ACS Publications. Most Trusted. Most Cited. Most Read
My Activity
CONTENT TYPES

Figure 1Loading Img

Polychlorinated Dioxins and Furans from the World Trade Center Attacks in Exterior Window Films from Lower Manhattan in New York City

View Author Information
Department of Chemistry, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3065, Victoria, BC, Canada, V8W 3V6
Institute of Ocean Sciences, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 9860 West Saanich Road, Sidney, BC, Canada V8L 4B2
Department of Geography, University of Toronto, 45 St. George Street, Toronto, ON, Canada, M5S 3G3
Cite this: Environ. Sci. Technol. 2005, 39, 7, 1995–2003
Publication Date (Web):February 15, 2005
https://doi.org/10.1021/es049211k
Copyright © 2005 American Chemical Society

    Article Views

    297

    Altmetric

    -

    Citations

    LEARN ABOUT THESE METRICS
    Other access options
    Supporting Info (1)»

    Abstract

    Samples of ambient organic films deposited on exterior window surfaces from lower Manhattan and Brooklyn in New York City were collected six weeks after the terrorist attacks at the World Trade Center (WTC) on September 11, 2001 and analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). Total tetra- through octa-CDD/F concentrations in window films within 1 km of the WTC site in lower Manhattan ranged up to 630 000 pg/m2 (estimated as a mass concentration of ca. 1 300 000 pg/g) and a maximum toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentration of 4700 TEQ/m2 (ca. 10 000 pg TEQ/g). Measurements at a background site 3.5 km away in Brooklyn showed lower concentrations at 130 pg TEQ/m2 (260 pg TEQ/g). Ambient gas-phase PCDD/F concentrations estimated for each site using an equilibrium partitioning model suggested concentrations ranging from ca. 2700 fg-TEQ/m3 near the WTC site to the more typical urban concentration of 20 fg-TEQ/m3 at the Brooklyn site. Multivariate analyses of 2,3,7,8-substitued congeners and homologue group profiles suggested unique patterns in films near the WTC site compared to that observed at background sites in the study area and in other literature-derived combustion source profiles. Homologue profiles near the WTC site were dominated by tetra-, penta-, and Hexa-CDD/Fs, and 2,3,7,8-substituted profiles contained mostly octa- and hexachlorinated congeners. In comparison, profiles in Brooklyn and near mid-Manhattan exhibited congener and homologue patterns comprised mainly of hepta- and octa-CDDs, similar to that commonly reported in background air and soil.

    Read this article

    To access this article, please review the available access options below.

    Get instant access

    Purchase Access

    Read this article for 48 hours. Check out below using your ACS ID or as a guest.

    Recommended

    Access through Your Institution

    You may have access to this article through your institution.

    Your institution does not have access to this content. You can change your affiliated institution below.

    *

     Corresponding author phone:  (250)363-6804; fax:  (250)363-6807 e-mail:  [email protected].

    Supporting Information Available

    ARTICLE SECTIONS
    Jump To

    Additional tables as noted in the text. This material is available free of charge via the Internet at http://pubs.acs.org.

    Terms & Conditions

    Most electronic Supporting Information files are available without a subscription to ACS Web Editions. Such files may be downloaded by article for research use (if there is a public use license linked to the relevant article, that license may permit other uses). Permission may be obtained from ACS for other uses through requests via the RightsLink permission system: http://pubs.acs.org/page/copyright/permissions.html.

    Cited By

    This article is cited by 19 publications.

