ACS Publications. Most Trusted. Most Cited. Most Read
My Activity
ADDITION / CORRECTIONThis article has been corrected. View the notice.

Characterization of Choline Trimethylamine-Lyase Expands the Chemistry of Glycyl Radical Enzymes

View Author Information
Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, 12 Oxford Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, United States
Cite this: ACS Chem. Biol. 2014, 9, 7, 1408–1413
Publication Date (Web):May 22, 2014
Copyright © 2014 American Chemical Society

    Article Views





    Read OnlinePDF (920 KB)
    Supporting Info (1)»


    Abstract Image

    The recently identified glycyl radical enzyme (GRE) homologue choline trimethylamine-lyase (CutC) participates in the anaerobic conversion of choline to trimethylamine (TMA), a widely distributed microbial metabolic transformation that occurs in the human gut and is linked to disease. The proposed biochemical function of CutC, C–N bond cleavage, represents new reactivity for the GRE family. Here we describe the in vitro characterization of CutC and its activating protein CutD. We have observed CutD-mediated formation of a glycyl radical on CutC using EPR spectroscopy and have demonstrated that activated CutC processes choline to trimethylamine and acetaldehyde. Surveys of potential alternate CutC substrates uncovered a strict specificity for choline. Homology modeling and mutagenesis experiments revealed essential CutC active site residues. Overall, this work establishes that CutC is a GRE of unique function and a molecular marker for anaerobic choline metabolism.

    Supporting Information

    Jump To

    This material is available free of charge via the Internet at

    Terms & Conditions

    Most electronic Supporting Information files are available without a subscription to ACS Web Editions. Such files may be downloaded by article for research use (if there is a public use license linked to the relevant article, that license may permit other uses). Permission may be obtained from ACS for other uses through requests via the RightsLink permission system:

    Cited By

    This article is cited by 95 publications.

