Pair your accounts.

Export articles to Mendeley

Get article recommendations from ACS based on references in your Mendeley library.

Pair your accounts.

Export articles to Mendeley

Get article recommendations from ACS based on references in your Mendeley library.

You’ve supercharged your research process with ACS and Mendeley!

STEP 1:
Click to create an ACS ID

Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

MENDELEY PAIRING EXPIRED
Your Mendeley pairing has expired. Please reconnect
ACS Publications. Most Trusted. Most Cited. Most Read
My Activity
CONTENT TYPES

Figure 1Loading Img

Alignment, Morphology and Defect Control of Vertically Aligned ZnO Nanorod Array: Competition between “Surfactant” and “Stabilizer” Roles of the Amine Species and Its Photocatalytic Properties

View Author Information
Advanced Materials and Devices Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu 641046, India
Surface and Nanoscience Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu 603102, India
§ School of Physical Sciences, National Centre for Plasma Science & Technology, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9, Ireland
Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu 641046, India
*Tel: (91)9789757888; fax: (91)422-2422387; e-mail: [email protected]
Cite this: Cryst. Growth Des. 2014, 14, 6, 2873–2879
Publication Date (Web):April 18, 2014
https://doi.org/10.1021/cg5001792
Copyright © 2014 American Chemical Society

    Article Views

    1129

    Altmetric

    -

    Citations

    LEARN ABOUT THESE METRICS
    Other access options
    Supporting Info (1)»

    Abstract

    Abstract Image

    We demonstrate effective control of the morphology, defect content and vertical alignment of ZnO nanorod (NR) arrays grown by a solution method by simply varying the hexamine concentration during growth. We show that the amine acts both as a growth ‘stabilizer’ and ‘surfactant’ and controls both Zn release for ZnO formation and caps non-polar planes, respectively. Competition between these ‘stabilizer’ and ‘surfactant’ roles facilitates morphology, alignment and defect content control of 1D ZnO NR arrays. Well aligned, prismatic, defect (Zn interstitial) controlled ZnO NR arrays grown with a 1M amine concentration show higher photocatalytic degradation of Methylene Blue dye solutions under UV irradiation. Shallow donor zinc interstitials readily supply electrons which may increase the space charge near the nano-catalyst surface. The increased band bending associated with the interfacial electric field in the space charge region may then better facilitate the separation of photogenerated carriers and thus enhance the photocatalytic performance. Understanding the role of amine in the solution growth of 1D ZnO NR arrays holds great promise for tailoring ZnO NR functionalities for various potential applications.

    Read this article

    To access this article, please review the available access options below.

    Get instant access

    Purchase Access

    Read this article for 48 hours. Check out below using your ACS ID or as a guest.

    Recommended

    Access through Your Institution

    You may have access to this article through your institution.

    Your institution does not have access to this content. You can change your affiliated institution below.

    Supporting Information

    ARTICLE SECTIONS
    Jump To

    UV–Vis absorption spectra of MB as a function of irradiation time with different amine/zinc nitrate concentrations (0.2:1, 0.5:1, 0.75:1, 1:1,1.5:1, and 2:1). This material is available free of charge via the Internet at http://pubs.acs.org.

    Terms & Conditions

    Most electronic Supporting Information files are available without a subscription to ACS Web Editions. Such files may be downloaded by article for research use (if there is a public use license linked to the relevant article, that license may permit other uses). Permission may be obtained from ACS for other uses through requests via the RightsLink permission system: http://pubs.acs.org/page/copyright/permissions.html.

    Cited By

    This article is cited by 31 publications.

