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Thirdhand Smoke: Heterogeneous Oxidation of Nicotine and Secondary Aerosol Formation in the Indoor Environment

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Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel 32000
* Corresponding author phone: +972 4 829 5899; fax: +972 4 822 8898; e-mail: [email protected]
Cite this: Environ. Sci. Technol. 2011, 45, 1, 328–333
Publication Date (Web):December 8, 2010
Copyright © 2010 American Chemical Society

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    Tobacco smoking is well-known as a significant source of primary indoor air pollutants. However, only recently has thirdhand smoke (THS) been recognized as a contributor to indoor pollution due to the role of indoor surfaces. Here, the effects of relative humidity (<10% RH and ∼45% RH) and substrate (cellulose, cotton, and paper) on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from nicotine-ozone-NOx reactions are discussed. SOA formation from the sorbed nicotine-ozone reaction ([O3] = 55 ppb) varied in size distribution and number, depending on RH and substrate type, indicating the role of substrate and water interactions in SOA formation. This led to SOA yields from cellulose sorbed nicotine-ozone reaction of ∼1 and 2% for wet and dry conditions, respectively. SOA formation from nicotine-NOx reactions was not distinguishable from background levels. Simultaneously, cellulose sorbed nicotine-ozone reaction kinetics ([O3] = 55 ppb) were obtained and revealed pseudofirst-order surface rate constants of k1 = (1 ± 0. 5) × 10−3 and k1 < 10−4 min−1 under <10% and ∼45% RH, respectively. Given the toxicity of some of the identified products and that small particles may contribute to adverse health effects, the present study indicates that exposure to THS ozonation products may pose additional health risks.

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    Scheme of experimental set up, time-resolved figure of SOA formation under various experimental conditions, list of reactions used to determine NOx concentrations, nicotine-substrate characterization, SOA formation from substrates, detailed derivatization of pseudofirst-order kinetics, proposed reaction mechanism, detailed description of mutagenicity tests, and exposure model describing hypothetical smoking scenario. This material is available free of charge via the Internet at

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