    1. Marko Hanževački, Anna K. Croft, Christof M. Jäger. Activation of Glycyl Radical Enzymes─Multiscale Modeling Insights into Catalysis and Radical Control in a Pyruvate Formate-Lyase-Activating Enzyme. Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling 2022, 62 (14) , 3401-3414.
    2. Wen-Hao Deng, You Lu, Rong-Zhen Liao. Revealing the Mechanism of Isethionate Sulfite-Lyase by QM/MM Calculations. Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling 2021, 61 (12) , 5871-5882.
    3. Zhongyue Yang, Heather J. Kulik. Protein Dynamics and Substrate Protonation States Mediate the Catalytic Action of trans-4-Hydroxy-l-Proline Dehydratase. The Journal of Physical Chemistry B 2021, 125 (28) , 7774-7784.
    4. Maud Bollenbach, Manuel Ortega, Marina Orman, Catherine L. Drennan, Emily P. Balskus. Discovery of a Cyclic Choline Analog That Inhibits Anaerobic Choline Metabolism by Human Gut Bacteria. ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters 2020, 11 (10) , 1980-1985.
    5. Wolfgang Buckel. Enzymatic Reactions Involving Ketyls: From a Chemical Curiosity to a General Biochemical Mechanism. Biochemistry 2019, 58 (52) , 5221-5233.
    6. Marina Orman, Smaranda Bodea, Michael A. Funk, Ana Martínez-del Campo, Maud Bollenbach, Catherine L. Drennan, Emily P. Balskus. Structure-Guided Identification of a Small Molecule That Inhibits Anaerobic Choline Metabolism by Human Gut Bacteria. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2019, 141 (1) , 33-37.
    7. Carina L. Chittim, Stephania M. Irwin, Emily P. Balskus. Deciphering Human Gut Microbiota–Nutrient Interactions: A Role for Biochemistry. Biochemistry 2018, 57 (18) , 2567-2577.
    8. John A. Gerlt . Genomic Enzymology: Web Tools for Leveraging Protein Family Sequence–Function Space and Genome Context to Discover Novel Functions. Biochemistry 2017, 56 (33) , 4293-4308.
    9. Geng-Min Lin, Sei-Hyun Choi, Mark W. Ruszczycky, and Hung-wen Liu . Mechanistic Investigation of the Radical S-Adenosyl-l-methionine Enzyme DesII Using Fluorinated Analogues. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2015, 137 (15) , 4964-4967.
    10. Mohammed Dwidar, Jennifer A. Buffa, Zeneng Wang, Akeem Santos, Aaron N. Tittle, Xiaoming Fu, Adeline M. Hajjar, Joseph A. DiDonato, Stanley L. Hazen, , . Assembling the anaerobic gamma-butyrobetaine to TMA metabolic pathway in Escherichia fergusonii and confirming its role in TMA production from dietary L- carnitine in murine models. mBio 2023, 14 (5)
    11. Sara Uceda, Víctor Echeverry-Alzate, Manuel Reiriz-Rojas, Esther Martínez-Miguel, Ana Pérez-Curiel, Silvia Gómez-Senent, Ana Isabel Beltrán-Velasco. Gut Microbial Metabolome and Dysbiosis in Neurodegenerative Diseases: Psychobiotics and Fecal Microbiota Transplantation as a Therapeutic Approach—A Comprehensive Narrative Review. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 2023, 24 (17) , 13294.
    12. Yanmin Li, Hong Cao, Xiaoqian Wang, Lichun Guo, Xiaoying Ding, Wei Zhao, Feng Zhang. Diet-mediated metaorganismal relay biotransformation: health effects and pathways. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 2023, 63 (20) , 4599-4617.
    13. Hao-Jian Zhang, Yan Wang, Jian-Dong Jiang. Drug-gut Microbiome Interaction in Atherosclerosis Therapeutics. Current Drug Metabolism 2023, 24 (7) , 482-492.
    14. Cansu BALIKÇI, Gamze GÖKÇAY, Songül ERDOĞAN, Hasan ERDOĞAN, Kerem URAL. GUT-HEART AXIS. Veteriner Farmakoloji ve Toksikoloji Derneği Bülteni 2023, 14 (1) , 49-58.