    1. Elisa Terzaghi, Marco Scacchi, Bruno Cerabolini, Kevin C. Jones, and Antonio Di Guardo . Estimation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Variability in Air Using High Volume, Film, and Vegetation as Samplers. Environmental Science & Technology 2015, 49 (9) , 5520-5528. https://doi.org/10.1021/es5056929
    2. Yuichi Horii, Qinting Jiang, Nobuyasu Hanari, Paul K. S. Lam, Nobuyoshi Yamashita, Robert Jansing, Kenneth M. Aldous, Matthew P. Mauer, George A. Eadon and Kurunthachalam Kannan . Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins, Dibenzofurans, Biphenyls, and Naphthalenes in Plasma of Workers Deployed at the World Trade Center after the Collapse. Environmental Science & Technology 2010, 44 (13) , 5188-5194. https://doi.org/10.1021/es100282d
    3. Joachim D. Pleil and, Matthew N. Lorber. Relative Congener Scaling of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans to Estimate Building Fire Contributions in Air, Surface Wipes, and Dust Samples. Environmental Science & Technology 2007, 41 (21) , 7286-7293. https://doi.org/10.1021/es070714a
    4. Joachim D. Pleil,, William E. Funk, and, Stephen M. Rappaport. Residual Indoor Contamination from World Trade Center Rubble Fires as Indicated by Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Profiles. Environmental Science & Technology 2006, 40 (4) , 1172-1177. https://doi.org/10.1021/es0517015
    5. Miranda J. Spratlen, Frederica P. Perera, Andreas Sjodin, Yuyan Wang, Julie B. Herbstman, Leonardo Trasande. Understanding the Role of Persistent Organic Pollutants and Stress in the Association between Proximity to the World Trade Center Disaster and Birth Outcomes. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2022, 19 (4) , 2008. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19042008
    6. Albeliz Santiago-Colón, Robert Daniels, Dori Reissman, Kristi Anderson, Geoffrey Calvert, Alexis Caplan, Tania Carreón, Alan Katruska, Travis Kubale, Ruiling Liu, Rhonda Nembhard, W. Allen Robison, James Yiin, John Howard. World Trade Center Health Program: First Decade of Research. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2020, 17 (19) , 7290. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17197290
    7. Michael Marmor, Sujata Thawani, Maria Luisa Cotrina, Yongzhao Shao, Ericka S. Wong, Mark M. Stecker, Bin Wang, Alexander Allen, Marc Wilkenfeld, Etta J. Vinik, Aaron I. Vinik, Joan Reibman. Case-Control Study of Paresthesia Among World Trade Center-Exposed Community Members. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine 2020, 62 (4) , 307-316. https://doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000001828
    8. A Leśków, M Nawrocka, M Łątkowska, M Tarnowska, N Galas, A Matejuk, I Całkosiński. Can contamination of the environment by dioxins cause craniofacial defects?. Human & Experimental Toxicology 2019, 38 (9) , 1014-1023. https://doi.org/10.1177/0960327119855121
    9. Linda G. Kahn, Xiaoxia Han, Tony T. Koshy, Yongzhao Shao, Dinh Binh Chu, Kurunthachalam Kannan, Leonardo Trasande. Adolescents exposed to the World Trade Center collapse have elevated serum dioxin and furan concentrations more than 12 years later. Environment International 2018, 111 , 268-278. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2017.11.026
    10. Eric J. Reiner. Analysis of Dioxin and Dioxin-Like Compounds. 2016, 51-94. https://doi.org/10.1007/698_2016_456
    11. Marcel Klees, Ernst Hiester, Torsten C. Schmidt. Analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in particulate and oily films on impervious surfaces. Science of The Total Environment 2015, 538 , 363-374. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.08.054
    12. Michaela Kendall, Mitchell Cohen, Lung-Chi Chen. The World Trade Centre Disaster. 2015, 574-601. https://doi.org/10.1039/9781849737487-00574
    13. Joanna Rosińczuk, Ireneusz Całkosiński. Effect of tocopherol and acetylsalicylic acid on the biochemical indices of blood in dioxin-exposed rats. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 2015, 40 (1) , 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2015.04.017
    14. Joachim D Pleil, Matthew A Stiegel, Jon R Sobus, Qian Liu, Michael C Madden. Observing the human exposome as reflected in breath biomarkers: heat map data interpretation for environmental and intelligence research. Journal of Breath Research 2011, 5 (3) , 037104. https://doi.org/10.1088/1752-7155/5/3/037104
    15. Eric J. Reiner. The analysis of dioxins and related compounds. Mass Spectrometry Reviews 2010, 29 (4) , 526-559. https://doi.org/10.1002/mas.20255
    16. Erin Hodge, Miriam Diamond. Sources, Fate and Effects of Contaminant Emissions in Urban Areas. 2009, 171-207. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470684122.ch6
    17. Maria Unger, Örjan Gustafsson. PAHs in Stockholm window films: Evaluation of the utility of window film content as indicator of PAHs in urban air. Atmospheric Environment 2008, 42 (22) , 5550-5557. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.03.030
    18. Eric J. Reiner, Ray E. Clement, Allan B. Okey, Chris H. Marvin. Advances in analytical techniques for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dioxin-like PCBs. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 2006, 386 (4) , 791-806. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-006-0479-1
    19. Jacqueline Moline, Robin Herbert, Ngoctram Nguyen. Health Consequences of the September 11 World Trade Center Attacks: A Review. Cancer Investigation 2006, 24 (3) , 294-301. https://doi.org/10.1080/07357900600633965

    Pair your accounts.

    Export articles to Mendeley

    Get article recommendations from ACS based on references in your Mendeley library.

    Pair your accounts.

    Export articles to Mendeley

    Get article recommendations from ACS based on references in your Mendeley library.

    You’ve supercharged your research process with ACS and Mendeley!

    STEP 1:
    Click to create an ACS ID

    Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

    Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

    Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

    MENDELEY PAIRING EXPIRED
    Your Mendeley pairing has expired. Please reconnect