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Nickel Metal–Organic Framework Derived Hierarchically Mesoporous Nickel Phosphate toward Smoke Suppression and Mechanical Enhancement of Intumescent Flame Retardant Wood Fiber/Poly(lactic acid) Composites

  • Lu Zhang
    Lu Zhang
    IMDEA Materials Institute, Calle Eric Kandel, 2, 28906 Getafe, Madrid, Spain
    More by Lu Zhang
  • Siqi Chen
    Siqi Chen
    IMDEA Materials Institute, Calle Eric Kandel, 2, 28906 Getafe, Madrid, Spain
    School of Material Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Cao’an Road 4800, Jiading District, 201804 Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
    More by Siqi Chen
  • Ye-Tang Pan
    Ye-Tang Pan
    IMDEA Materials Institute, Calle Eric Kandel, 2, 28906 Getafe, Madrid, Spain
    More by Ye-Tang Pan
  • Shuidong Zhang
    Shuidong Zhang
    School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology, Wushan Road 381, Tianhe District, 510640 Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China
  • Shibin Nie
    Shibin Nie
    School of Mining and Safety Engineering, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Taifeng Road 168, 232001 Huainan, People’s Republic of China
    More by Shibin Nie
  • Ping Wei
    Ping Wei
    Nanning University, 53000 Nanning, Guangxi, People’s Republic of China
    More by Ping Wei
  • Xiuqin Zhang
    Xiuqin Zhang
    School of Materials Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Fashion Technology, Yinghuayuan East Street A 2, Chaoyang District, 100096 Beijing, People’s Republic of China
    More by Xiuqin Zhang
  • Rui Wang
    Rui Wang
    School of Materials Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Fashion Technology, Yinghuayuan East Street A 2, Chaoyang District, 100096 Beijing, People’s Republic of China
    More by Rui Wang
  • , and 
  • De-Yi Wang*
    De-Yi Wang
    IMDEA Materials Institute, Calle Eric Kandel, 2, 28906 Getafe, Madrid, Spain
    *Tel.: 0034-917871888. E-mail: [email protected]
    More by De-Yi Wang
Cite this: ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng. 2019, 7, 10, 9272–9280
Publication Date (Web):April 22, 2019
https://doi.org/10.1021/acssuschemeng.9b00174
Copyright © 2019 American Chemical Society

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    Abstract

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    Over the past decade, the use of metal–organic framework derived materials has emerged as a novel direction to prepare high performance polymer composites. In this work, nickel based metal–organic framework (Ni-MOF) was synthesized via a cost-effective and environmentally acceptable approach. Ni-MOF derived hierarchically mesoporous nickel phosphate was prepared via a facile hydrothermal method. Morphological evolution from Ni-MOF to nickel phosphate during the synthesis was clearly revealed. The microsized rod-like nickel phosphate was evaluated in both smoke suppression and mechanical enhancement of intumescent flame retardant wood fiber/poly(lactic acid) system. The cone calorimeter test showed a 43% reduction in total smoke production when 5 wt % ammonium polyphosphate was substituted by nickel phosphate. More importantly, both tensile and impact strength of the composites were improved with the addition of nickel phosphate. The as-synthesized nickel phosphate proved to be a promising substitution for ammonium polyphosphate in wood fiber/poly(lactic acid) composites.

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    The Supporting Information is available free of charge on the ACS Publications website at DOI: 10.1021/acssuschemeng.9b00174.

    • Figure S1: Nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherm curve of Ni-MOF. Figure S2: FTIR spectra of Ni-MOF and Ni-PO. Figure S3: TGA curves of Ni-MOF and Ni-PO. Figure S4: EDS spectra of MOF-derived Ni-PO. Figure S5: Morphological evolution of Ni-MOF at different reaction time. Figure S6: SEM images of (a) original Ni-MOF, (b) recycled Ni-MOF, and (c) resynthesized Ni-PO. Figure S7: (a, b) Residue weight and (c) CO2 and (d) CO production vs time curves of PLA composites. Figure S8: Photos of CCT residues after pressure of 500 g weight (a) W-PLA-0 and (b) W-PLA-5. Figure S9: SEM image and EDS spectrum of Ni-PO after cone calorimeter test of W-PLA-5. Figure S10: SEM images of fracture surface (a, b) PLA-7.7APP and (c, d) PLA-7.7NiPO. Figure S11: SEM images and EDS mapping of fracture surface for PLA-15.4APP. Figure S12: SEM images and EDS mapping of fracture surface for PLA-15.4NiPO. Scheme S1: The smoke suppression effect of Ni-PO in PLA composites. Table S1: TGA data of PLA composites. Table S2: LOI and UL-94 results of PLA composites. (PDF)

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