    15. Amelia Y. M. Woo, Miguel A. Aguilar Ramos, Rohan Narayan, Khyle C. Richards-Corke, Michelle L. Wang, Walter J. Sandoval-Espinola, Emily P. Balskus. Targeting the human gut microbiome with small-molecule inhibitors. Nature Reviews Chemistry 2023, 7 (5) , 319-339.
    16. Sachin Sharma, Pooja Hegde, Subhankar Panda, Moyosore O Orimoloye, Courtney C Aldrich. Drugging the microbiome: targeting small microbiome molecules. Current Opinion in Microbiology 2023, 71 , 102234.
    17. Shu-Rong Ma, Qian Tong, Yuan Lin, Li-Bin Pan, Jie Fu, Ran Peng, Xian-Feng Zhang, Zhen-Xiong Zhao, Yang Li, Jin-Bo Yu, Lin Cong, Pei Han, Zheng-Wei Zhang, Hang Yu, Yan Wang, Jian-Dong Jiang. Berberine treats atherosclerosis via a vitamine-like effect down-regulating Choline-TMA-TMAO production pathway in gut microbiota. Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy 2022, 7 (1)
    18. Yuan-Yuan Cai, Feng-Qing Huang, Xingzhen Lao, Yawen Lu, Xuejiao Gao, Raphael N. Alolga, Kunpeng Yin, Xingchen Zhou, Yun Wang, Baolin Liu, Jing Shang, Lian-Wen Qi, Jing Li. Integrated metagenomics identifies a crucial role for trimethylamine-producing Lachnoclostridium in promoting atherosclerosis. npj Biofilms and Microbiomes 2022, 8 (1)
    19. Kaela K. Amundson, Mikayla A. Borton, Rebecca A. Daly, David W. Hoyt, Allison Wong, Elizabeth Eder, Joseph Moore, Kenneth Wunch, Kelly C. Wrighton, Michael J. Wilkins. Microbial colonization and persistence in deep fractured shales is guided by metabolic exchanges and viral predation. Microbiome 2022, 10 (1)
    20. Lin Zhang, Fang Yu, Jian Xia. Trimethylamine N-oxide: role in cell senescence and age-related diseases. European Journal of Nutrition 2022, 128
    21. Yahkub Babatunde Mutalub, Monsurat Abdulwahab, Alkali Mohammed, Aishat Mutalib Yahkub, Sameer Badri AL-Mhanna, Wardah Yusof, Suk Peng Tang, Aida Hanum Ghulam Rasool, Siti Safiah Mokhtar. Gut Microbiota Modulation as a Novel Therapeutic Strategy in Cardiometabolic Diseases. Foods 2022, 11 (17) , 2575.
    22. Shusi Ding, Jing Xue, Qi Zhang, Lemin Zheng. Trimethylamine-N-oxide is an important target for heart and brain diseases. Medical Review 2022, 2 (4) , 321-323.
    23. Morgan E. Walker, Joshua B. Simpson, Matthew R. Redinbo. A structural metagenomics pipeline for examining the gut microbiome. Current Opinion in Structural Biology 2022, 75 , 102416.
    24. Ning Zhi, Hongji Zhu, Jianjun Qiao, Min Dong. Recent progress in radical SAM enzymes: New reactions and mechanisms. Chinese Science Bulletin 2022, 67 (16) , 1806-1820.
    25. Md Jahangir Alam, Vaishnavi Puppala, Shravan K. Uppulapu, Bhabatosh Das, Sanjay K. Banerjee. Human microbiome and cardiovascular diseases. 2022, 231-279.
    26. Latha Ramireddy, Hau-Yang Tsen, Yu-Chen Chiang, Chen Ying Hung, Fu-Chih Chen, Hsien- Tung Yen. The gene expression and bioinformatic analysis of choline trimethylamine-lyase (CutC) and its activating enzyme (CutD) for gut microbes and comparison with their TMA production levels. Current Research in Microbial Sciences 2021, 2 , 100043.
    27. Anna G. Burrichter, Stefanie Dörr, Paavo Bergmann, Sebastian Haiß, Anja Keller, Corentin Fournier, Paolo Franchini, Erika Isono, David Schleheck. Bacterial microcompartments for isethionate desulfonation in the taurine-degrading human-gut bacterium Bilophila wadsworthia. BMC Microbiology 2021, 21 (1)
