position contrasts the idea that subjective effects of psychedelics may be irrelevant to their therapeutic effects. The position that subjective effects are irrelevant to therapeutic effects is probably true of many pharmacological treatments. Suggestive evidence supporting this position include studies in which psychedelics have been shown to produce positive effects in a rodent model of depression. (10) Although we cannot completely discount the possibility of subjective drug effects in rodents, it seems unlikely that rodents would have experiences similar to those to which humans attribute deep personal meaning and positive, therapeutically relevant mood and behavioral change after taking a psychedelic. From this perspective, the subjective experiences elicited by psychedelic substances are merely epiphenomena of the underlying neurobiological mechanisms which convey the beneficial effects. For example, psychedelics promote structural and functional neural plasticity in the prefrontal cortex through 5-HT2A receptor-mediated mechanisms, (11) or, to cite another example of a neurobiological model that may not require subjective experience, it is observed that the antidepressant effects of psychedelics are associated with brain network reorganization. (12) While these and other neurobiological mechanisms could plausibly account for some of the therapeutic actions of psychedelics, none rule out an essential mediating role of subjective effects in humans.

Subjective Effects of Psychedelics

ARTICLE SECTIONS
Jump To

Naturally occurring psychedelics have been used for millennia in some cultures in religious and healing rituals, with an emphasis on the subjective experiences that they produce. (13) The importance of acute subjective effects in therapeutic outcomes has been also been documented in qualitative interview studies of patients treated with psychedelics in contemporary settings. (14,15) There is a great deal of historical, anecdotal, and qualitative data supporting the value of the subjective effects of psychedelics.
The meaning and significance attributed to psychedelic experiences has been well established in laboratory settings. Psilocybin administration studies have repeatedly shown that participants frequently rate their psychedelic experiences as among the most meaningful of their entire lives (5,6,8,16−19) and they are sometimes compared to the birth of a first-born child or death of a parent. Due to their salience, such experiences may serve as narrative “inflection points” in one’s life that could provide an impetus for changing one’s identification with certain patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors.
Several subjective features of psychedelic experiences are measurable through psychometric survey instruments. Building on the foundational scholarship of William James, Walter Stace, Walter Pahnke, and others, (20) the Mystical Experience Questionnaire (MEQ) was developed and subsequently revised and psychometrically validated to provide a self-report measure of the acute effects of psilocybin. (21) This scale includes four subscales: 1, an authoritative sense of unity or connectedness accompanied by feelings of reverence; 2, positively valenced feelings such as love or peace; 3, alterations to the sense of both time and space; and 4, difficulty with putting the experience into words. The MEQ likely taps several different cognitive and affective processes that ongoing psychometric studies are further delineating.
Scores on questionnaires assessing mystical-type experiences are predictive of beneficial outcomes from psychedelics administered in experimental contexts (Figure 1). An initial double-blind study from Johns Hopkins showed that 61% of 36 psychedelic naı̈ve participants met a priori criteria for having a “complete” mystical experience at the end of the psilocybin session day compared to 11% after methylphenidate. (16) Two months after sessions, participants attributed significantly greater positive changes in attitudes about life and self, positive mood, positive behaviors, and positive social effects to experiences during the psilocybin than methylphenidate sessions. Importantly, correlation and regression analyses indicated a central role of the mystical experience assessed on the session day, but not the intensity of the psilocybin experience, in predicting the high ratings of personal meaning assessed at 14 months. (17) For instance, r-values of 0.61 were found between mystical experience scores immediately after psilocybin sessions and the follow-up ratings of the personal meaning of the experience after controlling for three different measures of the intensity of the drug effect. A systematic replication of the first study in 18 healthy participants showed that mystical experience on session days and positive ratings on follow-up increased as an orderly function of psilocybin dose. (18) A further extension of this research explored the role of psilocybin-occasioned mystical experience in combination with meditation on enduring changes in trait measures of prosocial attitudes and behaviors. (19) In that randomized double-blind study, 50 participants received moderate-high doses of psilocybin on each of two sessions while 25 received a low placebo-like dose on both sessions. Overall, 61% of those receiving moderate-high doses of psilocybin had complete mystical experiences in contrast to 4% for those receiving the low placebo-like dose with the same levels of psychological support. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that mystical experience (MEQ scores) on session days contributed significantly (improving the r-square of a model that included only spiritual practices by 0.54) to predicting a composite measure of positive outcomes such as positive attitudes about life, self, mood, and behavior at 6 months.

Figure 1

Figure 1. Left panel shows data from a study (N = 15) of psilocybin on cigarette smoking cessation (replotted from Garcia et al. (22)). Smoking craving data are change scores from pretreatment to the 6-month follow-up. Mystical experience data for each participant are the mean total score on the 43-item version of the Mystical Experience Questionnaire (expressed as a percentage of the maximum possible score) assessed at the end of each of 2 or 3 psilocybin sessions. The middle panel shows data from a study (N = 24) of psilocybin on depression (adapted from Davis et al. (9)). Depression was measured with GRID-Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and expressed as change scores from pretreatment to 4 weeks after the second psilocybin session. Mystical experience data for each participant are the highest of two total scores on the 30-item Mystical Experience Questionnaire (expressed as a percentage of the maximum possible score) assessed at the end of each of two psilocybin sessions. The right panel shows data from a study of (N = 50) of individuals with a life-threatening cancer diagnosis who received either a very low dose or a moderately high dose of psilocybin (Griffiths et al. (5)). Mystical experience data for each participant are the total score on the 30-item Mystical Experience Questionnaire (expressed as a percentage of the maximum possible score) assessed at the end of the first psilocybin session. Anxiety was measured with the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale and expressed as a change score from baseline to 5 weeks postsession. More details regarding these images can be found in the citations above describing the original studies.

Mystical-type experience scores on psilocybin session days are also predictive of treatment success at long-term follow-up in clinical studies (see Figure 1). Two double-blind crossover studies showed that psilocybin produced substantial and enduring decreases in symptoms of anxiety and depression among patients with a life-threatening cancer diagnosis. (5,6) In the first of these studies, (5) mean percentage of maximum total possible score on the MEQ was significantly higher immediately after a moderate psilocybin dose (64%) than after a low placebo-like dose (27%). These scores after the first session were significantly correlated with most of the enduring changes in therapeutic outcome measured 5 weeks later. For most measures, this relationship continued to be significant when the intensity of overall psilocybin effect was controlled for in a partial correlation analysis, suggesting that mystical-type experience per se has an important role apart from overall intensity of drug effect. Furthermore, a statistical mediation analysis suggested that mystical-type experience was a mediator in positive therapeutic response. The results of the second of these studies (6) were very similar, with correlation analysis controlling for the intensity of drug effect and a mediation analysis suggesting that mystical experience was a mediator of therapeutic effects. Open-label pilot studies of psilocybin in the treatment of substance dependence and depression have reported data consistent with these findings. In a smoking cessation study, 9 of 15 participants (60%) had a “complete” mystical experience during one or more psilocybin session(s). (22) Results showed significant correlations between mean MEQ total scores assessed on session days and change from baseline in smoking craving scores (r = −0.65) and urine cotinine (r = −0.56) at the 6-month follow-up. Further, those participants who showed stronger mystical experiences on psilocybin sessions were more likely to be successful in biologically assessed smoking abstinence. In a psilocybin study in 20 patients with treatment-resistant depression, a measure assessing oceanic boundlessness (a construct related to mystical experience) on session days correlated with reductions in depression and was a significantly better predictor than subjective measures assessing visual or auditory alterations. (23) Finally, in a psilocybin study in 24 patients with major depressive disorder there was a moderate correlation (r = −0.41) between peak postsession mystical experience ratings and decreases in depression, but no such correlation with postsession challenging experience ratings, thus again suggesting some specificity to mystical-type experiences. (9)
In addition to mystical-type experiences, meaningful insights and belief changes are also frequently cited as fundamentally important to enduring positive outcomes in anecdotal descriptions of psychedelic treatments. For example, in a study of successful smoking cessation after psilocybin treatment, participants reported gaining vivid insights into self-identity and reasons for smoking along with strengthened belief that they had the ability remain abstinent. (8,15) In a double-blind study comparing psilocybin and dextromethorphan, psychological or personal insight rated after sessions increased as a function of psilocybin dose and was identified as an important domain associated with motivation to use psilocybin. (24) Although experiences of insight may sometimes overlap with mystical-type experience, a statistical path analysis of cross-sectional survey data suggests that insightful and mystical experiences independently mediate positive therapeutic outcomes on depression, anxiety, and substance use after psychedelics. (25−27) A prospective survey study that assessed respondents before and after taking a psychedelic in a noncontrolled, naturalistic manner showed that a measure of “emotional breakthrough,” likely related to psychological insight, predicted well-being 2 weeks later after controlling for mystical and challenging types of experiences. (23) A recent open label study of psilocybin in depression (N = 24) showed a strong correlation (r = 0.60) between ratings of psychological insight the day after the session and decreases in depression 4 weeks later. (9)

