ACS Publications. Most Trusted. Most Cited. Most Read
My Activity

Figure 1Loading Img

Impact of Aggregate Size and Structure on the Photocatalytic Properties of TiO2 and ZnO Nanoparticles

View Author Information
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Pratt School of Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708, United States
*Phone: 919-660-5292; fax: 919-660-5219; e-mail: [email protected]
Cite this: Environ. Sci. Technol. 2012, 46, 13, 6934–6941
Publication Date (Web):January 5, 2012
Copyright © 2012 American Chemical Society

    Article Views





    Read OnlinePDF (2 MB)
    Supporting Info (1)»


    Abstract Image

    Aggregation of photocatalytic semiconductors was determined to reduce the generation of free hydroxyl radicals in aqueous suspensions in a fashion dependent on aggregate size and structure. Static light scattering measurements were used to follow temporal changes in the fractal dimension of aggregating TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles. At length scales comparable to nanoparticle size, the structure of aggregated TiO2 nanoparticles was independent of particle stability and the associated aggregation rate, consistent with the fused nature of TiO2 primary particles in the initial suspension. In contrast, ZnO aggregates were characterized by smaller fractal dimensions when ionic strength, and the resulting aggregation rate, were increased. The photocatalytic activity of ZnO and TiO2 in generating free hydroxyl radicals varied with aggregate structure and size, consistent with theory that predicts reduced reactivity as aggregates become larger and more dense.

    Supporting Information

    Jump To

    Changes in Rh over time for TiO2 (Figure S1a) and ZnO (Figure S1b) after the addition of NaCl; changes in EPM as function of NaCl concentrations (Figure S1c); log(I) vs log(q) over time for aggregating TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles (Figure S2a–e); multiple scattering verification (Figure S3); impact of aggregate size on hydroxyl radical generation in TiO2 (Figure S4a) and ZnO (Figure S4b) suspensions; change in photoabsorbance over time (Figure S5a–e); excitation spectra of UV bulb (Figure S6); model parameter values (Table S1); estimated light intensity for each wavelength (Table S2). This material is available free of charge via the Internet at

    Terms & Conditions

    Most electronic Supporting Information files are available without a subscription to ACS Web Editions. Such files may be downloaded by article for research use (if there is a public use license linked to the relevant article, that license may permit other uses). Permission may be obtained from ACS for other uses through requests via the RightsLink permission system:

    Cited By

    This article is cited by 213 publications.