    28. Jared B. Ellenbogen, Ruisheng Jiang, Duncan J. Kountz, Liwen Zhang, Joseph A. Krzycki. The MttB superfamily member MtyB from the human gut symbiont Eubacterium limosum is a cobalamin-dependent γ-butyrobetaine methyltransferase. Journal of Biological Chemistry 2021, 297 (5) , 101327.
    29. Joshua T. McLean, Alby Benny, Mark D. Nolan, Glenna Swinand, Eoin M. Scanlan. Cysteinyl radicals in chemical synthesis and in nature. Chemical Society Reviews 2021, 50 (19) , 10857-10894.
    30. May Nasser Bin-Jumah, Sadaf Jamal Gilani, Salman Hosawi, Fahad A. Al-Abbasi, Mustafa Zeyadi, Syed Sarim Imam, Sultan Alshehri, Mohammed M Ghoneim, Muhammad Shahid Nadeem, Imran Kazmi. Pathobiological Relationship of Excessive Dietary Intake of Choline/L-Carnitine: A TMAO Precursor-Associated Aggravation in Heart Failure in Sarcopenic Patients. Nutrients 2021, 13 (10) , 3453.
    31. Wolfgang Buckel. Energy Conservation in Fermentations of Anaerobic Bacteria. Frontiers in Microbiology 2021, 12
    32. Christopher D. Dawson, Stephania M. Irwin, Lindsey R.F. Backman, Chip Le, Jennifer X. Wang, Vyshnavi Vennelakanti, Zhongyue Yang, Heather J. Kulik, Catherine L. Drennan, Emily P. Balskus. Molecular basis of C-S bond cleavage in the glycyl radical enzyme isethionate sulfite-lyase. Cell Chemical Biology 2021, 28 (9) , 1333-1346.e7.
    33. Emily S. Krueger, Trevor S. Lloyd, Jeffery S. Tessem. The Accumulation and Molecular Effects of Trimethylamine N-Oxide on Metabolic Tissues: It’s Not All Bad. Nutrients 2021, 13 (8) , 2873.
    34. Alaa El‐Din A. Bekhit, Stephen G. Giteru, Benjamin W. B. Holman, David L. Hopkins. Total volatile basic nitrogen and trimethylamine in muscle foods: Potential formation pathways and effects on human health. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 2021, 20 (4) , 3620-3666.
    35. Joshua S. MacCready, Anthony G. Vecchiarelli, . Positioning the Model Bacterial Organelle, the Carboxysome. mBio 2021, 12 (3)
    36. Kunica Asija, Markus Sutter, Cheryl A. Kerfeld. A Survey of Bacterial Microcompartment Distribution in the Human Microbiome. Frontiers in Microbiology 2021, 12
    37. Eva Emilija Cesle, Anatolij Filimonenko, Kaspars Tars, Gints Kalnins. Variety of size and form of GRM2 bacterial microcompartment particles. Protein Science 2021, 30 (5) , 1035-1043.
    38. Lisard Iglesias-Carres, Michael D. Hughes, Cortney N. Steele, Monica A. Ponder, Kevin P. Davy, Andrew P. Neilson. Use of dietary phytochemicals for inhibition of trimethylamine N-oxide formation. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 2021, 91 , 108600.
    39. Xing Heng, Wugao Liu, Weihua Chu. Identification of choline-degrading bacteria from healthy human feces and used for screening of trimethylamine (TMA)-lyase inhibitors. Microbial Pathogenesis 2021, 152 , 104658.
    40. Yixin Zhang, Yuan Wang, Bingbing Ke, Jie Du. TMAO: how gut microbiota contributes to heart failure. Translational Research 2021, 228 , 109-125.
    41. Moustafa T. Gabr, David Machalz, Szymon Pach, Gerhard Wolber. A benzoxazole derivative as an inhibitor of anaerobic choline metabolism by human gut microbiota. RSC Medicinal Chemistry 2020, 11 (12) , 1402-1412.
    42. Moustafa Gabr, Katarzyna Świderek. Discovery of a Histidine‐Based Scaffold as an Inhibitor of Gut Microbial Choline Trimethylamine‐Lyase. ChemMedChem 2020, 15 (23) , 2273-2279.