Proposal for a Critical Test of the Relevance of Subjective Effects

ARTICLE SECTIONS
Jump To

Although preliminary, the foregoing experimental observations make a case that some subjective effects occasioned by moderate to high doses of psychedelics play a key role in their enduring beneficial effects. It is our contention that the only definitive study to disprove the importance of such subjective effects would be one in which a psychedelic was administered to individuals who were rendered fully unconscious (e.g., via deep anesthesia) and who subsequently reported no memory for a psychedelic-like experience. Although we think it to be highly unlikely, if full and lasting therapeutic efficacy remained under these conditions, we would concede that the subjective effects are irrelevant.

Conclusion

ARTICLE SECTIONS
Jump To

Based on the results from experimental studies of moderate to high dose psychedelics we believe that the case for subjective effects playing a major role in enduring beneficial effects is compelling. Across a number of studies, when the intensity of the subjective psychedelic effect is controlled, certain subjective effects predict desirable outcomes. Underlying neurobiological-based mechanisms are undoubtedly necessary but likely not sufficient to confer full beneficial effects. In the nonsubjective anesthesia test that we describe, we would not be surprised to see some therapeutic effects but that they would be of lower magnitude and/or more transient. We suspect that the proportion of the long-term beneficial outcomes that are mediated through subjective effects is substantial, accounting for the majority of the lasting beneficial effects of psychedelics. For an alternative perspective, please see a companion Viewpoint in this issue. (28)

Author Information

ARTICLE SECTIONS
Jump To

  • Corresponding Author
    • Roland R. Griffiths - Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, United StatesCenter for Psychedelic and Consciousness Research, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, United StatesDepartment of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, United States Email: [email protected]
  • Author
    • David B. Yaden - Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, United StatesCenter for Psychedelic and Consciousness Research, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, United StatesOrcidhttp://orcid.org/0000-0002-9604-6227
  • Notes
    Dr. Griffiths reports grants from the Riverstyx Foundation, a crowdsourced funding campaign organized by Tim Ferris, and National Institute on Drug Abuse (grant R01DA03889) for research support outside of submitted the work; personal fees from the Heffter Research Institute (HRI) to cover travel costs as member of the board of directors of HRI outside the submitted work; and is site principal investigator for a multisite trial of psilocybin-facilitated treatment of major depressive disorder, which is sponsored by the Usona Institute.
    The authors declare no competing financial interest(s).

Acknowledgments

ARTICLE SECTIONS
Jump To

We thank Chris Letheby (University of Western Australia), Albert Garcia-Romeu (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), Brian D. Earp (Yale University), Derek E. Anderson (Boston University), and Chaz Firestone (Johns Hopkins University) for their helpful comments and suggestions. Support for Drs. D. Yaden and Griffiths through the Johns Hopkins Center for Psychedelic and Consciousness Research was provided by Tim Ferriss, Matt Mullenweg, Blake Mycoskie, Craig Nerenberg, and the Steven and Alexandra Cohen Foundation.

References

ARTICLE SECTIONS
Jump To

This article references 28 other publications.

