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Determination of the sources of Indoor PM2.5 in Amsterdam and Helsinki

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Department of Environmental Health, National Public Health Institute (KTL), P.O. Box 95, FIN-70701 Kuopio, Finland, Helmholz Zentrum München, Neuherberg, Germany, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Utrecht University, Division of Environmental Health, Utrecht, The Netherlands, and School of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Kuopio, Finland
* Corresponding author phone: +358 17 201 158 ; fax: +358 17 201 480; e-mail: [email protected]
†National Public Health Institute.
‡Helmholz Zentrum München.
§Utrecht University.
⊥University of Kuopio.
Cite this: Environ. Sci. Technol. 2008, 42, 12, 4440–4446
Publication Date (Web):May 14, 2008
Copyright © 2008 American Chemical Society

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    Daily PM2.5 samples were repeatedly collected (1−8 times) in the homes of elderly nonsmoking individuals with coronary heart disease in Amsterdam, The Netherlands (33 individuals) and Helsinki, Finland (44 individuals). Sources of indoor PM2.5 were evaluated using a two-way multilinear engine model. Because the indoor elemental data lacked a traffic marker, separation of traffic related PM was attempted by combining the indoor data with fixed site outdoor data that also contained NO. Six outdoor sources, including long-range transport (LRT), urban mixture, oil combustion, traffic, sea-salt, and soil were identified, and three indoor sources were resolved: resuspension, potassium-rich and copper-rich sources. The average contribution of the indoor factors was 6% (1.1 µg m−3) and 22% (2.4 µg m−3) in Amsterdam and Helsinki, respectively. The highest longitudinal correlations between source-specific outdoor and indoor PM2.5 concentrations were found for LRT and urban mixture; the median R was above 0.6 for most sources. The longitudinal correlations were lower in Helsinki than in Amsterdam. Indoor-generated PM2.5 was not related to ambient concentrations. We conclude that using outdoor and indoor data together improved the source apportionment of indoor PM2.5. The results support the use of fixed site outdoor measurements in epidemiological time-series studies on outdoor air pollution.

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    Description of the ME 2-way model; geometric mean, geometric standard deviation, and percentages below the detection limit for variables used in the pooled outdoor-indoor model (Table S1); composition of the source specific PM2.5 for outdoor and pooled outdoor-indoor models (Figure S1). This material is available free of charge via the Internet at

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