    43. Gints Kalnins, Eva-Emilija Cesle, Juris Jansons, Janis Liepins, Anatolij Filimonenko, Kaspars Tars. Encapsulation mechanisms and structural studies of GRM2 bacterial microcompartment particles. Nature Communications 2020, 11 (1)
    44. Janis Kuka, Melita Videja, Marina Makrecka-Kuka, Janis Liepins, Solveiga Grinberga, Eduards Sevostjanovs, Karlis Vilks, Edgars Liepinsh, Maija Dambrova. Metformin decreases bacterial trimethylamine production and trimethylamine N-oxide levels in db/db mice. Scientific Reports 2020, 10 (1)
    45. Ian Steinke, Nila Ghanei, Manoj Govindarajulu, Sieun Yoo, Juming Zhong, Rajesh H. Amin. Drug Discovery and Development of Novel Therapeutics for Inhibiting TMAO in Models of Atherosclerosis and Diabetes. Frontiers in Physiology 2020, 11
    46. Natalia Arias, Silvia Arboleya, Joseph Allison, Aleksandra Kaliszewska, Sara G. Higarza, Miguel Gueimonde, Jorge L. Arias. The Relationship between Choline Bioavailability from Diet, Intestinal Microbiota Composition, and Its Modulation of Human Diseases. Nutrients 2020, 12 (8) , 2340.
    47. Marco Witkowski, Taylor L. Weeks, Stanley L. Hazen. Gut Microbiota and Cardiovascular Disease. Circulation Research 2020, 127 (4) , 553-570.
    48. Preeti Pathak, Robert N. Helsley, Amanda L. Brown, Jennifer A. Buffa, Ibrahim Choucair, Ina Nemet, Camelia Baleanu Gogonea, Valentin Gogonea, Zeneng Wang, Jose Carlos Garcia-Garcia, Lei Cai, Ryan Temel, Naseer Sangwan, Stanley L. Hazen, J. Mark Brown. Small molecule inhibition of gut microbial choline trimethylamine lyase activity alters host cholesterol and bile acid metabolism. American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology 2020, 318 (6) , H1474-H1486.
    49. Chelsea L. Organ, Zhen Li, Thomas E. Sharp, David J. Polhemus, Nilaksh Gupta, Traci T. Goodchild, W. H. Wilson Tang, Stanley L. Hazen, David J. Lefer. Nonlethal Inhibition of Gut Microbial Trimethylamine N‐oxide Production Improves Cardiac Function and Remodeling in a Murine Model of Heart Failure. Journal of the American Heart Association 2020, 9 (10)
    50. Jason M. Ridlon, Saravanan Devendran, João Mp Alves, Heidi Doden, Patricia G. Wolf, Gabriel V. Pereira, Lindsey Ly, Alyssa Volland, Hajime Takei, Hiroshi Nittono, Tsuyoshi Murai, Takao Kurosawa, George E. Chlipala, Stefan J. Green, Alvaro G. Hernandez, Christopher J. Fields, Christy L. Wright, Genta Kakiyama, Isaac Cann, Purna Kashyap, Vance McCracken, H. Rex Gaskins. The ‘ in vivo lifestyle’ of bile acid 7α-dehydroxylating bacteria: comparative genomics, metatranscriptomic, and bile acid metabolomics analysis of a defined microbial community in gnotobiotic mice. Gut Microbes 2020, 11 (3) , 381-404.
    51. Yongzhong Zhao, Zeneng Wang. Gut microbiome and cardiovascular disease. Current Opinion in Cardiology 2020, 35 (3) , 207-218.
    52. Sabine Heinhorst, Gordon C. Cannon. Bacterial Microcompartments. 2020, 125-147.
    53. Alessandro Dalla Via, Giorgio Gargari, Valentina Taverniti, Greta Rondini, Ilaria Velardi, Veniero Gambaro, Giacomo Luca Visconti, Valerio De Vitis, Claudio Gardana, Enzio Ragg, Andrea Pinto, Patrizia Riso, Simone Guglielmetti. Urinary TMAO Levels Are Associated with the Taxonomic Composition of the Gut Microbiota and with the Choline TMA-Lyase Gene (cutC) Harbored by Enterobacteriaceae. Nutrients 2020, 12 (1) , 62.
    54. Kathryn J. Burton, Ralf Krüger, Valentin Scherz, Linda H. Münger, Gianfranco Picone, Nathalie Vionnet, Claire Bertelli, Gilbert Greub, Francesco Capozzi, Guy Vergères. Trimethylamine-N-Oxide Postprandial Response in Plasma and Urine Is Lower After Fermented Compared to Non-Fermented Dairy Consumption in Healthy Adults. Nutrients 2020, 12 (1) , 234.