  1. 1
    Nichols, D. E. (2018) (2016). Psychedelics. Pharmacol. Rev. 68 (2), 264355,  DOI: 10.1124/pr.115.011478
  2. 2
    Vollenweider, F. X., Vollenweider-Scherpenhuyzen, M. F., Bäbler, A., Vogel, H., and Hell, D. (1998) Psilocybin induces schizophrenia-like psychosis in humans via a serotonin-2 agonist action. NeuroReport 9 (17), 38973902,  DOI: 10.1097/00001756-199812010-00024
  3. 3
    Johnson, M. W., Hendricks, P. S., Barrett, F. S., and Griffiths, R. R. (2019) Classic psychedelics: An integrative review of epidemiology, therapeutics, mystical experience, and brain network function. Pharmacol. Ther. 197, 83102,  DOI: 10.1016/j.pharmthera.2018.11.010
  4. 4
    Bogenschutz, M. P., Forcehimes, A. A., Pommy, J. A., Wilcox, C. E., Barbosa, P. C. R., and Strassman, R. J. (2015) Psilocybin-assisted treatment for alcohol dependence: a proof-of-concept study. J. Psychopharmacol. 29 (3), 289299,  DOI: 10.1177/0269881114565144
  5. 5
    Griffiths, R. R., Johnson, M. W., Carducci, M. A., Umbricht, A., Richards, W. A., Richards, B. D., Cosimano, M. P., and Klinedinst, M. A. (2016) Psilocybin produces substantial and sustained decreases in depression and anxiety in patients with life-threatening cancer: A randomized double-blind trial. J. Psychopharmacol. 30 (12), 11811197,  DOI: 10.1177/0269881116675513
  6. 6
    Ross, S., Bossis, A., Guss, J., Agin-Liebes, G., Malone, T., Cohen, B., Mennenga, S. E, Belser, A., Kalliontzi, K., Babb, J., Su, Z., Corby, P., and Schmidt, B. L (2016) Rapid and sustained symptom reduction following psilocybin treatment for anxiety and depression in patients with life-threatening cancer: a randomized controlled trial. J. Psychopharmacol. 30 (12), 11651180,  DOI: 10.1177/0269881116675512
  7. 7
    Carhart-Harris, R. L, Bolstridge, M., Rucker, J., Day, C. M J, Erritzoe, D., Kaelen, M., Bloomfield, M., Rickard, J. A, Forbes, B., Feilding, A., Taylor, D., Pilling, S., Curran, V. H, and Nutt, D. J (2016) Psilocybin with psychological support for treatment-resistant depression: an open-label feasibility study. Lancet Psychiatry 3 (7), 619627,  DOI: 10.1016/S2215-0366(16)30065-7
  8. 8
    Johnson, M. W., Garcia-Romeu, A., Cosimano, M. P., and Griffiths, R. R. (2014) Pilot study of the 5-HT2AR agonist psilocybin in the treatment of tobacco addiction. J. Psychopharmacol. 28 (11), 983992,  DOI: 10.1177/0269881114548296
  9. 9
    Davis, A. K., Barrett, F. S., May, D. G., Cosimano, M. P., Sepeda, N. D., Johnson, M. W., Finan, P. H., and Griffiths, R. R. Effects of psilocybin-assisted therapy for major depressive disorder: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA Psychiatry , 2020, online. DOI: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2020.3285
  10. 10
    Hibicke, M., Landry, A. N., Kramer, H. M., Talman, Z. K., and Nichols, C. D. (2020) Psychedelics, but not ketamine, produce persistent antidepressant-like effects in a rodent experimental system for the study of depression. ACS Chem. Neurosci. 11 (6), 864871,  DOI: 10.1021/acschemneuro.9b00493
  11. 11
    Ly, C., Greb, A. C., Cameron, L. P., Wong, J. M., Barragan, E. V., Wilson, P. C., Burbach, K. F., Soltanzadeh Zarandi, S., Sood, A., Paddy, M. R., Duim, W. C., Dennis, M. Y., McAllister, A. K., Ori-McKenney, K. M., Gray, J. A., and Olson, D. E. (2018) Psychedelics promote structural and functional neural plasticity. Cell Rep. 23 (11), 31703182,  DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2018.05.022
  12. 12
    Carhart-Harris, R. L. (2018) The entropic brain-revisited. Neuropharmacology 142, 167178,  DOI: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2018.03.010
  13. 13
    Schultes, R. E. (1969) Hallucinogens of plant origin. Science 163, 245,  DOI: 10.1126/science.163.3864.245
  14. 14
    Belser, A. B., Agin-Liebes, G., Swift, T. C., Terrana, S., Devenot, N., Friedman, H. L., Guss, J., Bossis, A., and Ross, S. (2017) Patient experiences of psilocybin-assisted psychotherapy: an interpretative phenomenological analysis. J. Humanist Psychol 57 (4), 354388,  DOI: 10.1177/0022167817706884
  15. 15
    Noorani, T., Garcia-Romeu, A., Swift, T. C., Griffiths, R. R., and Johnson, M. W. (2018) Psychedelic therapy for smoking cessation: qualitative analysis of participant accounts. J. Psychopharmacol. 32 (7), 756769,  DOI: 10.1177/0269881118780612
  16. 16
    Griffiths, R. R., Richards, W. A., McCann, U., and Jesse, R. (2006) Psilocybin can occasion mystical-type experiences having substantial and sustained personal meaning and spiritual significance. Psychopharmacology 187 (3), 268283,  DOI: 10.1007/s00213-006-0457-5
  17. 17
    Griffiths, R. R., Richards, W. A., Johnson, M. W., McCann, U. D., and Jesse, R. (2008) Mystical-type experiences occasioned by psilocybin mediate the attribution of personal meaning and spiritual significance 14 months later. J. Psychopharmacol. 22 (6), 621632,  DOI: 10.1177/0269881108094300
  18. 18
    Griffiths, R. R., Johnson, M. W., Richards, W. A., Richards, B. D., McCann, U., and Jesse, R. (2011) Psilocybin occasioned mystical-type experiences: immediate and persisting dose-related effects. Psychopharmacology 218 (4), 649665,  DOI: 10.1007/s00213-011-2358-5
  19. 19
    Griffiths, R. R., Johnson, M. W., Richards, W. A., Richards, B. D., Jesse, R., MacLean, K. A., Barrett, F. S., Cosimano, M. P., and Klinedinst, M. A. (2018) Psilocybin-occasioned mystical-type experience in combination with meditation and other spiritual practices produces enduring positive changes in psychological functioning and in trait measures of prosocial attitudes and behaviors. J. Psychopharmacol. 32 (1), 4969,  DOI: 10.1177/0269881117731279
  20. 20
    Yaden, D. B., Haidt, J., Hood, R. W., Jr, Vago, D. R., and Newberg, A. B. (2017) The varieties of self-transcendent experience. Rev. Gen Psychol 21 (2), 143160,  DOI: 10.1037/gpr0000102
  21. 21
    Barrett, F. S., Johnson, M. W., and Griffiths, R. R. (2015) Validation of the revised Mystical Experience Questionnaire in experimental sessions with psilocybin. J. Psychopharmacol. 29 (11), 11821190,  DOI: 10.1177/0269881115609019
  22. 22
    Garcia-Romeu, A., Griffiths, R., and Johnson, M. (2015) Psilocybin-occasioned mystical experiences in the treatment of tobacco addiction. Curr. Drug Abuse Rev. 7 (3), 157164,  DOI: 10.2174/1874473708666150107121331
  23. 23
    Roseman, L., Nutt, D. J., and Carhart-Harris, R. L. (2018) Quality of acute psychedelic experience predicts therapeutic efficacy of psilocybin for treatment-resistant depression. Front. Pharmacol. 8, 974,  DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2017.00974
  24. 24
    Carbonaro, T. M., Johnson, M. W., and Griffiths, R. R. (2020) Subjective features of the psilocybin experience that may account for its self-administration by humans: A double-blind comparison of psilocybin and dextromethorphan. Psychopharmacology 237, 22932304,  DOI: 10.1007/s00213-020-05533-9
  25. 25
    Garcia-Romeu, A., Davis, A. K., Erowid, F., Erowid, E., Griffiths, R. R., and Johnson, M. W. (2019) Cessation and reduction in alcohol consumption and misuse after psychedelic use. J. Psychopharmacol. 33 (9), 10881101,  DOI: 10.1177/0269881119845793
  26. 26
    Garcia-Romeu, A., Davis, A. K., Erowid, E., Erowid, F., Griffiths, R. R., and Johnson, M. W. (2020) Persisting reductions in cannabis, opioid, and stimulant misuse after naturalistic psychedelic use: An online survey. Front Pharmacol 10, 955,  DOI: 10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00955
  27. 27
    Davis, A. K., Barrett, F. S., and Griffiths, R. R. (2020) Psychological flexibility mediates the relations between acute psychedelic effects and subjective decreases in depression and anxiety. J. Contextual Behav Sci. 15, 3945,  DOI: 10.1016/j.jcbs.2019.11.004
  28. 28
    Olson, D. The Subjective Effects of Psychedelics May Not Be Necessary for Their Therapeutic Impact. ACS Pharm. Transl. Sci. 2020  DOI: 10.1021/acsptsci.0c00192 .

Cited By

ARTICLE SECTIONS
Jump To

This article is cited by 200 publications.