    1. Nargish Parvin, Tapas Kumar Mandal, Sang Woo Joo. Application of Bimetallic Heterojunction Nanoparticle-Based Multishelled Porous Hollow Microspheres as a Two-in-One Inorganic UV Filter. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering 2023, 11 (45) , 16133-16143.
    2. Yuan Wang, Zhongyuan Wu, Ting Wang, Weilong Tang, Tingting Li, Haiping Xu, Hui Sun, Yifan Lin, Bruna S. H. Tonin, Zhou Ye, Jing Fu. Bioactive Dental Resin Composites with MgO Nanoparticles. ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering 2023, 9 (8) , 4632-4645.
    3. Fei Wang, Yuxin Liu, Manman Cao, Beihai Zhou, Huilun Chen, Rongfang Yuan, Shuhu Liu, Baoshan Xing. Mechanisms of ZnO Nanoparticles Enhancing Phototransformation of Biologically Derived Organic Phosphorus in Aquatic Environments. Environmental Science & Technology 2023, 57 (9) , 3691-3702.
    4. Jun Hu, Guo-qing Zhao, Li-xu Wu, Chun Sun, Xuan Long, Xin-qi Long, Fei-peng Jiao. Designing and Fabricating a Vulcanized ZnAl LDH-Modified g-C3N4 Heterojunction for Enhanced Visible-Light-Driven Photocatalytic Degradation Activity. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 2022, 61 (41) , 15225-15239.
    5. Elizabeth A. K. Wilson, Prashant Kumar, Douglas G. Montjoy, Nicholas A. Kotov. Dispersion of Hydrophilic “Hedgehog” Microparticles in Liquid CO2 Mixtures. ACS Nano 2022, 16 (9) , 13942-13948.
    6. Xiaowei Hu, Heqing Jiang, Chenyu Ma, Shuna Duan, Yechun Wang, Jinwen Shi, Hui Jin, Yueshe Wang, Shaohua Shen. Shear-Induced Aggregation and Distribution in Photocatalysis Suspension System for Hydrogen Production. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 2022, 61 (19) , 6722-6732.
    7. Gertrude Kignelman, Samuel Eyley, Chen Zhou, Bensu Tunca, Maurice Gonon, Driss Lahem, Jin W. Seo, Wim Thielemans. Colloidal Stability and Aggregation Mechanism in Aqueous Suspensions of TiO2 Nanoparticles Prepared by Sol–Gel Synthesis. Langmuir 2021, 37 (51) , 14846-14855.
    8. Dhruba K. Pattadar, Harikrishnan N. Nambiar, Stacy L. Allen, Jacek B. Jasinski, Francis P. Zamborini. Effect of Metal Nanoparticle Aggregate Structure on the Thermodynamics of Oxidative Dissolution. Langmuir 2021, 37 (24) , 7320-7327.
    9. Pankaj Ghildiyal, Prithwish Biswas, Steven Herrera, George W. Mulholland, Yong Yang, Reza Abbaschian, Michael R. Zachariah. Magnetic-Field Directed Vapor-Phase Assembly of Low Fractal Dimension Metal Nanostructures: Experiment and Theory. The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 2021, 12 (16) , 4085-4091.
    10. Rosalynn Quiñones, Sara Moreno, Deben Shoup, Mieke Klein, Tamara D. Westfall, Aakriti Damai. Examining Particle Size of Inorganic Active Ingredients within Sunscreens Using Dynamic Light Scattering. Journal of Chemical Education 2021, 98 (4) , 1371-1380.
    11. Buzuayehu Abebe, Enyew A. Zereffa, H C Ananda Murthy. Synthesis of Poly(vinyl alcohol)-Aided ZnO/Mn2O3 Nanocomposites for Acid Orange-8 Dye Degradation: Mechanism and Antibacterial Activity. ACS Omega 2021, 6 (1) , 954-964.
    12. Alejandro J. Perez, Janis E. Patiño, Miroslav Soos, Verónica L. Morales. Morphology of Shear-Induced Colloidal Aggregates in Porous Media: Consequences for Transport, Deposition, and Re-entrainment. Environmental Science & Technology 2020, 54 (9) , 5813-5821.
    13. Emily Olson, Yifan Li, Fang-Yi Lin, Ana Miller, Fei Liu, Ayuna Tsyrenova, Devin Palm, Greg W. Curtzwiler, Keith L. Vorst, Eric Cochran, Shan Jiang. Thin Biobased Transparent UV-Blocking Coating Enabled by Nanoparticle Self-Assembly. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2019, 11 (27) , 24552-24559.
    14. Peng Zhao, Lijie Wang, Yusen Wu, Tao Yang, Yun Ding, Hua Gui Yang, Aiguo Hu. Hyperbranched Conjugated Polymer Dots: The Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity for Visible Light-Driven Hydrogen Production. Macromolecules 2019, 52 (11) , 4376-4384.
