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Heteroepitaxy of Organic Nanofibers: Example of Ternaphthalene on p-Hexaphenyl

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Institute of Semiconductor and Solid State Physics, Johannes Kepler University, Altenbergerstrasse 69, A-4040 Linz, Austria
Institute of Solid State Physics, Graz University of Technology, Petersgasse 16, A-8010 Graz, Austria
Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands
§ Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Cagliari, SLACS-INFM/CNR, I-09042 Monserrato, Cagliari, Italy
Cite this: Cryst. Growth Des. 2014, 14, 11, 5719–5728
Publication Date (Web):October 6, 2014
https://doi.org/10.1021/cg500979p
Copyright © 2014 American Chemical Society

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    Abstract

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    Nowadays heteroepitaxy is well understood and investigated for inorganic compounds. In contrast, the epitaxial growth of organic–organic multilayer structures is rarely reported. By a comprehensive comparison between experiments and simulations, we demonstrate that highly anisotropic, needle-shaped p-hexaphenyl (p-6P) crystallites can efficiently act as an organic template and that the epitaxial overgrowth by 2,2′:6′,2″-ternaphthalene (NNN) yields a high molecular order and optical anisotropy of the nucleated NNN crystallites. It is shown that surface corrugations formed by the p-6P template are responsible for a parallel molecular alignment and a geometrical adoption of the herringbone stacking sequence of NNN. On the basis of the obtained results, it can be concluded that, in contrast to inorganic heteroepitaxy, lattice matching plays a minor role, whereas a geometrical adoption of the molecular stacking is directly connected with an optimized adsorption energy. In that sense, polarization-dependent photoluminescence studies prove a significantly increased optical anisotropy of NNN crystallites, when a p-6P template layer is inserted between NNN and the muscovite mica substrate. The organic interlayer is also responsible for the formation of a different NNN contact plane and the suppression of island-shaped crystal morphologies which are a fingerprint for standing molecular configurations. Consequently, only highly anisotropic, lying molecular orientations are obtained, which is relevant for the design of future organic-based optoelectronic devices.

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    A detailed description of the performed force field simulations, structural investigations, and X-ray pole figure analysis. This material is available free of charge via the Internet at http://pubs.acs.org.

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    Cited By

    This article is cited by 6 publications.

    1. Yasuo Nakayama, Yuta Mizuno, Takuya Hosokai, Tomoyuki Koganezawa, Ryohei Tsuruta, Alexander Hinderhofer, Alexander Gerlach, Katharina Broch, Valentina Belova, Heiko Frank, Masayuki Yamamoto, Jens Niederhausen, Hendrik Glowatzki, Jürgen P. Rabe, Norbert Koch, Hisao Ishii, Frank Schreiber, and Nobuo Ueno . Epitaxial Growth of an Organic p–n Heterojunction: C60 on Single-Crystal Pentacene. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2016, 8 (21) , 13499-13505. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.6b02744
    2. Frank Balzer, Christian Röthel, Horst-Günter Rubahn, Arne Lützen, Jürgen Parisi, Roland Resel, and Manuela Schiek . Thin Film Phase and Local Chirality of Surface-Bound MOP4 Nanofibers. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C 2016, 120 (14) , 7653-7661. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcc.6b01273
    3. Mosè Casalegno, Massimo Moret, Roland Resel, and Guido Raos . Surface Reconstructions in Organic Crystals: Simulations of the Effect of Temperature and Defectivity on Bulk and (001) Surfaces of 2,2′:6′,2″-Ternaphthalene. Crystal Growth & Design 2016, 16 (1) , 412-422. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.cgd.5b01405
    4. Luciana Tavares, Michele Cadelano, Francesco Quochi, Clemens Simbrunner, Günther Schwabegger, Michele Saba, Andrea Mura, Giovanni Bongiovanni, Demétrio Antônio da Silva Filho, Wiliam Ferreira da Cunha, Horst-Günter Rubahn, and Jakob Kjelstrup-Hansen . Efficient Exciton Diffusion and Resonance-Energy Transfer in Multilayered Organic Epitaxial Nanofibers. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C 2015, 119 (27) , 15689-15697. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcc.5b02405
    5. Naien Shi, Dandan Xu, Xinhui Zhou, Lin Song, Liang Li, Linghai Xie, Lianhui Wang, Mingdong Yi, Wei Huang. Shape uniformity control of metal–organic framework nanodisks via surfactant and substrate synergetic scissoring effects and their fluorescence sensing properties. CrystEngComm 2016, 18 (25) , 4830-4835. https://doi.org/10.1039/C6CE00818F
    6. Silvia Trabattoni, Luisa Raimondo, Marcello Campione, Daniele Braga, Vincent C. Holmberg, David J. Norris, Massimo Moret, Andrea Ciavatti, Beatrice Fraboni, Adele Sassella. Substrate Selection for Full Exploitation of Organic Semiconductor Films: Epitaxial Rubrene on β‐Alanine Single Crystals. Advanced Materials Interfaces 2015, 2 (18) https://doi.org/10.1002/admi.201500423

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