  1. Vito F. Palmisano, Claudio Agnorelli, Andrea Fagiolini, David Erritzoe, David Nutt, Shirin Faraji, Juan J. Nogueira. Membrane Permeation of Psychedelic Tryptamines by Dynamic Simulations. Biochemistry 2024, 63 (4) , 419-428. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.biochem.3c00598
  2. Richard A. Glennon, Mal̵gorzata Dukat. α-Ethyltryptamine: A Ratiocinatory Review of a Forgotten Antidepressant. ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science 2023, 6 (12) , 1780-1789. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsptsci.3c00139
  3. Aaron M. Bender, Lauren C. Parr, William B. Livingston, Craig W. Lindsley, W. David Merryman. 2B Determined: The Future of the Serotonin Receptor 2B in Drug Discovery. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 2023, 66 (16) , 11027-11039. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.3c01178
  4. Lindsay P. Cameron, Seona D. Patel, Maxemiliano V. Vargas, Eden V. Barragan, Hannah N. Saeger, Hunter T. Warren, Winston L. Chow, John A. Gray, David E. Olson. 5-HT2ARs Mediate Therapeutic Behavioral Effects of Psychedelic Tryptamines. ACS Chemical Neuroscience 2023, 14 (3) , 351-358. https://doi.org/10.1021/acschemneuro.2c00718
  5. David E. Olson. Biochemical Mechanisms Underlying Psychedelic-Induced Neuroplasticity. Biochemistry 2022, 61 (3) , 127-136. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.biochem.1c00812
  6. David E. Olson. The Subjective Effects of Psychedelics May Not Be Necessary for Their Enduring Therapeutic Effects. ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science 2021, 4 (2) , 563-567. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsptsci.0c00192
  7. Jacob S. Aday, Alan K. Davis, Cayla M. Mitzkovitz, Emily K. Bloesch, Christopher C. Davoli. Predicting Reactions to Psychedelic Drugs: A Systematic Review of States and Traits Related to Acute Drug Effects. ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science 2021, 4 (2) , 424-435. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsptsci.1c00014
  8. David E. Olson. The Promise of Psychedelic Science. ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science 2021, 4 (2) , 413-415. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsptsci.1c00071
  9. Christopher Timmermann, Richard J. Zeifman, David Erritzoe, David J. Nutt, Robin L. Carhart-Harris. Effects of DMT on mental health outcomes in healthy volunteers. Scientific Reports 2024, 14 (1) https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-024-53363-y
  10. Kush V. Bhatt, Cory R. Weissman. The effect of psilocybin on empathy and prosocial behavior: a proposed mechanism for enduring antidepressant effects. npj Mental Health Research 2024, 3 (1) https://doi.org/10.1038/s44184-023-00053-8
  11. Mehdi Sekssaoui, Joël Bockaert, Philippe Marin, Carine Bécamel. Antidepressant-like effects of psychedelics in a chronic despair mouse model: is the 5-HT2A receptor the unique player?. Neuropsychopharmacology 2024, 49 (4) , 747-756. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41386-024-01794-6
  12. Gerhard Gründer, Manuela Brand, Lea J Mertens, Henrik Jungaberle, Laura Kärtner, Dennis J Scharf, Moritz Spangemacher, Max Wolff. Treatment with psychedelics is psychotherapy: beyond reductionism. The Lancet Psychiatry 2024, 11 (3) , 231-236. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(23)00363-2
  13. Srinivasan S. Pillay, Patrick Candela, Ivana T. Croghan, Ryan T. Hurt, Sara L. Bonnes, Ravindra Ganesh, Brent A. Bauer. Leveraging the Metaverse for Enhanced Longevity as a Component of Health 4.0. Mayo Clinic Proceedings: Digital Health 2024, 2 (1) , 139-151. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mcpdig.2024.01.007
  14. Cassandra J. Hatzipantelis, David E. Olson. The Effects of Psychedelics on Neuronal Physiology. Annual Review of Physiology 2024, 86 (1) , 27-47. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-physiol-042022-020923
  15. Gerhard Gründer, Manuela Brand, Luca Färber, Laura Kärtner, Linda Kunz, Barbara Rohrmoser, Dennis Scharf, Christian Schmitz, Moritz Spangemacher, Lea Julia Mertens. Pharmakotherapie, Psychotherapie oder „Superplacebos“?. Die Psychotherapie 2024, 82 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00278-024-00709-6
  16. Ignacio Cea. On motivating irruptions: the need for a multilevel approach at the interface between life and mind. Adaptive Behavior 2024, 32 (1) , 95-99. https://doi.org/10.1177/10597123231184651
  17. Phil Wolfson, Gita Vaid. Ketamine-assisted psychotherapy, psychedelic methodologies, and the impregnable value of the subjective—a new and evolving approach. Frontiers in Psychiatry 2024, 15 https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2024.1209419
  18. Lucas F. Borkel, Jaime Rojas-Hernández, Luis Alberto Henríquez-Hernández, Ángelo Santana Del Pino, Domingo J. Quintana-Hernández. Set and setting predict psychopathology, wellbeing and meaningfulness of psychedelic experiences: a correlational study. Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology 2024, 17 (2) , 165-176. https://doi.org/10.1080/17512433.2023.2295997
  19. Ricarda Evens, Max Wolff. Die Rolle der Psychotherapie in klinischen Studien mit Psychedelika. Die Psychotherapie 2024, 57 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00278-024-00715-8
  20. Andrew Lee, Daniel Rosenbaum, Daniel Z. Buchman. Informed Consent to Psychedelic-Assisted Psychotherapy: Ethical Considerations. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 2024, https://doi.org/10.1177/07067437231225937
  21. Josh Allen, Shannon S. Dames, Claire J. Foldi, Sandy R. Shultz. Psychedelics for acquired brain injury: a review of molecular mechanisms and therapeutic potential. Molecular Psychiatry 2024, 142 https://doi.org/10.1038/s41380-023-02360-0
  22. Boris D. Heifets, David E. Olson. Therapeutic mechanisms of psychedelics and entactogens. Neuropsychopharmacology 2024, 49 (1) , 104-118. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41386-023-01666-5
  23. Sam Freesun Friedman, Galen Ballentine. Trajectories of sentiment in 11,816 psychoactive narratives. Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental 2024, 39 (1) https://doi.org/10.1002/hup.2889
  24. Nadav Modlin, Michael Creed, Maria Sarang, Carolina Maggio, James Rucker, Victoria Williamson. Trauma-Informed Care in Psychedelic Therapy Research: A Qualitative Literature Review of Evidence-Based Psychotherapy Interventions in PTSD and Psychedelic Therapy Across Conditions. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 2024, Volume 20 , 109-135. https://doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S432537
  25. David B. Yaden, Andrea P. Berghella, Peter S. Hendricks, Mary E. Yaden, Michael Levine, Julia S. Rohde, Sandeep Nayak, Matthew W. Johnson, Albert Garcia-Romeu. IUPHAR-review: The integration of classic psychedelics into current substance use disorder treatment models. Pharmacological Research 2024, 199 , 106998. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2023.106998
  26. Bryan R. Barksdale, Manoj K. Doss, Gregory A. Fonzo, Charles B. Nemeroff. The mechanistic divide in psychedelic neuroscience: An unbridgeable gap?. Neurotherapeutics 2024, 24 , e00322. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neurot.2024.e00322
  27. David A. Bender, Joshua S. Siegel. Psychedelic Psychiatry. 2024https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-323-95702-1.00043-9
  28. Sascha B. Thal, Paris Baker, Jonathon Marinis, Michelle Wieberneit, Jason M. Sharbanee, Raimundo Bruno, Petra M. Skeffington, Stephen J. Bright. Therapeutic frameworks in integration sessions in substance‐assisted psychotherapy: A systematised review. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy 2024, 31 (1) https://doi.org/10.1002/cpp.2945
  29. Lisa X Luan, Emma Eckernäs, Michael Ashton, Fernando E Rosas, Malin V Uthaug, Alexander Bartha, Samantha Jagger, Kiara Gascon-Perai, Lauren Gomes, David J Nutt, David Erritzøe, Robin L Carhart-Harris, Christopher Timmermann. Psychological and physiological effects of extended DMT. Journal of Psychopharmacology 2024, 38 (1) , 56-67. https://doi.org/10.1177/02698811231196877
  30. Jonathan David, José Carlos Bouso, Maja Kohek, Genís Ona, Nir Tadmor, Tal Arnon, Yair Dor-Ziderman, Aviva Berkovich-Ohana. Ayahuasca-induced personal death experiences: prevalence, characteristics, and impact on attitudes toward death, life, and the environment. Frontiers in Psychiatry 2023, 14 https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2023.1287961
  31. Steven Jay Lynn, Charlie W. McDonald, Fiona G. Sleight, Richard E. Mattson. Cross-validation of the ego dissolution scale: implications for studying psychedelics. Frontiers in Neuroscience 2023, 17 https://doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2023.1267611
  32. Lucas Cruz, Bheatrix Bienemann, Fernanda Palhano-Fontes, Luís Fernando Tófoli, Dráulio B. Araújo, Daniel C. Mograbi. A quantitative textual analysis of the subjective effects of ayahuasca in naïve users with and without depression. Scientific Reports 2023, 13 (1) https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-023-44193-5
  33. Paweł Holas, Justyna Kamińska. Mindfulness meditation and psychedelics: potential synergies and commonalities. Pharmacological Reports 2023, 75 (6) , 1398-1409. https://doi.org/10.1007/s43440-023-00551-8
  34. Adam Wojtas. The possible place for psychedelics in pharmacotherapy of mental disorders. Pharmacological Reports 2023, 75 (6) , 1313-1325. https://doi.org/10.1007/s43440-023-00550-9