    15. Sheng-qi Guo, Xiao-he Zhu, Hai-jun Zhang, Bing-chuan Gu, Wei Chen, Lu Liu, Pedro J. J. Alvarez. Improving Photocatalytic Water Treatment through Nanocrystal Engineering: Mesoporous Nanosheet-Assembled 3D BiOCl Hierarchical Nanostructures That Induce Unprecedented Large Vacancies. Environmental Science & Technology 2018, 52 (12) , 6872-6880.
    16. Jacek K. Stolarczyk, Santanu Bhattacharyya, Lakshminarayana Polavarapu, Jochen Feldmann. Challenges and Prospects in Solar Water Splitting and CO2 Reduction with Inorganic and Hybrid Nanostructures. ACS Catalysis 2018, 8 (4) , 3602-3635.
    17. Jeffrey Farner Budarz, Andrea Turolla, Aleksander F. Piasecki, Jean-Yves Bottero, Manuela Antonelli, and Mark R. Wiesner . Influence of Aqueous Inorganic Anions on the Reactivity of Nanoparticles in TiO2 Photocatalysis. Langmuir 2017, 33 (11) , 2770-2779.
    18. Ghulam Raza, Muhammad Amjad, Inder Kaur, and Dongsheng Wen . Stability and Aggregation Kinetics of Titania Nanomaterials under Environmentally Realistic Conditions. Environmental Science & Technology 2016, 50 (16) , 8462-8472.
    19. Chia-Ying Chen and Richard G. Zepp . Probing Photosensitization by Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes. Environmental Science & Technology 2015, 49 (23) , 13835-13843.
    20. Eric J. Roth, Benjamin Gilbert, and David C. Mays . Colloid Deposit Morphology and Clogging in Porous Media: Fundamental Insights Through Investigation of Deposit Fractal Dimension. Environmental Science & Technology 2015, 49 (20) , 12263-12270.
    21. Jing Sun, Liang-Hong Guo, Hui Zhang, and Lixia Zhao . UV Irradiation Induced Transformation of TiO2 Nanoparticles in Water: Aggregation and Photoreactivity. Environmental Science & Technology 2014, 48 (20) , 11962-11968.
    22. Gregory Mogilevsky, Olga Hartman, Erik D. Emmons, Alex Balboa, Jared B. DeCoste, Bryan J. Schindler, Ivan Iordanov, and Christopher J. Karwacki . Bottom-Up Synthesis of Anatase Nanoparticles with Graphene Domains. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2014, 6 (13) , 10638-10648.
    23. Andreas P. Gondikas, Frank von der Kammer, Robert B. Reed, Stephan Wagner, James F. Ranville, and Thilo Hofmann . Release of TiO2 Nanoparticles from Sunscreens into Surface Waters: A One-Year Survey at the Old Danube Recreational Lake. Environmental Science & Technology 2014, 48 (10) , 5415-5422.
    24. Niya Mary Jacob, Giridhar Madras, Nagaraju Kottam, and Tiju Thomas . Multivalent Cu-Doped ZnO Nanoparticles with Full Solar Spectrum Absorbance and Enhanced Photoactivity. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 2014, 53 (14) , 5895-5904.
    25. Mahsa Motegh, J. Ruud van Ommen, Peter W. Appel, and Michiel T. Kreutzer . Scale-Up Study of a Multiphase Photocatalytic Reactor—Degradation of Cyanide in Water over TiO2. Environmental Science & Technology 2014, 48 (3) , 1574-1581.
    26. Chung-Yi Wu Yu-Shiu Lo Chien-Hou Wua . Thickness Dependent Photocatalytic Performance of Nanocrystalline TiO2 Thin Films. 2014, 85-109.
    27. Shouwei Zhang, Jiaxing Li, Meiyi Zeng, Guixia Zhao, Jinzhang Xu, Wenping Hu, and Xiangke Wang . In Situ Synthesis of Water-Soluble Magnetic Graphitic Carbon Nitride Photocatalyst and Its Synergistic Catalytic Performance. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2013, 5 (23) , 12735-12743.
    28. Tiezheng Tong, Anas Shereef, Jinsong Wu, Chu Thi Thanh Binh, John J. Kelly, Jean-François Gaillard, and Kimberly A. Gray . Effects of Material Morphology on the Phototoxicity of Nano-TiO2 to Bacteria. Environmental Science & Technology 2013, 47 (21) , 12486-12495.
