ACS Publications. Most Trusted. Most Cited. Most Read
My Activity

Figure 1Loading Img

Crystal Structure of an Elastase-Specific Inhibitor Elafin Complexed with Porcine Pancreatic Elastase Determined at 1.9 Å Resolution

View Author Information
Peptide Institute Inc., Protein Research Foundation, 4-1-2 Ina, Minoh, Osaka 562, Japan, and Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University, 3-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565, Japan
Cite this: Biochemistry 1996, 35, 36, 11570–11576
Publication Date (Web):September 10, 1996
Copyright © 1996 American Chemical Society

    Article Views





    Other access options


    The crystal structure of a stoichiometric complex between an elastase-specific inhibitor elafin and porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) has been determined and refined to a crystallographic R-factor of 19.7% at 1.9 Å resolution. The polypeptide chain of elafin has a planar spiral shape with an exposed external part and an internal core part which resembles both the crystal structure of human seminal plasma inhibitor (HUSI-1) [Grütter, M. G., Fendrich, G., Huber, R., & Bode, W. (1988) EMBO J. 7, 345−351] and the solution structure of Na+,K+-ATPase inhibitor (SPAI-1) revealed by NMR analysis [Kozaki, T., Kawakami, Y., Tachibana, S., Hatanaka, H., & Inagaki, F. (1994) Pept. Chem., 405−408]. The external region containing the primary binding loop is interconnected by four disulfide bonds to the internal part composed of a β-sheet and a hairpin loop. The scissile peptide bond Ala24i(P1)−Met25i(P1‘) in the primary binding site is intact, and its carbonyl carbon is in van der Waals contact with Oγ of the active site Ser195 of PPE. The seven residues of Leu20i(P5)−Leu26i(P2‘) of the primary binding loop and the three residues of Ser48i, Cys49i, and Ala52i of the adjacent hairpin loop are in contact with PPE by hydrogen bonds and/or van der Waals interactions in a manner similar to that observed for other serine protease−inhibitor complexes. Electron densities of the N-terminal residues Ala1i−Ser10i which are not responsible for the elastase inhibitory activity were not visible, probably due to disordered conformation. The guanido group (Nη1, Nη2) of Arg61 in the complex interacts with Sδ of Met25i(P1‘) by possible hydrogen bonds between N and S atoms, accompanying a large positional shift of the side chain of Arg61(S1‘) between the complexed and free forms of PPE. The primary binding site is stabilized by hydrogen bonds between the guanido group (Nη1, Nη2) of Arg22i(P3) and the carbonyl group of Met25i(P1‘) across the scissile bond, as well as by a hydrogen bond between the amino group of Cys23i(P2) and the carbonyl group of Ser48i in the internal core. This intramolecular hydrogen bond network and the network of four disulfide bonds might play a significant role in stabilizing the conformation of the binding site for expressing the potent specific inhibitory activity.

    Read this article

    To access this article, please review the available access options below.

    Get instant access

    Purchase Access

    Read this article for 48 hours. Check out below using your ACS ID or as a guest.


    Access through Your Institution

    You may have access to this article through your institution.

    Your institution does not have access to this content. You can change your affiliated institution below.

     Atomic coordinates for the crystal structure of the elafin−PPE complex have been deposited in the Brookhaven Protein Data Bank under the file name 1FLE.


     To whom correspondence should be addressed. Phone:  81 (727) 29-4121. FAX:  81 (727) 29-4124.

     Protein Research Foundation.


     Osaka University.

     Abstract published in Advance ACS Abstracts, August 15, 1996.

    Cited By

    This article is cited by 85 publications.