  35. Marzena Maćkowiak. Psychedelics action and schizophrenia. Pharmacological Reports 2023, 75 (6) , 1350-1361. https://doi.org/10.1007/s43440-023-00546-5
  36. Yula Milshteyn, Moshe Bensimon. Exploring the subjective experience of rave party participants in Israel who consume psychedelic drugs: a qualitative inquiry. Harm Reduction Journal 2023, 20 (1) https://doi.org/10.1186/s12954-023-00908-5
  37. James J. Gattuso, Carey Wilson, Anthony J. Hannan, Thibault Renoir. Psilocybin as a lead candidate molecule in preclinical therapeutic studies of psychiatric disorders: A systematic review. Journal of Neurochemistry 2023, 239 https://doi.org/10.1111/jnc.16017
  38. Sam G. Moreton, Andrew F. A. Arena, Yolanda Foy, Rachel E. Menzies. Reduced death anxiety as a mediator of the relationship between acute subjective effects of psychedelics and improved subjective well-being. Death Studies 2023, 47 (10) , 1115-1126. https://doi.org/10.1080/07481187.2023.2169848
  39. Lindsay P. Cameron, Joseph Benetatos, Vern Lewis, Emma M. Bonniwell, Alaina M. Jaster, Rafael Moliner, Eero Castrén, John D. McCorvy, Mikael Palner, Argel Aguilar-Valles. Beyond the 5-HT 2A Receptor: Classic and Nonclassic Targets in Psychedelic Drug Action. The Journal of Neuroscience 2023, 43 (45) , 7472-7482. https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1384-23.2023
  40. Natacha Perez, Florent Langlest, Luc Mallet, Marco De Pieri, Othman Sentissi, Gabriel Thorens, Federico Seragnoli, Daniele Zullino, Matthias Kirschner, Stefan Kaiser, Marco Solmi, Michel Sabé. Psilocybin-assisted therapy for depression: A systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of human studies. European Neuropsychopharmacology 2023, 76 , 61-76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.euroneuro.2023.07.011
  41. Andrew Skinner, Sam Challis. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in San Forager Theories of Disease, and Its Implications for Understanding Images of Conflict in Southern African Rock Art. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 2023, 33 (4) , 673-691. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0959774323000148
  42. Patricia Kubala. Songs of Life: Psychedelic-Assisted Psychotherapy and Deleuze and Guattari’s ‘Desiring-Production’. Deleuze and Guattari Studies 2023, 17 (4) , 482-505. https://doi.org/10.3366/dlgs.2023.0531
  43. Blerida Banushi, Vince Polito. A Comprehensive Review of the Current Status of the Cellular Neurobiology of Psychedelics. Biology 2023, 12 (11) , 1380. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology12111380
  44. Hugo Bottemanne, Lucie Berkovitch, Christophe Gauld, Alexander Balcerac, Liane Schmidt, Stephane Mouchabac, Philippe Fossati. Storm on predictive brain: A neurocomputational account of ketamine antidepressant effect. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 2023, 154 , 105410. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2023.105410
  45. Mark A. Geyer. A Brief Historical Overview of Psychedelic Research. Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging 2023, Volume 36 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2023.11.003
  46. Genís Ona. Uso ritual de alucinógenos y medicina psicodélica: Articulaciones alrededor del uso clínico de la ayahuasca en Brasil. Quaderns de l'Institut Català d'Antropologia 2023, 39 (1) , 198-219. https://doi.org/10.56247/qua.401
  47. Marianna Graziosi, Manvir Singh, Sandeep M. Nayak, David B. Yaden. Acute Subjective Effects of Psychedelics within and Beyond WEIRD Contexts. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 2023, 55 (5) , 558-569. https://doi.org/10.1080/02791072.2023.2255274
  48. María Marcela Velásquez Toledo. Evidencias y perspectivas del potencial antidepresivo del “alcaloide mágico” psilocibina: una revisión narrativa. Cultura y Droga 2023, 28 (35) , 91-113. https://doi.org/10.17151/culdr.2023.28.35.5
  49. Victor P. Acero, Emily S. Cribas, Kevin D. Browne, Olivia Rivellini, Justin C. Burrell, John C. O’Donnell, Suradip Das, D. Kacy Cullen. Bedside to bench: the outlook for psychedelic research. Frontiers in Pharmacology 2023, 14 https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2023.1240295
  50. Aaron D. Cherniak, Joel Gruneau Brulin, Mario Mikulincer, Sebastian Östlind, Robin Carhart-Harris, Pehr Granqvist. Psychedelic Science of Spirituality and Religion: An Attachment-Informed Agenda Proposal. The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion 2023, 33 (4) , 259-276. https://doi.org/10.1080/10508619.2022.2148061
  51. Arne Bohn, Michiel H. H. Kiggen, Malin V. Uthaug, Kim I. M. van Oorsouw, Johannes G. Ramaekers, Hein T. van Schie. Altered States of Consciousness During Ceremonial San Pedro Use. The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion 2023, 33 (4) , 309-331. https://doi.org/10.1080/10508619.2022.2139502
  52. Hans Van Eyghen. Psychedelics and the Entropic Brain Beyond the Self. The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion 2023, 33 (4) , 277-293. https://doi.org/10.1080/10508619.2023.2192078
  53. F. LeRon Shults. Studying Close Entity Encounters of the Psychedelic Kind: Insights from the Cognitive Evolutionary Science of Religion. The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion 2023, 33 (4) , 294-308. https://doi.org/10.1080/10508619.2022.2078591
  54. Julie J. Exline, William A. Schutt, Kathleen C. Pait, Joshua A. Wilt. Do Psychedelic Trips Open the Door to Messages from God, Spirits, Transcendent Realities, or the Devil? Links with Attitudes About Psychedelics, Opinions About Legalization, and Interest in Personal Use. The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion 2023, 33 (4) , 361-379. https://doi.org/10.1080/10508619.2022.2148062
  55. Nora D. Volkow, Joshua A. Gordon, Eric M. Wargo. Psychedelics as Therapeutics—Potential and Challenges. JAMA Psychiatry 2023, 80 (10) , 979. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2023.1968
  56. Emma Eckernäs, Jeroen Koomen, Christopher Timmermann, Robin Carhart‐Harris, Daniel Röshammar, Michael Ashton. Optimized infusion rates for N,N‐dimethyltryptamine to achieve a target psychedelic intensity based on a modeling and simulation framework. CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology 2023, 12 (10) , 1398-1410. https://doi.org/10.1002/psp4.13037
  57. Tim Hirschfeld, Johanna Prugger, Tomislav Majić, Timo T. Schmidt. Dose-response relationships of LSD-induced subjective experiences in humans. Neuropsychopharmacology 2023, 48 (11) , 1602-1611. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41386-023-01588-2
  58. Ignacio Cea, Niccolo Negro, Camilo Miguel Signorelli. The Fundamental Tension in Integrated Information Theory 4.0’s Realist Idealism. Entropy 2023, 25 (10) , 1453. https://doi.org/10.3390/e25101453
  59. Omer A. Syed, Benjamin Tsang, Robert Gerlai. The zebrafish for preclinical psilocybin research. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 2023, 153 , 105381. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2023.105381
  60. Thomas J. Kelly, Emma M. Bonniwell, Lianwei Mu, Xiaojie Liu, Ying Hu, Vladislav Friedman, Hao Yu, Wantang Su, John D. McCorvy, Qing-song Liu. Psilocybin analog 4-OH-DiPT enhances fear extinction and GABAergic inhibition of principal neurons in the basolateral amygdala. Neuropsychopharmacology 2023, 10 https://doi.org/10.1038/s41386-023-01744-8
  61. Mitch Earleywine, Maha N. Mian, Joseph A. De Leo. Expectancies for Subjective and Antidepressant Effects in Psilocybin Users. Journal of Humanistic Psychology 2023, https://doi.org/10.1177/00221678231194798
  62. Richard Chambers, Devon Stoliker, Otto Simonsson. Psychedelic-Assisted Psychotherapy and Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy: Potential Synergies. Mindfulness 2023, 14 (9) , 2111-2123. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-023-02206-4
  63. Jacob S. Aday, Brian S. Barnett, Dan Grossman, Kevin S. Murnane, Charles D. Nichols, Peter S. Hendricks. Psychedelic Commercialization: A Wide-Spanning Overview of the Emerging Psychedelic Industry. Psychedelic Medicine 2023, 1 (3) , 150-165. https://doi.org/10.1089/psymed.2023.0013
  64. Pravesh Sharma, Quang Anh Nguyen, Sadie J Matthews, Erin Carpenter, Douglas B Mathews, Christi A Patten, Christopher J Hammond. Psilocybin history, action and reaction: A narrative clinical review. Journal of Psychopharmacology 2023, 37 (9) , 849-865. https://doi.org/10.1177/02698811231190858
  65. Alaina M. Jaster, Javier González-Maeso. Mechanisms and molecular targets surrounding the potential therapeutic effects of psychedelics. Molecular Psychiatry 2023, 28 (9) , 3595-3612. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41380-023-02274-x
  66. Carla Soares, Gerardo Gonzalo, João Castelhano, Miguel Castelo-Branco. The relationship between the default mode network and the theory of mind network as revealed by psychedelics – A meta-analysis. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 2023, 152 , 105325. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2023.105325
  67. Mary G. Hornick, Ashley Stefanski. Hallucinogenic potential: a review of psychoplastogens for the treatment of opioid use disorder. Frontiers in Pharmacology 2023, 14 https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2023.1221719
  68. Patric Plesa, Rotem Petranker. Psychedelics and neonihilism: connectedness in a meaningless world. Frontiers in Psychology 2023, 14 https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2023.1125780