    29. Nichola M. Kinsinger, Alexander Dudchenko, Ashley Wong, and David Kisailus . Synergistic Effect of pH and Phase in a Nanocrystalline Titania Photocatalyst. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2013, 5 (13) , 6247-6254.
    30. Camille Guiot and Olivier Spalla . Stabilization of TiO2 Nanoparticles in Complex Medium through a pH Adjustment Protocol. Environmental Science & Technology 2013, 47 (2) , 1057-1064.
    31. Shihong Lin and Mark R. Wiesner . Deposition of Aggregated Nanoparticles — A Theoretical and Experimental Study on the Effect of Aggregation State on the Affinity between Nanoparticles and a Collector Surface. Environmental Science & Technology 2012, 46 (24) , 13270-13277.
    32. Appala Raju Badireddy, Jeffrey Farner Budarz, Shankararaman Chellam, and Mark R. Wiesner . Bacteriophage Inactivation by UV-A Illuminated Fullerenes: Role of Nanoparticle-Virus Association and Biological Targets. Environmental Science & Technology 2012, 46 (11) , 5963-5970.
    33. L. Wang, S. Liu, J. Lu, Z. Yuan, D. Gao, Y. Li. Construction of ZnFe2O4/g-C3N4 nanocomposite catalyst for degradation of organic compound through photodegradation and heterogeneous Fenton oxidation. Materials Today Sustainability 2023, 24 , 100514.
    34. Muddassir Ali Memon, M. Wasim Akhtar, Muhammad Yasir Khan, Muhammad Yar Khuhawar, Abdullah, Yang Soo Kim. Augmented Catalytic Performance of PVA- Assisted Fe 2 O 3 Nano Catalyst for Water Treatment Synthesized via Green Route. ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology 2023, 12 (11) , 117003.
    35. Samia, Faiq saeed, Li Jia, Musfira Arain, Aneela Ahmed, Fu Yikai, Chen Zhenda, Ijaz Hussain, Ghulam Abbas Ashraf, Samia Ben Ahmed, Haitao Dai. Emerging trends in metal-organic framework (MOFs) photocatalysts for hydrogen energy using water splitting: A state-of-the-art review. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 2023, 2
    36. Ula Rozman, Barbara Klun, Gregor Marolt, Jernej Imperl, Gabriela Kalčíková. A study of the adsorption of titanium dioxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles on polyethylene microplastics and their desorption in aquatic media. Science of The Total Environment 2023, 888 , 164163.
    37. S. Senthil Kumari, W. Nirmala, N. Chidhambaram, M. Prabu, V. Ganesh, I. S. Yahia. Tuning the physical properties of Sb-doped ZnO nanopowders toward elevated photosensing and photocatalytic activity. Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society 2023, 60 (4) , 719-731.
    38. Andreas Gondikas, Julian Alberto Gallego-Urrea, Karin Mattsson. Nanoparticles in the Marine Environment. 2023, 323-348.
    39. Jayasree Joshi T., Harsha V., Anitha Krishnan V.C., Asha Ashok. Identification and characterization techniques for engineered nanomaterials in food. 2023, 71-92.
    40. Meraat Mehrzad, Mohsen Behpour, Fereshteh Jookar Kashi. Novel environmental method for enhanced biodegradation of contaminated wastewater via immobilizing nanoparticles on a new bacterial strain isolated industrial textile. Journal of Environmental Management 2023, 325 , 116528.
    41. Mehdi Al Kausor, Dhruba Chakrabortty. Photocatalytic Decontamination of Organic Pollutants from Water. 2022, 81-104.
    42. Wenwen Wang, Shijun Zhu, Nihong Li, Shanshan Xie, Chen Wen, Xia Luo. Enhanced Cd2+ adsorption and toxicity for microbial biofilms in the presence of TiO2 nanoparticles. Environmental Pollution 2022, 314 , 120239.
    43. H.G. Gomaa. Interaction forces and suspension characteristics in an oscillatory membrane photocatalytic reactor. Chemical Engineering Research and Design 2022, 185 , 301-308.
    44. Buzuayehu Abebe. Synergetic and charge transfer properties of a metal oxide heterojunction: Photocatalytic activities. Frontiers in Catalysis 2022, 2
