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Lignin-Inspired Surface Modification of Nanocellulose by Enzyme-Catalyzed Radical Coupling of Coniferyl Alcohol in Pickering Emulsion

Cite this: ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng. 2020, 8, 2, 1185–1194
Publication Date (Web):December 16, 2019
Copyright © 2019 American Chemical Society

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    Abstract Image

    A biomimetic approach to the surface modification of nanocellulose is proposed. This strategy was inspired by plant cell wall lignification, in which lignin, a hydrophobic biopolymer, tightly assembles cellulose microfibrils and matrix polysaccharides to confer the cell walls with essential mechanical properties. Enzymatic dehydrogenative polymerization of coniferyl alcohol in a nanocellulose-stabilized oil-in-water Pickering emulsion system efficiently yielded hydrophobic dehydrogenative polymers (DHPs) on hydrophilic nanocellulose without any phase separation. The DHPs were formed at the oil–water interface, where nanocellulose acted as a solid surfactant, covering the surface of the emulsion particles. DHP-integrated nanocellulose was casted to form thin films, with water contact angles on the as-prepared films increased by DHP incorporation, demonstrating the successful modulation of hydrophilicity of nanocellulose. In-depth structural analysis of DHPs by heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) NMR demonstrated that β-5 linkages were markedly increased compared with β-O-4 and β–β linkages in DHPs prepared using the nanocellulose-assisted Pickering emulsion system, while DHPs prepared using conventional nonemulsion polymerization systems were barely influenced by the presence of nanocellulose. These results suggested that nanocellulose acted as an efficient scaffold for monolignol radical coupling at the interface of the oil-in-water Pickering emulsion system, which provides new insight into the surface modification of nanocellulose in a biomimetic fashion.

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    • Microscopic images of Pickering emulsion, chemical structures of dyes, photographs of DHP–nanocellulose samples in Wiesner staining test, fluorescence, and TEM images of samples, photographs of reaction media and water droplets on DHP–nanocellulose films, polarized optical microscopy images of the films, NMR spectra of samples, GPC profiles of samples, and molecular weight data of samples (PDF)

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    Cited By

    This article is cited by 17 publications.

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    13. Ning Sun, Qiuhong Li, Zhaoyu Zhang, Shujin Ge, Xiujie Chang, Mingchi Yu, Aixiang Li, Yanfei Ma. Construction, modulation and transition of light responsive oil-in-water novel emulsions stabilized by similarly charged nanoparticles and dye molecules. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 2021, 619 , 126494.
    14. E. Gerbin, G.N. Rivière, L. Foulon, Y.M. Frapart, B. Cottyn, M. Pernes, C. Marcuello, B. Godon, A. Gainvors-Claisse, D. Crônier, A. Majira, M. Österberg, B. Kurek, S. Baumberger, V. Aguié-Béghin. Tuning the functional properties of lignocellulosic films by controlling the molecular and supramolecular structure of lignin. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 2021, 181 , 136-149.
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