  69. Kabir Nigam, Kimberly A. Curseen, Yvan Beaussant. Psychedelics and Related Pharmacotherapies as Integrative Medicine for Older Adults in Palliative Care. Clinics in Geriatric Medicine 2023, 39 (3) , 423-436. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cger.2023.04.004
  70. Nadav Liam Modlin, Joanne Stubley, Carolina Maggio, James J. Rucker. On Redescribing the Indescribable: Trauma, Psychoanalysis and Psychedelic Therapy. British Journal of Psychotherapy 2023, 39 (3) , 551-572. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjp.12852
  71. Alan K. Davis, Christopher Timmermann, Ana Maria Ortiz Bernal, Rafaelle Lancelotta, Sandeep Nayak, Nathan D. Sepeda, Aki Nikolaidis, Roland R. Griffiths. Translation and Initial Psychometric Evaluation of Spanish Versions of Three Psychedelic Acute Effects Measures: Mystical, Challenging, and Insight Experiences. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 2023, 13 , 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1080/02791072.2023.2232379
  72. David Wyndham Lawrence, Alex P DiBattista, Christopher Timmermann. N, N-Dimethyltryptamine (DMT)-Occasioned Familiarity and the Sense of Familiarity Questionnaire (SOF-Q). Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 2023, 22 , 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1080/02791072.2023.2230568
  73. Inês Hipólito, Jonas Mago, Fernando E Rosas, Robin Carhart-Harris. Pattern breaking: a complex systems approach to psychedelic medicine. Neuroscience of Consciousness 2023, 2023 (1) https://doi.org/10.1093/nc/niad017
  74. Manoj K. Doss, Harriet de Wit, David A. Gallo. The acute effects of psychoactive drugs on emotional episodic memory encoding, consolidation, and retrieval: A comprehensive review. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 2023, 150 , 105188. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2023.105188
  75. Lauren Lepow, Hirofumi Morishita, Rachel Yehuda. Critical Period Plasticity as a Framework for Psychedelic-Assisted Psychotherapy. FOCUS 2023, 21 (3) , 329-336. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.focus.23021012
  76. Polina Ponomarenko, Federico Seragnoli, Abigail Calder, Peter Oehen, Gregor Hasler. Can psychedelics enhance group psychotherapy? A discussion on the therapeutic factors. Journal of Psychopharmacology 2023, 37 (7) , 660-678. https://doi.org/10.1177/02698811231155117
  77. Emma I Kopra, Jason A Ferris, Adam R Winstock, Kim PC Kuypers, Allan H Young, James J Rucker. Investigation of self-treatment with lysergic acid diethylamide and psilocybin mushrooms: Findings from the Global Drug Survey 2020. Journal of Psychopharmacology 2023, 37 (7) , 733-748. https://doi.org/10.1177/02698811231158245
  78. Katherine Cheung, Kyle Patch, Brian D. Earp, David B. Yaden. Psychedelics, Meaningfulness, and the “Proper Scope” of Medicine: Continuing the Conversation. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 2023, 10 , 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0963180123000270
  79. Lana Strika-Bruneau, Baptiste Fauvel, David Dupuis, Amine Benyamina. Articulation de la thérapie d’acceptation et d’engagement à la psychothérapie assistée par psychédéliques en addictologie. L'Évolution Psychiatrique 2023, 88 (2) , 284-298. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evopsy.2023.01.003
  80. Andreas B. Wulff, Charles D. Nichols, Scott M. Thompson. Preclinical perspectives on the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic actions of psilocybin in psychiatric disorders. Neuropharmacology 2023, 231 , 109504. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2023.109504
  81. Shubham Kamal, Manish Kumar Jha, Rajiv Radhakrishnan. Role of Psychedelics in Treatment-Resistant Depression. Psychiatric Clinics of North America 2023, 46 (2) , 291-305. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psc.2023.02.004
  82. Rafael Moliner, Mykhailo Girych, Cecilia A. Brunello, Vera Kovaleva, Caroline Biojone, Giray Enkavi, Lina Antenucci, Erik F. Kot, Sergey A. Goncharuk, Katja Kaurinkoski, Mirjami Kuutti, Senem M. Fred, Lauri V. Elsilä, Sven Sakson, Cecilia Cannarozzo, Cassiano R. A. F. Diniz, Nina Seiffert, Anna Rubiolo, Hele Haapaniemi, Elsa Meshi, Elina Nagaeva, Tiina Öhman, Tomasz Róg, Esko Kankuri, Marçal Vilar, Markku Varjosalo, Esa R. Korpi, Perttu Permi, Konstantin S. Mineev, Mart Saarma, Ilpo Vattulainen, Plinio C. Casarotto, Eero Castrén. Psychedelics promote plasticity by directly binding to BDNF receptor TrkB. Nature Neuroscience 2023, 26 (6) , 1032-1041. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41593-023-01316-5
  83. Katie Newton, Sam G. Moreton. Self-Transcendent Positive Emotions as a Potential Mechanism Underpinning the Effects of Meaningful Psychedelic Experiences on Connectedness to Nature. Ecopsychology 2023, 15 (2) , 142-159. https://doi.org/10.1089/eco.2022.0044
  84. Praachi Tiwari, Andrea P. Berghella, Ceyda Sayalı, Manoj K. Doss, Frederick S. Barrett, David B. Yaden. Learned Helplessness As a Potential Transdiagnostic Therapeutic Mechanism of Classic Psychedelics. Psychedelic Medicine 2023, 1 (2) , 74-86. https://doi.org/10.1089/psymed.2023.0010
  85. Riccardo Miceli McMillan, Anthony Vincent Fernandez. Understanding subjective experience in psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy: The need for phenomenology. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 2023, 57 (6) , 783-788. https://doi.org/10.1177/00048674221139962
  86. Tobias Søgaard Juul, Mathias Ebbesen Jensen, Anders Fink-Jensen. The use of classic psychedelics among adults: a Danish online survey study. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry 2023, 77 (4) , 367-378. https://doi.org/10.1080/08039488.2022.2125069
  87. Sharday Mosurinjohn, Leor Roseman, Manesh Girn. Psychedelic-induced mystical experiences: An interdisciplinary discussion and critique. Frontiers in Psychiatry 2023, 14 https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2023.1077311
  88. Andrew Peterson, Emily A. Largent, Holly Fernandez Lynch, Jason Karlawish, Dominic Sisti. Journeying to Ixtlan: Ethics of Psychedelic Medicine and Research for Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Dementias. AJOB Neuroscience 2023, 14 (2) , 107-123. https://doi.org/10.1080/21507740.2022.2148771
  89. Edward Jacobs, David Bryce Yaden, Brian D. Earp. Toward a Broader Psychedelic Bioethics. AJOB Neuroscience 2023, 14 (2) , 126-129. https://doi.org/10.1080/21507740.2023.2188281
  90. Daniel Meling, Milan Scheidegger. Not in the drug, not in the brain: Causality in psychedelic experiences from an enactive perspective. Frontiers in Psychology 2023, 14 https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2023.1100058
  91. David S. Mathai, Sandeep M. Nayak, David B. Yaden, Albert Garcia-Romeu. Reconsidering “dissociation” as a predictor of antidepressant efficacy for esketamine. Psychopharmacology 2023, 240 (4) , 827-836. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-023-06324-8
  92. Kadi Tulver, Karl Kristjan Kaup, Ruben Laukkonen, Jaan Aru. Restructuring insight: An integrative review of insight in problem-solving, meditation, psychotherapy, delusions and psychedelics. Consciousness and Cognition 2023, 110 , 103494. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2023.103494
  93. Nadav Liam Modlin, Tammy M. Miller, James J. Rucker, Namik Kirlic, Molly Lennard-Jones, Danielle Schlosser, Scott T. Aaronson. Optimizing outcomes in psilocybin therapy: Considerations in participant evaluation and preparation. Journal of Affective Disorders 2023, 326 , 18-25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2023.01.077
  94. Anja L. Winter, Pehr Granqvist. Where the Spirit Meets the Bone: Embodied Religiospiritual Cognition from an Attachment Viewpoint. Religions 2023, 14 (4) , 511. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel14040511
  95. Peter Sjöstedt-Hughes. On the need for metaphysics in psychedelic therapy and research. Frontiers in Psychology 2023, 14 https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2023.1128589
  96. James J Gattuso, Daniel Perkins, Simon Ruffell, Andrew J Lawrence, Daniel Hoyer, Laura H Jacobson, Christopher Timmermann, David Castle, Susan L Rossell, Luke A Downey, Broc A Pagni, Nicole L Galvão-Coelho, David Nutt, Jerome Sarris. Default Mode Network Modulation by Psychedelics: A Systematic Review. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology 2023, 26 (3) , 155-188. https://doi.org/10.1093/ijnp/pyac074
  97. David B. Yaden, Michiel van Elk. Cultural dissonance and consonance in mystical-type experiences: commentary on “Finding consonance: an integrative neurocognitive model of human relationships with supernatural agents”. Religion, Brain & Behavior 2023, 3 , 1-3. https://doi.org/10.1080/2153599X.2022.2143407
  98. Nathan Emmerich, Bryce Humphries. Is the Requirement for First-Person Experience of Psychedelic Drugs a Justified Component of a Psychedelic Therapist’s Training?. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 2023, 5 , 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0963180123000099
  99. Fiona G. Sleight, Steven Jay Lynn, Richard E. Mattson, Charlie W. McDonald. A novel ego dissolution scale: A construct validation study. Consciousness and Cognition 2023, 109 , 103474. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2023.103474
  100. Aki Nikolaidis, Rafaelle Lancelotta, Natalie Gukasyan, Roland R. Griffiths, Frederick S. Barrett, Alan K. Davis. Subtypes of the psychedelic experience have reproducible and predictable effects on depression and anxiety symptoms. Journal of Affective Disorders 2023, 324 , 239-249. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2022.12.042
Load all citations
  • Abstract