    45. Paola Franco, Wanda Navarra, Olga Sacco, Iolanda De Marco, Antonietta Mancuso, Vincenzo Vaiano, Vincenzo Venditto. Photocatalytic degradation of atrazine under visible light using Gd-doped ZnO prepared by supercritical antisolvent precipitation route. Catalysis Today 2022, 397-399 , 240-248.
    46. Rivaldo Leonn Bezerra Cabral, Felipe Mendonça Fontes Galvão, Kesia Karina Oliveira de Souto Silva, Brenno Henrique Silva Felipe, Nivaldo Freire de Andrade Neto, Pierre Basílio de Almeida Fechine, Andrea Zille, Suyeon Kim, José Heriberto Oliveira do Nascimento. Surface modification of ZnO quantum dots coated polylactic acid knitted fabric for photocatalytic application. Journal of Applied Polymer Science 2022, 139 (25)
    47. Qiuling Ma, Rui Song, Fujun Ren, Hao Wang, Wensheng Gao, Zelong Li, Can Li. Photoelectrocatalytic degradation of refractory pollutants over WO3/W network photoelectrode with heterophase junction for enhancing mass transportation and charge separation. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 2022, 309 , 121292.
    48. Mehdi Al Kausor, Dhruba Chakrabortty. Polyaniline (PANI) grafted hierarchical heterostructure nanocomposites for photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants in waste water: A review. Surfaces and Interfaces 2022, 31 , 102079.
    49. Nur Hanisah Ibrahim, Anwar Iqbal, Normawaty Mohammad-Noor, Roziawati Mohd Razali, Srimala Sreekantan, Dede Heri Yuli Yanto, Abdul Hanif Mahadi, Lee D. Wilson. Photocatalytic Remediation of Harmful Alexandrium minutum Bloom Using Hybrid Chitosan-Modified TiO2 Films in Seawater: A Lab-Based Study. Catalysts 2022, 12 (7) , 707.
    50. Silvestar Mežnarić, Ivana Jelovica Badovinac, Iva Šarić, Robert Peter, Maria Kolympadi Markovic, Gabriela Ambrožić, Ivana Gobin. Superior UVA-photocatalytic antibacterial activity of a double-layer ZnO/Al2O3 thin film grown on cellulose by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering 2022, 10 (3) , 108095.
    51. Kun Li, Defu Xu, Hong Liao, Yan Xue, Mingyang Sun, Han Su, Xiaojia Xiu, Tianyi Zhao. A review on the generation, discharge, distribution, environmental behavior, and toxicity (especially to microbial aggregates) of nano-TiO2 in sewage and surface-water and related research prospects. Science of The Total Environment 2022, 824 , 153866.
    52. Jingjing Liu, Jie Xiong, Qian Huang, Tao Lu, Weixing Chen, Meng Li. Eco-friendly synthesis of robust bioinspired cotton fabric with hybrid wettability for integrated water harvesting and water purification. Journal of Cleaner Production 2022, 350 , 131524.
    53. Hulugirgesh Degefu Weldekirstos, Birtukan Habtewold, Daniel Manaye Kabtamu. Surfactant-Assisted Synthesis of NiO-ZnO and NiO-CuO Nanocomposites for Enhanced Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue Under UV Light Irradiation. Frontiers in Materials 2022, 9
    54. Su-Eon Jin, Sung-Joo Hwang, Hyo-Eon Jin. Hierarchical tetramodal-porous architecture of zinc oxide nanoparticles microfluidically synthesized via dual-step nanofabrication. Materials & Design 2022, 215 , 110486.
    55. Bing Zhang, Xue Wang, Yan Cheng. Photochromic immunoassay for tumor marker detection based on ZnO/AgI nanophotocatalyst. Microchimica Acta 2022, 189 (2)
    56. Viktor Mackert, Martin A. Schroer, Markus Winterer. Unraveling agglomeration and deagglomeration in aqueous colloidal dispersions of very small tin dioxide nanoparticles. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 2022, 608 , 2681-2693.
    57. Biao Wang, Qian Zhang, Jiaqing He, Feng Huang, Caifu Li, Mengye Wang. Co-catalyst-free large ZnO single crystal for high-efficiency piezocatalytic hydrogen evolution from pure water. Journal of Energy Chemistry 2022, 65 , 304-311.