    1. Irene Maffucci and Alessandro Contini . Improved Computation of Protein–Protein Relative Binding Energies with the Nwat-MMGBSA Method. Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling 2016, 56 (9) , 1692-1704.
    2. James R. Arnold,, Keith W. Burdick,, Scott C.-H. Pegg,, Samuel Toba,, Michelle L. Lamb, and, Irwin D. Kuntz. SitePrint:  Three-Dimensional Pharmacophore Descriptors Derived from Protein Binding Sites for Family Based Active Site Analysis, Classification, and Drug Design. Journal of Chemical Information and Computer Sciences 2004, 44 (6) , 2190-2198.
    3. Antoniel A. S. Gomes, Natália C. M. Santos, Leonardo R. Rosa, Rafael J. Borges, Marcos R. M. Fontes, Katherine G. Hamil, Michael G. O’Rand, Erick J. R. Silva. Interactions of the male contraceptive target EPPIN with semenogelin-1 and small organic ligands. Scientific Reports 2023, 13 (1)
    4. Céline Deraison, Chrystelle Bonnart, Philippe Langella, Karine Roget, Nathalie Vergnolle. Elafin and its precursor trappin‐2: What is their therapeutic potential for intestinal diseases?. British Journal of Pharmacology 2023, 180 (2) , 144-160.
    5. Qing Cai, Minsun Kim, Aki Harada, Michael O. Idowu, Gobalakrishnan Sundaresan, Jamal Zweit, Youngman Oh. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Inhibits Tumorigenesis and Progression of Colitis-Associated Colon Cancer through Suppression of Inflammatory Neutrophil-Activated Serine Proteases and IGFBP-3 Proteolysis. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 2022, 23 (22) , 13737.
    6. Ying Xie, Lindsey Fontenot, Andrea Chupina Estrada, Becca Nelson, Jiani Wang, David Q. Shih, Wendy Ho, S. Anjani Mattai, Florian Rieder, Dane D. Jensen, Nigel W. Bunnett, Hon Wai Koon. Elafin Reverses Intestinal Fibrosis by Inhibiting Cathepsin S-Mediated Protease-Activated Receptor 2. Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology 2022, 14 (4) , 841-876.
    7. Tobias Brinkjost, Christiane Ehrt, Oliver Koch, Petra Mutzel, . SCOT: Rethinking the classification of secondary structure elements. Bioinformatics 2020, 36 (8) , 2417-2428.
    8. Colin E. Correnti, Mesfin M. Gewe, Christopher Mehlin, Ashok D. Bandaranayake, William A. Johnsen, Peter B. Rupert, Mi-Youn Brusniak, Midori Clarke, Skyler E. Burke, Willem De Van Der Schueren, Kristina Pilat, Shanon M. Turnbaugh, Damon May, Alex Watson, Man Kid Chan, Christopher D. Bahl, James M. Olson, Roland K. Strong. Screening, large-scale production and structure-based classification of cystine-dense peptides. Nature Structural & Molecular Biology 2018, 25 (3) , 270-278.
    9. Daniela Mazzier, Luigi Grassi, Alessandro Moretto, Carlos Alemán, Fernando Formaggio, Claudio Toniolo, Marco Crisma. En route towards the peptide γ ‐helix: X‐ray diffraction analyses and conformational energy calculations of Adm‐rich short peptides. Journal of Peptide Science 2017, 23 (4) , 346-362.
    10. Hidetoshi Inagaki. Snake Venom Protease Inhibitors: Enhanced Identification, Expanding Biological Function, and Promising Future. 2017, 161-186.
    11. Ernesto Javier Grasso, Carlos Enrique Coronel. Structure and Function of Caltrin ( Cal cium Tr ansport In hibitor) Proteins. Biochemistry Insights 2017, 10 , 117862641774582.
    12. Oliver J. Hickman, Prokar Dasgupta, Christine Galustian, Richard A. Smith, Annapurna Vyakarnam. Cathepsin-L and transglutaminase dependent processing of ps20: A novel mechanism for ps20 regulation via ECM cross-linking. Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports 2016, 7 , 328-337.
