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Study of Morphological and Related Properties of Aligned Zinc Oxide Nanorods Grown by Vapor Phase Transport on Chemical Bath Deposited Buffer Layers

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School of Physical Sciences, National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9, Ireland
Departamento Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingeniería Metalúrgica y Química Inorgánica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cádiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cádiz, Spain
§ School of Chemical Sciences, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9, Ireland
Cite this: Cryst. Growth Des. 2011, 11, 12, 5378–5386
Publication Date (Web):October 4, 2011
https://doi.org/10.1021/cg200977n
Copyright © 2011 American Chemical Society
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Abstract

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c-axis aligned ZnO nanorods were deposited by vapor phase transport on textured chemical bath deposited buffer layers. In this work, we examine the role of the buffer layer and how it influences the vapor phase transport deposition process using both scanning and transmission electron microscopes and related techniques. Vapor phase transport deposition on chemical bath deposited buffer layers is a complex growth process with many simultaneously occurring effects including (i) substantial morphological transformation at high temperature, which influences the base of the nanorods; (ii) the formation of a mixed amorphous/crystalline ZnxSi1–xOy interface during the vapor phase transport growth on silicon substrates; (iii) the overgrowth of the ZnO seed layers by the silica interface rendering them inactive for nanorod nucleation, suggesting there is a minimum critical thickness ZnO buffer layer necessary for vapor phase transport growth of ZnO nanorods on silicon substrates. We discuss the relative importance of these effects on the overall growth process and use this understanding to explain previous results in the literature.

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Experimental: description of the growth processes used in this work, including the drop-coating, CBD and VPT steps. Figure S1: Furnace temperature profiles used for the various VPT depositions on CBD buffer layers. Figure S2: HR-TEM and corresponding FFT of a CBD deposited nanorod, growing along the (101̅0) axis. Figure S3: Plan view FE-SEM image of a drop-coated seed layer annealed using FRTP. Figure S4: Plan view FE-SEM image of a VPT grown sample using FRTP, showing the tops of the nanorods with an intermediate network formation around the base of the rods. Figure S5: 90° view (cross-section) of a cleaved edge of CBD grown sample after high temperature annealing, showing the formation of faceted voids and diamond shaped structures. Figure S6: HAADF-STEM images of (a) FRTP annealed CBD buffer layer showing rough and nonuniform interface, (b) FRTP VPT deposited nanorods on CBD buffer layer showing conical base and more uniform interface layer, (c) SRTP deposited nanorods on CBD buffer layer showing a very uniform interface layer. This material is available free of charge via the Internet at http://pubs.acs.org.

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