    58. F.H. Abdullah, N.H.H. Abu Bakar, M. Abu Bakar. Current advancements on the fabrication, modification, and industrial application of zinc oxide as photocatalyst in the removal of organic and inorganic contaminants in aquatic systems. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2022, 424 , 127416.
    59. George Opletal, Amanda S. Barnard. Simulating Facet‐Dependent Aggregation and Assembly of Mixtures of Polyhedral Nanoparticles. Advanced Theory and Simulations 2022, 5 (1)
    60. Shipra Choudhary, Aditi Bisht, Manas Kumar Dalai, Satyabrata Mohapatra. Facile synthesis, morphological, structural, photocatalytic, and optical properties of ZnFe2O4 nanostructures. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics 2021, 32 (23) , 27429-27440.
    61. Zilong Zeng, Bing Luo, Dengwei Jing, Liejin Guo. Hydrogen production versus photocatalyst dimension under concentrated solar light: A case over titanium dioxide. Solar Energy 2021, 230 , 538-548.
    62. Buzuayehu Abebe, H. C. Ananda Murthy, Enyew Amare Zereffa. Multifunctional application of PVA-aided Zn–Fe–Mn coupled oxide nanocomposite. Nanoscale Research Letters 2021, 16 (1)
    63. May Abdullah Abomuti, Ekram Y. Danish, Ahmad Firoz, Nazim Hasan, Maqsood Ahmad Malik. Green Synthesis of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Using Salvia officinalis Leaf Extract and Their Photocatalytic and Antifungal Activities. Biology 2021, 10 (11) , 1075.
    64. О. Shulga, A. Chorna, S Shulga. ANTIMICROBIAL BIODEGRADABLE PACKAGING FOR SLICED BAKERY. Food Science and Technology 2021, 15 (2)
    65. Riya A. Mathew, Gang Wu, Ye Zhang, Sheyda Shakiba, Yan Yao, Ah-Lim Tsai, Stacey M. Louie. Natural organic matter adsorption conditions influence photocatalytic reaction pathways of phosphate-treated titanium dioxide nanoparticles. Environmental Science: Nano 2021, 8 (8) , 2165-2176.
    66. Buzuayehu Abebe, H C Ananda Murthy, Enyew Amare Zereffa, Yeshaneh Adimasu. Synthesis and characterization of ZnO/PVA nanocomposites for antibacterial and electrochemical applications. Inorganic and Nano-Metal Chemistry 2021, 51 (8) , 1127-1138.
    67. Riadh Bourzami, Mohamed Khalil Guediri, Derradji Chebli, Abdallah Bouguettoucha, Abdeltif Amrane. Bottom-up construction of reduced-graphene-oxide-anchored spinel magnet Fe2.02Ni1.01O3.22, anatase TiO2 and metallic Ag nanoparticles and their synergy in photocatalytic water reduction. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering 2021, 9 (4) , 105307.
    68. Shushan Wu, Jean-François Gaillard, Kimberly A. Gray. The impacts of metal-based engineered nanomaterial mixtures on microbial systems: A review. Science of The Total Environment 2021, 780 , 146496.
    69. Ji‐Won Yoon, Jae‐Hyeok Kim, Changyeon Kim, Ho Won Jang, Jong‐Heun Lee. MOF‐Based Hybrids for Solar Fuel Production. Advanced Energy Materials 2021, 11 (27)
    70. Cátia L. Ücker, Vitor Goetzke, Fábio C. Riemke, Marcelo L. Vitale, Lucas R.Q. de Andrade, Maicon D. Ücker, Eduardo C. Moreira, Mário L. Moreira, Cristiane W. Raubach, Sérgio S. Cava. Multi-Photonic behavior of Nb2O5 and its correlation with synthetic methods. Journal of Materials Science 2021, 56 (13) , 7889-7905.
    71. Mehrez E. El-Naggar, Ahmed R. Wassel, Kamel Shoueir. Visible-light driven photocatalytic effectiveness for solid-state synthesis of ZnO/natural clay/TiO2 nanoarchitectures towards complete decolorization of methylene blue from aqueous solution. Environmental Nanotechnology, Monitoring & Management 2021, 15 , 100425.
    72. Minxiang Zeng, Mingfeng Chen, Dali Huang, Shijun Lei, Xuan Zhang, Ling Wang, Zhengdong Cheng. Engineered two-dimensional nanomaterials: an emerging paradigm for water purification and monitoring. Materials Horizons 2021, 8 (3) , 758-802.
    73. Buzuayehu Abebe, Enyew Amare Zereffa, H. C. Ananda Murthy, C. R. Ravikumar. A novel poly (vinyl alcohol)-aided ZnO/Fe2O3 nanocomposite as an ascorbic acid sensor. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics 2021, 32 (6) , 7778-7790.