    13. Brice Korkmaz, Adam Lesner, Carla Guarino, Magdalena Wysocka, Christine Kellenberger, Hervé Watier, Ulrich Specks, Francis Gauthier, Dieter E. Jenne, . Inhibitors and Antibody Fragments as Potential Anti-Inflammatory Therapeutics Targeting Neutrophil Proteinase 3 in Human Disease. Pharmacological Reviews 2016, 68 (3) , 603-630.
    14. Stefan Hofbauer, José A. Brito, Jalmira Mulchande, Przemyslaw Nogly, Miguel Pessanha, Rui Moreira, Margarida Archer. Stabilization of porcine pancreatic elastase crystals by glutaraldehyde cross-linking. Acta Crystallographica Section F Structural Biology Communications 2015, 71 (10) , 1346-1351.
    15. Hyung J. Chun, Paul B. Yu. Elafin in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension. Beyond Targeting Elastases. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2015, 191 (11) , 1217-1219.
    16. T. A. Reeks, B. G. Fry, P. F. Alewood. Privileged frameworks from snake venom. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 2015, 72 (10) , 1939-1958.
    17. Rossana García-Fernández, Markus Perbandt, Dirk Rehders, Patrick Ziegelmüller, Nicolas Piganeau, Ulrich Hahn, Christian Betzel, María de los Ángeles Chávez, Lars Redecke. Three-dimensional Structure of a Kunitz-type Inhibitor in Complex with an Elastase-like Enzyme. Journal of Biological Chemistry 2015, 290 (22) , 14154-14165.
    18. Arlene M A Glasgow, Donna M Small, Aaron Scott, Denise T McLean, Nicolas Camper, Umar Hamid, Shauna Hegarty, Dhruv Parekh, Cecilia O'Kane, Fionnuala T Lundy, Paul McNally, J Stuart Elborn, Danny F McAuley, Sinéad Weldon, Clifford C Taggart. A role for whey acidic protein four-disulfide-core 12 (WFDC12) in the regulation of the inflammatory response in the lung. Thorax 2015, 70 (5) , 426-432.
    19. Hidetoshi Inagaki. Snake Venom Protease Inhibitors: Enhanced Identification, Expanding Biological Function, and Promising Future. 2015, 1-26.
    20. Marco Crisma, Marta De Zotti, Alessandro Moretto, Cristina Peggion, Bruno Drouillat, Karen Wright, François Couty, Claudio Toniolo, Fernando Formaggio. Single and multiple peptide γ-turns: literature survey and recent progress. New Journal of Chemistry 2015, 39 (5) , 3208-3216.
    21. Ling Hua, Yunhui Liu, Shuai Zhen, Deyou Wan, Jiyue Cao, Xin Gao. Expression and biochemical characterization of recombinant human epididymis protein 4. Protein Expression and Purification 2014, 102 , 52-62.
    22. Daphne A. C. Stapels, Kasra X. Ramyar, Markus Bischoff, Maren von Köckritz-Blickwede, Fin J. Milder, Maartje Ruyken, Janina Eisenbeis, William J. McWhorter, Mathias Herrmann, Kok P. M. van Kessel, Brian V. Geisbrecht, Suzan H. M. Rooijakkers. Staphylococcus aureus secretes a unique class of neutrophil serine protease inhibitors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2014, 111 (36) , 13187-13192.
    23. Bokwang Kim, Meesun Kim, Ah Ran Kim, Myunggi Yi, Jung-Hwa Choi, Hyun Park, Wongyu Park, Hyun-Woo Kim. Differences in gene organization between type I and type II crustins in the morotoge shrimp, Pandalopsis japonica. Fish & Shellfish Immunology 2013, 35 (4) , 1176-1184.
    24. Anna G. Drannik, Kakon Nag, Jean-Michel Sallenave, Kenneth L. Rosenthal. Antiviral Activity of Trappin-2 and Elafin In Vitro and In Vivo against Genital Herpes. Journal of Virology 2013, 87 (13) , 7526-7538.