    1. Cigdem Tuc Altaf, Tuluhan Olcayto Colak, Arpad Mihai Rostas, Adriana Popa, Dana Toloman, Maria Suciu, Nurdan Demirci Sankir, Mehmet Sankir. Impact on the Photocatalytic Dye Degradation of Morphology and Annealing-Induced Defects in Zinc Oxide Nanostructures. ACS Omega 2023, 8 (17) , 14952-14964. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.2c07412
    2. Dharman Ranjith Kumar, Kugalur Shanmugam Ranjith, Yuvaraj Haldorai, Asokan Kandasami, Ramasamy Thangavelu Rajendra Kumar. Nitrogen-Implanted ZnO Nanorod Arrays for Visible Light Photocatalytic Degradation of a Pharmaceutical Drug Acetaminophen. ACS Omega 2019, 4 (7) , 11973-11979. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.9b00557
    3. Jan Kegel, Vitaly Z. Zubialevich, Michael Schmidt, Ian M. Povey, Martyn E. Pemble. Effect of Surface and Defect Chemistry on the Photocatalytic Properties of Intentionally Defect-Rich ZnO Nanorod Arrays. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2018, 10 (21) , 17994-18004. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.8b05130
    4. Davide Barreca, Giorgio Carraro, Chiara Maccato, Thomas Altantzis, Kimmo Kaunisto, Alberto Gasparotto. Controlled Growth of Supported ZnO Inverted Nanopyramids with Downward Pointing Tips. Crystal Growth & Design 2018, 18 (4) , 2579-2587. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.cgd.8b00198
    5. Tingqiang Yang, Yueli Liu, Wei Jin, Yiyang Han, Shuang Yang, and Wen Chen . Investigation on the Transformation of Absorbed Oxygen at ZnO {101̅0} Surface Based on a Novel Thermal Pulse Method and Density Functional Theory Simulation. ACS Sensors 2017, 2 (7) , 1051-1059. https://doi.org/10.1021/acssensors.7b00363
    6. Yun-Hyuk Choi and Seong-Hyeon Hong . Effect of the Amine Concentration on Phase Evolution and Densification in Printed Films Using Cu(II) Complex Ink. Langmuir 2015, 31 (29) , 8101-8110. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.5b01207
    7. P. Sakthivel, K. Ramachandran, M. Malarvizhi, S. Karuppuchamy, P. Manivel. A vacuum pressure sensor based on graphene/ZnO nanorod Schottky junction. Carbon Letters 2024, 34 (1) , 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42823-023-00616-x
    8. Jiemin Yin, Shaobing Wu, Ximing Rong, Shun Han, Peijiang Cao, Yuxiang Zeng, Ming Fang, Wenjun Liu, Deliang Zhu, Youming Lu. Electroluminescence enhancement of ZnO nanorods array determined by Au-nanoparticles position under external electric field. Optical Materials 2023, 143 , 114181. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.optmat.2023.114181
    9. S. Umadevi, P. Prabhakar, Young-Kyu Han, Kugalur Shanmugam Ranjith. Nanoscale-based ZnS-GdS shell layer decorated hierarchical ZnO nanorod array photoanode with enhanced photo-electrochemical activity under visible light. Journal of Alloys and Compounds 2023, 942 , 168871. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2023.168871
    10. Jianle Xu, Qing Yao, Pengwei Li, Xiao Zhang, Shuang Wang, Chunxu Pan. Construction of amorphous carbon-coated alpha-Fe2O3 core–shell nanostructure for efficient photocatalytic performance. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics 2022, 33 (28) , 22549-22559. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10854-022-09033-8
    11. Shan Chen, Shu Zhou, Jinli Fu, Sisi Tang, Xiaodan Wu, Pengfei Zhao, Zhaohui Zhang. A near infrared fluorescence imprinted sensor based on zinc oxide nanorods for rapid determination of ketoprofen. Analytical Methods 2021, 13 (25) , 2836-2846. https://doi.org/10.1039/D1AY00555C
    12. Erik Biehler, Rachel Whiteman, Pengtao Lin, Kai Zhang, Helmut Baumgart, Tarek M. Abdel-Fattah. Controlled Synthesis of ZnO Nanorods Using Different Seed Layers. ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology 2020, 9 (12) , 121008. https://doi.org/10.1149/2162-8777/abcb60
    13. Nan Zhang, Quan Quan, Ming-Yu Qi, Zi-Rong Tang, Yi-Jun Xu. Hierarchically tailorable double-array film hybrids with enhanced photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical performances. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 2019, 259 , 118086. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2019.118086
    14. Qinghua Liang, Xiaojuan Liu, Guangming Zeng, Zhifeng Liu, Lin Tang, Binbin Shao, Zhuotong Zeng, Wei Zhang, Yang Liu, Min Cheng, Wangwang Tang, Shanxi Gong. Surfactant-assisted synthesis of photocatalysts: Mechanism, synthesis, recent advances and environmental application. Chemical Engineering Journal 2019, 372 , 429-451. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2019.04.168
    15. Morasae Samadi, Mohammad Zirak, Amene Naseri, Malihe Kheirabadi, Mahdi Ebrahimi, Alireza Z. Moshfegh. Design and tailoring of one-dimensional ZnO nanomaterials for photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes: a review. Research on Chemical Intermediates 2019, 45 (4) , 2197-2254. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11164-018-03729-5
    16. P. Soundarrajan, K. Sankarasubramanian, T. Logu, K. Sethuraman, Arunava Gupta, S.M. Senthil Kumar, K. Jeganathan, K. Ramamurthi. The degree of supersaturation dependent ZnO nano/micro rod arrays thin films growth using chemical bath deposition and hydrothermal methods. Physica E: Low-dimensional Systems and Nanostructures 2019, 106 , 50-56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physe.2018.10.010
