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Curvature Effect on the Capacitance of Electric Double Layers at Ionic Liquid/Onion-Like Carbon Interfaces

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Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235, United States
§ Chemical Sciences Division and §Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831, United States
Cite this: J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2012, 8, 3, 1058–1063
Publication Date (Web):February 2, 2012
Copyright © 2012 American Chemical Society

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    Recent experiments have revealed that onion-like carbons (OLCs) offer high energy density and charging/discharging rates when used as the electrodes in supercapacitors. To understand the physical origin of this phenomenon, molecular dynamics simulations were performed for a room-temperature ionic liquid near idealized spherical OLCs with radii ranging from 0.356 to 1.223 nm. We find that the surface charge density increases almost linearly with the potential applied on electric double layers (EDLs) near OLCs. This leads to a nearly flat shape of the differential capacitance versus the potential, unlike the bell or camel shape observed on planar electrodes. Moreover, our simulations reveal that the capacitance of EDLs on OLCs increases with the curvature or as the OLC size decreases, in agreement with experimental observations. The curvature effect is explained by dominance of charge overscreening over a wide potential range and increased ion density per unit area of electrode surface as the OLC becomes smaller.

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    Details of surface charge density vs the applied potential on the EDL near OLC and the microstructures of electrical double layers in ionic liquids. This material is available free of charge via the Internet at

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