    25. Fernando Formaggio, Alessandro Moretto, Marco Crisma, Claudio Toniolo. Chemistry of Peptide Materials. 2013, 39-63.
    26. Anna G. Drannik, Kakon Nag, Xiao-Dan Yao, Bethany M. Henrick, T. Blake Ball, Francis A. Plummer, Charles Wachihi, Joshua Kimani, Kenneth L. Rosenthal, . Anti-HIV-1 Activity of Elafin Depends on Its Nuclear Localization and Altered Innate Immune Activation in Female Genital Epithelial Cells. PLoS ONE 2012, 7 (12) , e52738.
    27. Pranisa Suthianthong, Suchao Donpudsa, Premruethai Supungul, Anchalee Tassanakajon, Vichien Rimphanitchayakit. The N-terminal glycine-rich and cysteine-rich regions are essential for antimicrobial activity of crustinPm1 from the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. Fish & Shellfish Immunology 2012, 33 (4) , 977-983.
    28. Anna G. Drannik, Kakon Nag, Xiao-Dan Yao, Bethany M. Henrick, Jean-Michel Sallenave, Kenneth L. Rosenthal, . Trappin-2/Elafin Modulate Innate Immune Responses of Human Endometrial Epithelial Cells to PolyI∶C. PLoS ONE 2012, 7 (4) , e35866.
    29. Anna G. Drannik, Kakon Nag, Xiao-Dan Yao, Bethany M. Henrick, Sumiti Jain, T. Blake Ball, Francis A. Plummer, Charles Wachihi, Joshua Kimani, Kenneth L. Rosenthal. Anti-HIV-1 Activity of Elafin Is More Potent than Its Precursor's, Trappin-2, in Genital Epithelial Cells. Journal of Virology 2012, 86 (8) , 4599-4610.
    30. Shirjel R. Alam, David E. Newby, Peter A. Henriksen. Role of the endogenous elastase inhibitor, elafin, in cardiovascular injury. Biochemical Pharmacology 2012, 83 (6) , 695-704.
    31. Sandra Cerqueira Barros, José Alberto Martins, João Carlos Marcos, Artur Cavaco-Paulo. Characterization of potential elastase inhibitor-peptides regulated by a molecular switch for wound dressings applications. Enzyme and Microbial Technology 2012, 50 (2) , 107-114.
    32. Lee Shaw, Oliver Wiedow. Therapeutic potential of human elafin. Biochemical Society Transactions 2011, 39 (5) , 1450-1454.
    33. Angireddy Rajesh, Golla Madhubabu, Suresh Yenugu. Identification and characterization of Wfdc gene expression in the male reproductive tract of the rat. Molecular Reproduction and Development 2011, 78 (9) , 633-641.
    34. Brice Korkmaz, Marshall S. Horwitz, Dieter E. Jenne, Francis Gauthier, . Neutrophil Elastase, Proteinase 3, and Cathepsin G as Therapeutic Targets in Human Diseases. Pharmacological Reviews 2010, 62 (4) , 726-759.
    35. Audrey Bellemare, Nathalie Vernoux, Sébastien Morin, Stéphane M Gagné, Yves Bourbonnais. Structural and antimicrobial properties of human pre-elafin/trappin-2 and derived peptides against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. BMC Microbiology 2010, 10 (1)
    36. Nicolas Guyot, Gudmundur Bergsson, Marcus W. Butler, Catherine M. Greene, Sinéad Weldon, Efrat Kessler, Rodney L. Levine, Shane J. O'Neill, Clifford C. Taggart, Noel G. McElvaney. Functional study of elafin cleaved by Pseudomonas aeruginosa metalloproteinases. Biological Chemistry 2010, 391 (6)
    37. Tomasz Kantyka, Ties Latendorf, Oliver Wiedow, Joachim Bartels, Regine Gläser, Grzegorz Dubin, Jens-Michael Schröder, Jan Potempa, Ulf Meyer-Hoffert. Elafin is specifically inactivated by RgpB from Porphyromonas gingivalis by distinct proteolytic cleavage. bchm 2009, 390 (12) , 1313-1320.