    17. Joseph Anthuvan Allen, Duraisamy Murugesan, Chinnuswamy Viswanathan. Circumferential growth of zinc oxide nanostructure anchored over carbon fabric and its photocatalytic performance towards p-nitrophenol. Superlattices and Microstructures 2019, 125 , 159-167. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.spmi.2018.11.007
    18. Kugalur Shanmugam Ranjith, Rutely Burgos Castillo, Mika Sillanpaa, Ramasamy Thangavelu Rajendra Kumar. Effective shell wall thickness of vertically aligned ZnO-ZnS core-shell nanorod arrays on visible photocatalytic and photo sensing properties. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 2018, 237 , 128-139. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2018.03.099
    19. Jan Kegel, Ian M. Povey, Martyn E. Pemble. Zinc oxide for solar water splitting: A brief review of the material's challenges and associated opportunities. Nano Energy 2018, 54 , 409-428. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nanoen.2018.10.043
    20. Behnaz Ghaemi, Sharmin Kharrazi, Amir Amani, Ahmad Reza Shahverdi. Process-dependent photocatalytic performance of quantum sized ZnO nanoparticles. Materials Research Express 2018, 5 (11) , 115027. https://doi.org/10.1088/2053-1591/aadce9
    21. Jan Kegel, Ian M. Povey, Martyn E. Pemble. ZnO Nanorod-Arrays as Photo-(Electro)Chemical Materials: Strategies Designed to Overcome the Material's Natural Limitations. Journal of The Electrochemical Society 2018, 165 (4) , H3034-H3044. https://doi.org/10.1149/2.0051804jes
    22. Alexandra Burger, Rubitha Srikantharajah, Wolfgang Peukert, Andreas Hirsch. Individualization and Stabilization of Zinc Oxide Nanorods by Covalent Functionalization with Positively Charged Catechol Derivatives. Chemistry – A European Journal 2017, 23 (68) , 17257-17268. https://doi.org/10.1002/chem.201702109
    23. Kugalur Shanmugam Ranjith, Lalitha Raveendran Nivedita, Kandasami Asokan, Satheesh Krishnamurthy, Ramanathaswamy Pandian, Mohammed Kamruddin, Devesh Kumar Avasthi, Ramasamy Thangavelu Rajendra Kumar. Robust water repellent ZnO nanorod array by Swift Heavy Ion Irradiation: Effect of Electronic Excitation Induced Local Chemical State Modification. Scientific Reports 2017, 7 (1) https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-03313-8
    24. Kuglaur Shanmugam Ranjith, Palanisamy Manivel, Ramasamy Thangavel Rajendrakumar, Tamer Uyar. Multifunctional ZnO nanorod-reduced graphene oxide hybrids nanocomposites for effective water remediation: Effective sunlight driven degradation of organic dyes and rapid heavy metal adsorption. Chemical Engineering Journal 2017, 325 , 588-600. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2017.05.105
    25. A. Khayatian, V. Asgari, A. Ramazani, S.F. Akhtarianfar, M. Almasi Kashi, S. Safa. Diameter-controlled synthesis of ZnO nanorods on Fe-doped ZnO seed layer and enhanced photodetection performance. Materials Research Bulletin 2017, 94 , 77-84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.materresbull.2017.05.023
    26. K. S. Ranjith, R. T. Rajendra Kumar. Regeneration of an efficient, solar active hierarchical ZnO flower photocatalyst for repeatable usage: controlled desorption of poisoned species from active catalytic sites. RSC Advances 2017, 7 (9) , 4983-4992. https://doi.org/10.1039/C6RA27380G
    27. Jan Kegel, Fathima Laffir, Ian M. Povey, Martyn E. Pemble. Defect-promoted photo-electrochemical performance enhancement of orange-luminescent ZnO nanorod-arrays. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 2017, 19 (19) , 12255-12268. https://doi.org/10.1039/C7CP01606A
    28. K.S. Ranjith, P. Saravanan, V.T.P. Vinod, Jan Filip, Miroslav Černík, R.T. Rajendra Kumar. Ce 2 S 3 decorated ZnO-ZnS core-shell nanorod arrays: Efficient solar-driven photocatalytic properties. Catalysis Today 2016, 278 , 271-279. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cattod.2016.05.011
    29. K.S. Ranjith, R.T. Rajendra Kumar. Surfactant free, simple, morphological and defect engineered ZnO nanocatalyst: Effective study on sunlight driven and reusable photocatalytic properties. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry 2016, 329 , 35-45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotochem.2016.06.014
    30. Hatim Alnoor, Chan Oeurn Chey, Galia Pozina, Xianjie Liu, Volodymyr Khranovskyy, Magnus Willander, Omer Nur. Effect of precursor solutions stirring on deep level defects concentration and spatial distribution in low temperature aqueous chemical synthesis of zinc oxide nanorods. AIP Advances 2015, 5 (8) https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4929981
    31. P. Soundarrajan, K. Sankarasubramanian, M. Sampath, T. Logu, K. Sethuraman, K. Ramamurthi. Cu ions induced reorientation of crystallite in ZnO nano/micro rod arrays thin films. Physica E: Low-dimensional Systems and Nanostructures 2015, 71 , 56-63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physe.2015.03.022