    55. Martin Winter, Tom Bretschneider, Sven Thamm, Carola Kleiner, Daniel Grabowski, Sarah Chandler, Robert Ries, Jörg T. Kley, Danielle Fowler, Christina Bartlett, Ralph Binetti, John Broadwater, Andreas H. Luippold, Daniel Bischoff, Frank H. Büttner. Chemical Derivatization Enables MALDI-TOF-Based High-Throughput Screening for Microbial Trimethylamine (TMA)-Lyase Inhibitors. SLAS Discovery 2019, 24 (7) , 766-777.
    56. Lauren J. Rajakovich, Emily P. Balskus. Metabolic functions of the human gut microbiota: the role of metalloenzymes. Natural Product Reports 2019, 36 (4) , 593-625.
    57. Gerard Clarke, Kiran V. Sandhu, Brendan T. Griffin, Timothy G. Dinan, John F. Cryan, Niall P. Hyland, . Gut Reactions: Breaking Down Xenobiotic–Microbiome Interactions. Pharmacological Reviews 2019, 71 (2) , 198-224.
    58. Bryan Ferlez, Markus Sutter, Cheryl A. Kerfeld, . Glycyl Radical Enzyme-Associated Microcompartments: Redox-Replete Bacterial Organelles. mBio 2019, 10 (1)
    59. Spencer C. Peck, Karin Denger, Anna Burrichter, Stephania M. Irwin, Emily P. Balskus, David Schleheck. A glycyl radical enzyme enables hydrogen sulfide production by the human intestinal bacterium Bilophila wadsworthia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2019, 116 (8) , 3171-3176.
    60. Zhongyue Yang, Rimsha Mehmood, Mengyi Wang, Helena W. Qi, Adam H. Steeves, Heather J. Kulik. Revealing quantum mechanical effects in enzyme catalysis with large-scale electronic structure simulation. Reaction Chemistry & Engineering 2019, 4 (2) , 298-315.
    61. Aicha Kriaa, Mélanie Bourgin, Aline Potiron, Héla Mkaouar, Amin Jablaoui, Philippe Gérard, Emmanuelle Maguin, Moez Rhimi. Microbial impact on cholesterol and bile acid metabolism: current status and future prospects. Journal of Lipid Research 2019, 60 (2) , 323-332.
    62. Carina L. Chittim, Ana Martínez del Campo, Emily P. Balskus. Gut bacterial phospholipase Ds support disease-associated metabolism by generating choline. Nature Microbiology 2019, 4 (1) , 155-163.
    63. Letizia Bresciani, Margherita Dall'Asta, Claudia Favari, Luca Calani, Daniele Del Rio, Furio Brighenti. An in vitro exploratory study of dietary strategies based on polyphenol-rich beverages, fruit juices and oils to control trimethylamine production in the colon. Food & Function 2018, 9 (12) , 6470-6483.
    64. Benjamin J Levin, Emily P Balskus. Discovering radical-dependent enzymes in the human gut microbiota. Current Opinion in Chemical Biology 2018, 47 , 86-93.
    65. Jieting Peng, Xun Xiao, Min Hu, Xiangyu Zhang. Interaction between gut microbiome and cardiovascular disease. Life Sciences 2018, 214 , 153-157.
    66. Jessica Crothers, Lynn Bry. Gutting TMA to Save the Heart. Cell Host & Microbe 2018, 24 (4) , 470-471.
    67. Adam B. Roberts, Xiaodong Gu, Jennifer A. Buffa, Alex G. Hurd, Zeneng Wang, Weifei Zhu, Nilaksh Gupta, Sarah M. Skye, David B. Cody, Bruce S. Levison, William T. Barrington, Matthew W. Russell, Jodie M. Reed, Ashraf Duzan, Jennifer M. Lang, Xiaoming Fu, Lin Li, Alex J. Myers, Suguna Rachakonda, Joseph A. DiDonato, J. Mark Brown, Valentin Gogonea, Aldons J. Lusis, Jose Carlos Garcia-Garcia, Stanley L. Hazen. Development of a gut microbe–targeted nonlethal therapeutic to inhibit thrombosis potential. Nature Medicine 2018, 24 (9) , 1407-1417.