    38. Zhi-Qiang Du, Qian Ren, Xiao-Fan Zhao, Jin-Xing Wang. A double WAP domain (DWD)-containing protein with proteinase inhibitory activity in Chinese white shrimp, Fenneropenaeus chinensis. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 2009, 154 (2) , 203-210.
    39. Ming-Jyun Chiou, Lee-Kang Chen, Kuan-Chieh Peng, Chia-Yu Pan, Tai-Lang Lin, Jyh-Yih Chen. Stable expression in a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line of bioactive recombinant chelonianin, which plays an important role in protecting fish against pathogenic infection. Developmental & Comparative Immunology 2009, 33 (1) , 117-126.
    40. Wei Li, Dimitry M. Danilenko, Stuart Bunting, Rajkumar Ganesan, Susan Sa, Ronald Ferrando, Thomas D. Wu, Ganesh A. Kolumam, Wenjun Ouyang, Daniel Kirchhofer. The Serine Protease Marapsin Is Expressed in Stratified Squamous Epithelia and Is Up-regulated in the Hyperproliferative Epidermis of Psoriasis and Regenerating Wounds. Journal of Biological Chemistry 2009, 284 (1) , 218-228.
    41. Nicolas Guyot, Marcus W. Butler, Paul McNally, Sinead Weldon, Catherine M. Greene, Rodney L. Levine, Shane J. O'Neill, Clifford C. Taggart, Noel G. McElvaney. Elafin, an Elastase-specific Inhibitor, Is Cleaved by Its Cognate Enzyme Neutrophil Elastase in Sputum from Individuals with Cystic Fibrosis. Journal of Biological Chemistry 2008, 283 (47) , 32377-32385.
    42. Colin D Bingle, Annapurna Vyakarnam. Novel innate immune functions of the whey acidic protein family. Trends in Immunology 2008, 29 (9) , 444-453.
    43. Kévin Baranger, Marie‐Louise Zani, Jacques Chandenier, Sandrine Dallet‐Choisy, Thierry Moreau. The antibacterial and antifungal properties of trappin‐2 (pre‐elafin) do not depend on its protease inhibitory function. The FEBS Journal 2008, 275 (9) , 2008-2020.
    44. Thierry Moreau, Kévin Baranger, Sébastien Dadé, Sandrine Dallet-Choisy, Nicolas Guyot, Marie-Louise Zani. Multifaceted roles of human elafin and secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor (SLPI), two serine protease inhibitors of the chelonianin family. Biochimie 2008, 90 (2) , 284-295.
    45. Florinda Jiménez-Vega, Francisco Vargas-Albores. A secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor (SLPI)-like protein from Litopenaeus vannamei haemocytes. Fish & Shellfish Immunology 2007, 23 (5) , 1119-1126.
    46. Daiane Hansen, Sandra Macedo-Ribeiro, Paula Veríssimo, Sonia Yoo Im, Misako Uemura Sampaio, Maria Luiza Vilela Oliva. Crystal structure of a novel cysteinless plant Kunitz-type protease inhibitor. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 2007, 360 (4) , 735-740.
    47. Alain Doucet, Dominique Bouchard, Marie France Janelle, Audrey Bellemare, Stéphane Gagné, Guy M. Tremblay, Yves Bourbonnais. Characterization of human pre-elafin mutants: full antipeptidase activity is essential to preserve lung tissue integrity in experimental emphysema. Biochemical Journal 2007, 405 (3) , 455-463.
    48. Arnd B.E. Brauer, Jeffrey D. McBride, Geoff Kelly, Stephen J. Matthews, Robin J. Leatherbarrow. Resisting degradation by human elastase: Commonality of design features shared by ‘canonical’ plant and bacterial macrocyclic protease inhibitor scaffolds. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry 2007, 15 (13) , 4618-4628.
