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Occidiofungin, a Unique Antifungal Glycopeptide Produced by a Strain of Burkholderia contaminans

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Mississippi State University, Department of Entomology and Department of Plant Pathology, Mississippi State, Mississippi 39762
§ University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Microbiology, Birmingham, Alabama 35294
Mississippi State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Pathobiology and Population Medicine, Mississippi State, Mississippi 39762
Mississippi State University, Department of Biological Sciences, Mississippi State, Mississippi 39762
University of Alabama at Birmingham, Comprehensive Cancer Center Mass Spectrometry Shared Facility, Birmingham, Alabama 35294
# University of Wisconsin-Madison, National Magnetic Resonance Facility at Madison (NMRFAM), Madison, Wisconsin 53706
*To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: [email protected]. Fax: (662) 325-7939. Phone: (662) 325-1244.
Cite this: Biochemistry 2009, 48, 35, 8312–8321
Publication Date (Web):July 29, 2009
Copyright © 2009 American Chemical Society

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    Bacterial strain Burkholderia contaminans MS14 was isolated from soil that suppressed brown patch disease of lawn grass. An antifungal compound was purified from the liquid culture of this bacterium. In this study, complete covalent structures of two purified closely related antifungal compounds were determined by the experiments of TOCSY, NOESY, ROESY, 13C HSQC 2D NMR, and ESI-MS and GC. The analysis of monoisotopic masses of the purified preparation indicated the presence of two related compounds with masses determined to be 1199.543 and 1215.518 Da; the difference corresponds to the mass of an oxygen atom. GC analysis identified a xylose sugar attached to the antifungal compound. NMR experiments revealed that the compound is cyclic and composed of eight amino acids, two of which are β-hydroxy derivatives of Tyr and Asn, and one being a novel amino acid. The novel amino acid serves as the scaffold for the attachment of the xylose and a short acyl chain. The spectrum and concentration of antifungal activity were determined using a microtiter plate assay. The antifungal compound demonstrated potent antifungal activities against a broad panel of fungal plant and animal pathogens, as well as two Pythium spp. Microscopic observations showed that the antifungal compound disrupts normal membrane morphology. The cells fill with large inclusion bodies and the membrane becomes irregularly shaped and swollen following the exposure to subinhibitory concentrations of the antifungal compound. Our data support the identification of a novel fungicide and the compound has been named occidiofungin, meaning fungal killer.

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    Figure S1 showing the ROEs from the beta protons to the delta protons of the amino group for Asn1, BHN2, and Asn7, Figure S2 showing the HNi to HNi+1 NOEs, and Figure S3 showing the complete assignment of the 13C-HSQC data set. This material is available free of charge via the Internet at

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