    68. Nitzan Koppel, Jordan E Bisanz, Maria-Eirini Pandelia, Peter J Turnbaugh, Emily P Balskus. Discovery and characterization of a prevalent human gut bacterial enzyme sufficient for the inactivation of a family of plant toxins. eLife 2018, 7
    69. Zeneng Wang, Yongzhong Zhao. Gut microbiota derived metabolites in cardiovascular health and disease. Protein & Cell 2018, 9 (5) , 416-431.
    70. Cheryl A. Kerfeld, Clement Aussignargues, Jan Zarzycki, Fei Cai, Markus Sutter. Bacterial microcompartments. Nature Reviews Microbiology 2018, 16 (5) , 277-290.
    71. Gints Kalnins, Eduards Sevostjanovs, Dace Hartmane, Solveiga Grinberga, Kaspars Tars. CntA oxygenase substrate profile comparison and oxygen dependency of TMA production in Providencia rettgeri. Journal of Basic Microbiology 2018, 58 (1) , 52-59.
    72. Smaranda Bodea, Emily P. Balskus. Purification and Characterization of the Choline Trimethylamine-Lyase (CutC)-Activating Protein CutD. 2018, 73-94.
    73. Qian Li, Tao Wu, Rui Liu, Min Zhang, Ruijun Wang. Soluble Dietary Fiber Reduces Trimethylamine Metabolism via Gut Microbiota and Co‐Regulates Host AMPK Pathways. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 2017, 61 (12)
    74. Ming Lyu, Yue-fei Wang, Guan-wei Fan, Xiao-ying Wang, Shuang-yong Xu, Yan Zhu. Balancing Herbal Medicine and Functional Food for Prevention and Treatment of Cardiometabolic Diseases through Modulating Gut Microbiota. Frontiers in Microbiology 2017, 8
    75. Lindsey R. F. Backman, Michael A. Funk, Christopher D. Dawson, Catherine. L. Drennan. New tricks for the glycyl radical enzyme family. Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 2017, 52 (6) , 674-695.
    76. Nitzan Koppel, Vayu Maini Rekdal, Emily P. Balskus. Chemical transformation of xenobiotics by the human gut microbiota. Science 2017, 356 (6344)
    77. C. Long, J. Wang, H.J. Zhang, S.G. Wu, G.H. Qi. Effects of dietary rapeseed meal supplementation on cecal microbiota in laying hens with different flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 genotypes. Poultry Science 2017, 96 (6) , 1748-1758.
    78. Jan Zarzycki, Markus Sutter, Niña Socorro Cortina, Tobias J. Erb, Cheryl A. Kerfeld. In Vitro Characterization and Concerted Function of Three Core Enzymes of a Glycyl Radical Enzyme - Associated Bacterial Microcompartment. Scientific Reports 2017, 7 (1)
    79. B. J. Levin, Y. Y. Huang, S. C. Peck, Y. Wei, A. Martínez-del Campo, J. A. Marks, E. A. Franzosa, C. Huttenhower, E. P. Balskus. A prominent glycyl radical enzyme in human gut microbiomes metabolizes trans -4-hydroxy-l-proline. Science 2017, 355 (6325) , eaai8386.
    80. W.H. Wilson Tang, Stanley L. Hazen. Microbiome, trimethylamine N-oxide, and cardiometabolic disease. Translational Research 2017, 179 , 108-115.
    81. W H Wilson Tang, Zeneng Wang, Xinmin S Li, Yiying Fan, Daniel S Li, Yuping Wu, Stanley L Hazen. Increased Trimethylamine N-Oxide Portends High Mortality Risk Independent of Glycemic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Clinical Chemistry 2017, 63 (1) , 297-306.
    82. Linda S. Zhang, Sean S. Davies. Microbial metabolism of dietary components to bioactive metabolites: opportunities for new therapeutic interventions. Genome Medicine 2016, 8 (1)
    83. Yijun Zhu, Amira Z. Ksibe, Hendrik Schäfer, Claudia A. Blindauer, Timothy D. H. Bugg, Yin Chen. O 2 ‐independent demethylation of trimethylamine N ‐oxide by Tdm of Methylocella silvestris. The FEBS Journal 2016, 283 (21) , 3979-3993.