    49. Sandy Gian Vascotto, Shawn Beug, Richard A. Liversage, Catherine Tsilfidis. Expression profiles of elastase1 (NvElastaseI) and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (NvSLPI) during forelimb regeneration in adult Notophthalmus viridescens suggest a role in epithelial remodeling and delamination. Development Genes and Evolution 2006, 216 (9) , 499-509.
    50. Shila M. Nobar, Marie‐Louise Zani, Christian Boudier, Thierry Moreau, Joseph G. Bieth. Oxidized elafin and trappin poorly inhibit the elastolytic activity of neutrophil elastase and proteinase 3. The FEBS Journal 2005, 272 (22) , 5883-5893.
    51. Thomas I. Brown, Rohit Mistry, Robert Gray, Margaret Imrie, David D. Collie, Jean-Michel Sallenave. Characterization of the ovine ortholog of secretory leukoprotease inhibitor. Mammalian Genome 2005, 16 (8) , 621-630.
    52. Adam Clauss, Hans Lilja, Åke Lundwall. The evolution of a genetic locus encoding small serine proteinase inhibitors. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 2005, 333 (2) , 383-389.
    53. Youli Hu, Zhe Sun, Julian T. Eaton, Pierre M.G. Bouloux, Stephen J. Perkins. Extended and Flexible Domain Solution Structure of the Extracellular Matrix Protein Anosmin-1 by X-ray Scattering, Analytical Ultracentrifugation and Constrained Modelling. Journal of Molecular Biology 2005, 350 (3) , 553-570.
    54. Yutaka Furutani, Akira Kato, Azzania Fibriani, Taku Hirata, Ryoji Kawai, Ju-Hong Jeon, Yasuhisa Fujii, In-Gyu Kim, Soichi Kojima, Shigehisa Hirose. Identification, Evolution, and Regulation of Expression of Guinea Pig Trappin with an Unusually Long Transglutaminase Substrate Domain. Journal of Biological Chemistry 2005, 280 (21) , 20204-20215.
    55. Youli HU, David GONZÁLEZ-MARTÍNEZ, Soo-Hyun KIM, Pierre Marc Gilles BOULOUX. Cross-talk of anosmin-1, the protein implicated in X-linked Kallmann's syndrome, with heparan sulphate and urokinase-type plasminogen activator. Biochemical Journal 2004, 384 (3) , 495-505.
    56. Taner Z Sen, Andrzej Kloczkowski, Robert L Jernigan, Changhui Yan, Vasant Honavar, Kai-Ming Ho, Cai-Zhuang Wang, Yungok Ihm, Haibo Cao, Xun Gu, Drena Dobbs. Predicting binding sites of hydrolase-inhibitor complexes by combining several methods. BMC Bioinformatics 2004, 5 (1)
    57. Yutaka Furutani, Akira Kato, Ryoji Kawai, Azzania Fibriani, Soichi Kojima, Shigehisa Hirose. Androgen-Dependent Expression, Gene Structure, and Molecular Evolution of Guinea Pig Caltrin II, a WAP-Motif Protein1. Biology of Reproduction 2004, 71 (5) , 1583-1590.
    58. Francisco Vargas-Albores, Gloria Yepiz-Plascencia, Florinda Jiménez-Vega, Angélica Ávila-Villa. Structural and functional differences of Litopenaeus vannamei crustins. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 2004, 138 (4) , 415-422.
    59. Florinda Jiménez-Vega, Gloria Yepiz-Plascencia, Kenneth Söderhäll, Francisco Vargas-Albores. A single WAP domain-containing protein from Litopenaeus vannamei hemocytes. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 2004, 314 (3) , 681-687.
    60. Allan M. Torres, Hui Y. Wong, Malan Desai, Shabbir Moochhala, Philip W. Kuchel, R.Manjunatha Kini. Identification of a Novel Family of Proteins in Snake Venoms. Journal of Biological Chemistry 2003, 278 (41) , 40097-40104.
    61. Koichi Hagiwara, Tohru Kikuchi, Yoshiyuki Endo, Huqun, Kazuhiro Usui, Mitsu Takahashi, Naoko Shibata, Takashi Kusakabe, Hong Xin, Sachiko Hoshi, Makoto Miki, Nozomu Inooka, Yutaka Tokue, Toshihiro Nukiwa. Mouse SWAM1 and SWAM2 Are Antibacterial Proteins Composed of a Single Whey Acidic Protein Motif. The Journal of Immunology 2003, 170 (4) , 1973-1979.