    Figure 1

    Figure 1. Left panel shows data from a study (N = 15) of psilocybin on cigarette smoking cessation (replotted from Garcia et al. (22)). Smoking craving data are change scores from pretreatment to the 6-month follow-up. Mystical experience data for each participant are the mean total score on the 43-item version of the Mystical Experience Questionnaire (expressed as a percentage of the maximum possible score) assessed at the end of each of 2 or 3 psilocybin sessions. The middle panel shows data from a study (N = 24) of psilocybin on depression (adapted from Davis et al. (9)). Depression was measured with GRID-Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and expressed as change scores from pretreatment to 4 weeks after the second psilocybin session. Mystical experience data for each participant are the highest of two total scores on the 30-item Mystical Experience Questionnaire (expressed as a percentage of the maximum possible score) assessed at the end of each of two psilocybin sessions. The right panel shows data from a study of (N = 50) of individuals with a life-threatening cancer diagnosis who received either a very low dose or a moderately high dose of psilocybin (Griffiths et al. (5)). Mystical experience data for each participant are the total score on the 30-item Mystical Experience Questionnaire (expressed as a percentage of the maximum possible score) assessed at the end of the first psilocybin session. Anxiety was measured with the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale and expressed as a change score from baseline to 5 weeks postsession. More details regarding these images can be found in the citations above describing the original studies.

  • References

    ARTICLE SECTIONS
    Jump To

    This article references 28 other publications.