    84. Smaranda Bodea, Michael A. Funk, Emily P. Balskus, Catherine L. Drennan. Molecular Basis of C–N Bond Cleavage by the Glycyl Radical Enzyme Choline Trimethylamine-Lyase. Cell Chemical Biology 2016, 23 (10) , 1206-1216.
    85. Joan B. Broderick, James D. Moody. Cutting Choline with Radical Scissors. Cell Chemical Biology 2016, 23 (10) , 1173-1174.
    86. Joseph W. LaMattina, Nicholas D. Keul, Pierre Reitzer, Suraj Kapoor, Felipe Galzerani, Daniel J. Koch, Iuri E. Gouvea, William N. Lanzilotta. 1,2-Propanediol Dehydration in Roseburia inulinivorans. Journal of Biological Chemistry 2016, 291 (30) , 15515-15526.
    87. Nitzan Koppel, Emily P. Balskus. Exploring and Understanding the Biochemical Diversity of the Human Microbiota. Cell Chemical Biology 2016, 23 (1) , 18-30.
    88. Johann Heider, Maciej Szaleniec, Berta M. Martins, Deniz Seyhan, Wolfgang Buckel, Bernard T. Golding. Structure and Function of Benzylsuccinate Synthase and Related Fumarate-Adding Glycyl Radical Enzymes. Microbial Physiology 2016, 26 (1-3) , 29-44.
    89. Jan Zarzycki, Onur Erbilgin, Cheryl A. Kerfeld, . Bioinformatic Characterization of Glycyl Radical Enzyme-Associated Bacterial Microcompartments. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2015, 81 (24) , 8315-8329.
    90. Ana Luisa Neves, Julien Chilloux, Magali H Sarafian, Mohd Badrin Abdul Rahim, Claire L Boulangé, Marc-Emmanuel Dumas. The microbiome and its pharmacological targets: therapeutic avenues in cardiometabolic diseases. Current Opinion in Pharmacology 2015, 25 , 36-44.
    91. Naoki Shibata, Tetsuo Toraya. Molecular architectures and functions of radical enzymes and their (re)activating proteins. Journal of Biochemistry 2015, 158 (4) , 271-292.
    92. Gints Kalnins, Janis Kuka, Solveiga Grinberga, Marina Makrecka-Kuka, Edgars Liepinsh, Maija Dambrova, Kaspars Tars. Structure and Function of CutC Choline Lyase from Human Microbiota Bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae. Journal of Biological Chemistry 2015, 290 (35) , 21732-21740.
    93. Nicholas D. Lanz, Squire J. Booker. Auxiliary iron–sulfur cofactors in radical SAM enzymes. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research 2015, 1853 (6) , 1316-1334.
    94. Ana Martínez-del Campo, Smaranda Bodea, Hilary A. Hamer, Jonathan A. Marks, Henry J. Haiser, Peter J. Turnbaugh, Emily P. Balskus, . Characterization and Detection of a Widely Distributed Gene Cluster That Predicts Anaerobic Choline Utilization by Human Gut Bacteria. mBio 2015, 6 (2)
    95. W.H. Wilson Tang, Stanley L. Hazen. The contributory role of gut microbiota in cardiovascular disease. Journal of Clinical Investigation 2014, 124 (10) , 4204-4211.

    Pair your accounts.

    Export articles to Mendeley

    Get article recommendations from ACS based on references in your Mendeley library.

    Pair your accounts.

    Export articles to Mendeley

    Get article recommendations from ACS based on references in your Mendeley library.

    You’ve supercharged your research process with ACS and Mendeley!

    STEP 1:
    Click to create an ACS ID

    Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

    Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

    Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

    Your Mendeley pairing has expired. Please reconnect