    62. Changhui Yan, Drena Dobbs, Vasant Honavar. Identification of Surface Residues Involved in Protein-Protein Interaction — A Support Vector Machine Approach. 2003, 53-62.
    63. Mohamed F Ali, Karen R Lips, Floyd C Knoop, Bernd Fritzsch, Caroline Miller, J.Michael Conlon. Antimicrobial peptides and protease inhibitors in the skin secretions of the crawfish frog, Rana areolata. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Proteins and Proteomics 2002, 1601 (1) , 55-63.
    64. Oliver Wiedow. Elafin. 2002
    65. Liliana Kiczak, Monika Kasztura, Katarzyna Koscielska-Kasprzak, Michal Dadlez, Jacek Otlewski. Selection of potent chymotrypsin and elastase inhibitors from M13 phage library of basic pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI). Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Protein Structure and Molecular Enzymology 2001, 1550 (2) , 153-163.
    66. CHRISTIAN P. SOMMERHOFF. Mast Cell Tryptases and Airway Remodeling. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2001, 164 (supplement_2) , S52-S58.
    67. Alain Roussel, Magali Mathieu, Aaron Dobbs, Bang Luu, Christian Cambillau, Christine Kellenberger. Complexation of Two Proteic Insect Inhibitors to the Active Site of Chymotrypsin Suggests Decoupled Roles for Binding and Selectivity. Journal of Biological Chemistry 2001, 276 (42) , 38893-38898.
    68. A. John Simpson, William A. H. Wallace, Mark E. Marsden, John R. W. Govan, David J. Porteous, Chris Haslett, Jean-Michel Sallenave. Adenoviral Augmentation of Elafin Protects the Lung Against Acute Injury Mediated by Activated Neutrophils and Bacterial Infection. The Journal of Immunology 2001, 167 (3) , 1778-1786.
    69. Michelle L. Lamb, Keith W. Burdick, Samuel Toba, Malin M. Young, A. Geoffrey Skillman, Xiaoqin Zou, James R. Arnold, Irwin D. Kuntz. Design, docking, and evaluation of multiple libraries against multiple targets. Proteins: Structure, Function, and Genetics 2001, 42 (3) , 296-318.<296::AID-PROT20>3.0.CO;2-F
    70. H�r�ur Filippusson, L��ur S. Erlendsson, Christopher R. Lowe. Design, synthesis and evaluation of biomimetic affinity ligands for elastases. Journal of Molecular Recognition 2000, 13 (6) , 370-381.<370::AID-JMR510>3.0.CO;2-5
    71. Isao Nakanishi, Takayoshi Kinoshita, Akihiro Sato, Toshiji Tada. Structure of porcine pancreatic elastase complexed with FR901277, a novel macrocyclic inhibitor of elastases, at 1.6 Å resolution. Biopolymers 2000, 53 (5) , 434-445.<434::AID-BIP7>3.0.CO;2-5
    72. Christian P. Sommerhoff, Wolfram Bode, Gabriele Matschiner, Andreas Bergner, Hans Fritz. The human mast cell tryptase tetramer: a fascinating riddle solved by structure. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Protein Structure and Molecular Enzymology 2000, 1477 (1-2) , 75-89.
    73. Ulvi Talas, John Dunlop, Sahera Khalaf, Irene M. Leigh, David P. Kelsell. Human Elastase 1: Evidence for Expression in the Skin and the Identification of a Frequent Frameshift Polymorphism. Journal of Investigative Dermatology 2000, 114 (1) , 165-170.
    74. Jeffrey D. McBride, Hamzah N. M. Freeman, Robin J. Leatherbarrow. Selection of human elastase inhibitors from a conformationally constrained combinatorial peptide library. European Journal of Biochemistry 1999, 266 (2) , 403-412.