    1. 1
      Nichols, D. E. (2018) (2016). Psychedelics. Pharmacol. Rev. 68 (2), 264355,  DOI: 10.1124/pr.115.011478
    2. 2
      Vollenweider, F. X., Vollenweider-Scherpenhuyzen, M. F., Bäbler, A., Vogel, H., and Hell, D. (1998) Psilocybin induces schizophrenia-like psychosis in humans via a serotonin-2 agonist action. NeuroReport 9 (17), 38973902,  DOI: 10.1097/00001756-199812010-00024
    3. 3
      Johnson, M. W., Hendricks, P. S., Barrett, F. S., and Griffiths, R. R. (2019) Classic psychedelics: An integrative review of epidemiology, therapeutics, mystical experience, and brain network function. Pharmacol. Ther. 197, 83102,  DOI: 10.1016/j.pharmthera.2018.11.010
    4. 4
      Bogenschutz, M. P., Forcehimes, A. A., Pommy, J. A., Wilcox, C. E., Barbosa, P. C. R., and Strassman, R. J. (2015) Psilocybin-assisted treatment for alcohol dependence: a proof-of-concept study. J. Psychopharmacol. 29 (3), 289299,  DOI: 10.1177/0269881114565144
    5. 5
      Griffiths, R. R., Johnson, M. W., Carducci, M. A., Umbricht, A., Richards, W. A., Richards, B. D., Cosimano, M. P., and Klinedinst, M. A. (2016) Psilocybin produces substantial and sustained decreases in depression and anxiety in patients with life-threatening cancer: A randomized double-blind trial. J. Psychopharmacol. 30 (12), 11811197,  DOI: 10.1177/0269881116675513
    6. 6
      Ross, S., Bossis, A., Guss, J., Agin-Liebes, G., Malone, T., Cohen, B., Mennenga, S. E, Belser, A., Kalliontzi, K., Babb, J., Su, Z., Corby, P., and Schmidt, B. L (2016) Rapid and sustained symptom reduction following psilocybin treatment for anxiety and depression in patients with life-threatening cancer: a randomized controlled trial. J. Psychopharmacol. 30 (12), 11651180,  DOI: 10.1177/0269881116675512
    7. 7
      Carhart-Harris, R. L, Bolstridge, M., Rucker, J., Day, C. M J, Erritzoe, D., Kaelen, M., Bloomfield, M., Rickard, J. A, Forbes, B., Feilding, A., Taylor, D., Pilling, S., Curran, V. H, and Nutt, D. J (2016) Psilocybin with psychological support for treatment-resistant depression: an open-label feasibility study. Lancet Psychiatry 3 (7), 619627,  DOI: 10.1016/S2215-0366(16)30065-7
    8. 8
      Johnson, M. W., Garcia-Romeu, A., Cosimano, M. P., and Griffiths, R. R. (2014) Pilot study of the 5-HT2AR agonist psilocybin in the treatment of tobacco addiction. J. Psychopharmacol. 28 (11), 983992,  DOI: 10.1177/0269881114548296
    9. 9
      Davis, A. K., Barrett, F. S., May, D. G., Cosimano, M. P., Sepeda, N. D., Johnson, M. W., Finan, P. H., and Griffiths, R. R. Effects of psilocybin-assisted therapy for major depressive disorder: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA Psychiatry , 2020, online. DOI: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2020.3285
    10. 10
      Hibicke, M., Landry, A. N., Kramer, H. M., Talman, Z. K., and Nichols, C. D. (2020) Psychedelics, but not ketamine, produce persistent antidepressant-like effects in a rodent experimental system for the study of depression. ACS Chem. Neurosci. 11 (6), 864871,  DOI: 10.1021/acschemneuro.9b00493
    11. 11
      Ly, C., Greb, A. C., Cameron, L. P., Wong, J. M., Barragan, E. V., Wilson, P. C., Burbach, K. F., Soltanzadeh Zarandi, S., Sood, A., Paddy, M. R., Duim, W. C., Dennis, M. Y., McAllister, A. K., Ori-McKenney, K. M., Gray, J. A., and Olson, D. E. (2018) Psychedelics promote structural and functional neural plasticity. Cell Rep. 23 (11), 31703182,  DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2018.05.022
    12. 12
      Carhart-Harris, R. L. (2018) The entropic brain-revisited. Neuropharmacology 142, 167178,  DOI: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2018.03.010
    13. 13
      Schultes, R. E. (1969) Hallucinogens of plant origin. Science 163, 245,  DOI: 10.1126/science.163.3864.245
    14. 14
      Belser, A. B., Agin-Liebes, G., Swift, T. C., Terrana, S., Devenot, N., Friedman, H. L., Guss, J., Bossis, A., and Ross, S. (2017) Patient experiences of psilocybin-assisted psychotherapy: an interpretative phenomenological analysis. J. Humanist Psychol 57 (4), 354388,  DOI: 10.1177/0022167817706884
    15. 15
      Noorani, T., Garcia-Romeu, A., Swift, T. C., Griffiths, R. R., and Johnson, M. W. (2018) Psychedelic therapy for smoking cessation: qualitative analysis of participant accounts. J. Psychopharmacol. 32 (7), 756769,  DOI: 10.1177/0269881118780612
    16. 16
      Griffiths, R. R., Richards, W. A., McCann, U., and Jesse, R. (2006) Psilocybin can occasion mystical-type experiences having substantial and sustained personal meaning and spiritual significance. Psychopharmacology 187 (3), 268283,  DOI: 10.1007/s00213-006-0457-5
    17. 17
      Griffiths, R. R., Richards, W. A., Johnson, M. W., McCann, U. D., and Jesse, R. (2008) Mystical-type experiences occasioned by psilocybin mediate the attribution of personal meaning and spiritual significance 14 months later. J. Psychopharmacol. 22 (6), 621632,  DOI: 10.1177/0269881108094300
    18. 18
      Griffiths, R. R., Johnson, M. W., Richards, W. A., Richards, B. D., McCann, U., and Jesse, R. (2011) Psilocybin occasioned mystical-type experiences: immediate and persisting dose-related effects. Psychopharmacology 218 (4), 649665,  DOI: 10.1007/s00213-011-2358-5
    19. 19
      Griffiths, R. R., Johnson, M. W., Richards, W. A., Richards, B. D., Jesse, R., MacLean, K. A., Barrett, F. S., Cosimano, M. P., and Klinedinst, M. A. (2018) Psilocybin-occasioned mystical-type experience in combination with meditation and other spiritual practices produces enduring positive changes in psychological functioning and in trait measures of prosocial attitudes and behaviors. J. Psychopharmacol. 32 (1), 4969,  DOI: 10.1177/0269881117731279
    20. 20
      Yaden, D. B., Haidt, J., Hood, R. W., Jr, Vago, D. R., and Newberg, A. B. (2017) The varieties of self-transcendent experience. Rev. Gen Psychol 21 (2), 143160,  DOI: 10.1037/gpr0000102
    21. 21
      Barrett, F. S., Johnson, M. W., and Griffiths, R. R. (2015) Validation of the revised Mystical Experience Questionnaire in experimental sessions with psilocybin. J. Psychopharmacol. 29 (11), 11821190,  DOI: 10.1177/0269881115609019
    22. 22
      Garcia-Romeu, A., Griffiths, R., and Johnson, M. (2015) Psilocybin-occasioned mystical experiences in the treatment of tobacco addiction. Curr. Drug Abuse Rev. 7 (3), 157164,  DOI: 10.2174/1874473708666150107121331
    23. 23
      Roseman, L., Nutt, D. J., and Carhart-Harris, R. L. (2018) Quality of acute psychedelic experience predicts therapeutic efficacy of psilocybin for treatment-resistant depression. Front. Pharmacol. 8, 974,  DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2017.00974
    24. 24
      Carbonaro, T. M., Johnson, M. W., and Griffiths, R. R. (2020) Subjective features of the psilocybin experience that may account for its self-administration by humans: A double-blind comparison of psilocybin and dextromethorphan. Psychopharmacology 237, 22932304,  DOI: 10.1007/s00213-020-05533-9
    25. 25
      Garcia-Romeu, A., Davis, A. K., Erowid, F., Erowid, E., Griffiths, R. R., and Johnson, M. W. (2019) Cessation and reduction in alcohol consumption and misuse after psychedelic use. J. Psychopharmacol. 33 (9), 10881101,  DOI: 10.1177/0269881119845793
    26. 26
      Garcia-Romeu, A., Davis, A. K., Erowid, E., Erowid, F., Griffiths, R. R., and Johnson, M. W. (2020) Persisting reductions in cannabis, opioid, and stimulant misuse after naturalistic psychedelic use: An online survey. Front Pharmacol 10, 955,  DOI: 10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00955
    27. 27
      Davis, A. K., Barrett, F. S., and Griffiths, R. R. (2020) Psychological flexibility mediates the relations between acute psychedelic effects and subjective decreases in depression and anxiety. J. Contextual Behav Sci. 15, 3945,  DOI: 10.1016/j.jcbs.2019.11.004
    28. 28
      Olson, D. The Subjective Effects of Psychedelics May Not Be Necessary for Their Therapeutic Impact. ACS Pharm. Transl. Sci. 2020  DOI: 10.1021/acsptsci.0c00192 .

Pair your accounts.

Export articles to Mendeley

Get article recommendations from ACS based on references in your Mendeley library.

Pair your accounts.

Export articles to Mendeley

Get article recommendations from ACS based on references in your Mendeley library.

You’ve supercharged your research process with ACS and Mendeley!

STEP 1:
Click to create an ACS ID

Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

MENDELEY PAIRING EXPIRED
Your Mendeley pairing has expired. Please reconnect