    75. Christian P. Sommerhoff, Wolfram Bode, Pedro J. B. Pereira, Milton T. Stubbs, Jörg Stürzebecher, Gerd P. Piechottka, Gabriele Matschiner, Andreas Bergner. The structure of the human βII-tryptase tetramer: Fo(u)r better or worse. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 1999, 96 (20) , 10984-10991.
    76. Paul Taylor, Violet Anderson, Malcolm D. Walkinshaw, James Dowden, Sabine L. Flitsch, Nicholas J. Turner, Karen Loughran. Novel Mechanism of Inhibition of Elastase by β-Lactams Is Defined by Two Inhibitor Crystal Complexes. Journal of Biological Chemistry 1999, 274 (35) , 24901-24905.
    77. A.J. Simpson, A.I. Maxwell, J.R.W. Govan, C. Haslett, J.-M. Sallenave. Elafin (elastase‐specific inhibitor) has anti‐microbial activity against Gram‐positive and Gram‐negative respiratory pathogens. FEBS Letters 1999, 452 (3) , 309-313.
    78. Syed H.E. Zaidi, Chi-Chung Hui, Alexander Y.L. Cheah, Xiao-Mang You, Mansoor Husain, Marlene Rabinovitch. Targeted overexpression of elafin protects mice against cardiac dysfunction and mortality following viral myocarditis. Journal of Clinical Investigation 1999, 103 (8) , 1211-1219.
    79. Shoba Ranganathan, Kaylene J. Simpson, Denis C. Shaw, Kevin R. Nicholas. The whey acidic protein family: a new signature motif and three-dimensional structure by comparative modeling. Journal of Molecular Graphics and Modelling 1999, 17 (2) , 106-113.
    80. Loredana Lo Conte, Cyrus Chothia, Joël Janin. The atomic structure of protein-protein recognition sites 1 1Edited by A. R. Fersht. Journal of Molecular Biology 1999, 285 (5) , 2177-2198.
    81. Jean-Michel Sallenave, Kevin Morgan, Jack Gauldie, Noor Kalsheker. Elastase Inhibitors in the Lung: Expression and Functional Relationships. 1999, 69-94.
    82. Melinda Larsen, Steven J. Ressler, Bing Lu, Michael J. Gerdes, Lauren McBride, Truong D. Dang, David R. Rowley. Molecular Cloning and Expression of ps20 Growth Inhibitor. Journal of Biological Chemistry 1998, 273 (8) , 4574-4584.
    83. Xueyu Shen, Angela M. Belcher, Paul K. Hansma, Galen D. Stucky, Daniel E. Morse. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Lustrin A, a Matrix Protein from Shell and Pearl Nacre of Haliotis rufescens. Journal of Biological Chemistry 1997, 272 (51) , 32472-32481.
    84. Patrick L.J.M. Zeeuwen, Wiljan Hendriks, Wilfried W. de Jong, Joost Schalkwijk. Identification and Sequence Analysis of Two New Members of the SKALP/elafin and SPAI-2 Gene Family. Journal of Biological Chemistry 1997, 272 (33) , 20471-20478.
    85. Alain J. P. Alix. Molecular Modeling of Globular Proteins : Strategy 1D ⇒ 3D: Secondary Structures and Epitopes. 1997, 121-150.

    Pair your accounts.

    Export articles to Mendeley

    Get article recommendations from ACS based on references in your Mendeley library.

    Pair your accounts.

    Export articles to Mendeley

    Get article recommendations from ACS based on references in your Mendeley library.

    You’ve supercharged your research process with ACS and Mendeley!

    STEP 1:
    Click to create an ACS ID

    Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

    Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

    Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

    Your Mendeley pairing has expired. Please reconnect