    74. Sivakumar Murugadoss, Nilakash Das, Lode Godderis, Jan Mast, Peter H. Hoet, Manosij Ghosh. Identifying nanodescriptors to predict the toxicity of nanomaterials: a case study on titanium dioxide. Environmental Science: Nano 2021, 8 (2) , 580-590.
    75. Mohamed K. Guediri, Derradji Chebli, Abdallah Bouguettoucha, Riadh Bourzami, Abdeltif Amrane. Novel Fe2TiO5/reduced graphene oxide heterojunction photocatalyst with improved adsorption capacity and visible light photoactivity: experimental and DFT approach. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 2021, 28 (7) , 8507-8519.
    76. Angelo Nicosia, Fabiana Vento, Gisella Maria Di Mari, Luisa D’Urso, Placido G. Mineo. TiO2-Based Nanocomposites Thin Film Having Boosted Photocatalytic Activity for Xenobiotics Water Pollution Remediation. Nanomaterials 2021, 11 (2) , 400.
    77. Su-Eon Jin, Hyo-Eon Jin. Multiscale Metal Oxide Particles to Enhance Photocatalytic Antimicrobial Activity against Escherichia coli and M13 Bacteriophage under Dual Ultraviolet Irradiation. Pharmaceutics 2021, 13 (2) , 222.
    78. Buzuayehu Abebe, C.R. Ravikumar, Enyew Amare Zereffa, A. Naveen Kumar, H C Ananda Murthy. Photocatalytic and superior ascorbic acid sensor activities of PVA/Zn-Fe-Mn ternary oxide nanocomposite. Inorganic Chemistry Communications 2021, 123 , 108343.
    79. Mei Zhao, Congqi Fu, Kejian Wang, Yi Zhang, Yamu Xia, Qian Zhang, Chengdong Li, Mengchen Liu, Zhihua Zhang, Wenjun Wang. Photocatalytic degradation of antibacterials using BixOyXz with optimized morphologies and adjusted structures-A review. Journal of Alloys and Compounds 2021, 852 , 156698.
    80. Mohamed E. Mahmoud, Shaimaa R. Saad, Abdel Moneim El-Ghanam, Rabah Hanem A. Mohamed. Developed magnetic Fe3O4–MoO3-AC nanocomposite for effective removal of ciprofloxacin from water. Materials Chemistry and Physics 2021, 257 , 123454.
    81. Buzuayehu Abebe, H.C. Ananda Murthy, Enyew Amare. Enhancing the photocatalytic efficiency of ZnO: Defects, heterojunction, and optimization. Environmental Nanotechnology, Monitoring & Management 2020, 14 , 100336.
    82. Madhusudan B Kulkarni, Sanket Goel. Microfluidic devices for synthesizing nanomaterials—a review. Nano Express 2020, 1 (3) , 032004.
    83. Buzuayehu Abebe, Enyew Amare Zereffa, Aschalew Tadesse, H. C. Ananda Murthy. A Review on Enhancing the Antibacterial Activity of ZnO: Mechanisms and Microscopic Investigation. Nanoscale Research Letters 2020, 15 (1)
    84. George Opletal, Shery L. Chang, Amanda S. Barnard. Simulating facet-dependent aggregation and assembly of distributions of polyhedral nanoparticles. Nanoscale 2020, 12 (38) , 19870-19879.
    85. Nazli Turkten, Miray Bekbolet. Photocatalytic performance of titanium dioxide and zinc oxide binary system on degradation of humic matter. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry 2020, 401 , 112748.
    86. Bishweshwar Pant, Gunendra Prasad Ojha, Yun-Su Kuk, Oh Hoon Kwon, Yong Wan Park, Mira Park. Synthesis and Characterization of ZnO-TiO2/Carbon Fiber Composite with Enhanced Photocatalytic Properties. Nanomaterials 2020, 10 (10) , 1960.
    87. Moushumi Dutta Purkayastha, Joydeep Datta, Partha Pratim Ray, Nisha Singh, Gopala Krishna Darbha, Shanku Denrah, Mitali Sarkar, Tapas Pal Majumder, Dipankar Ghosh. Modelling the photocatalytic behaviour of p-n nickel-titanium oxide nanocomposite. Chemical Engineering Research and Design 2020, 161 , 82-94.
    88. Kun Li, Jin Qian, Peifang Wang, Chao Wang, Bianhe Lu, Wen Jin, Xixian He, Sijing Tang, Chao Zhang, Pan Gao. Responses of freshwater biofilm formation processes (from colonization to maturity) to anatase and rutile TiO2 nanoparticles: Effects of nanoparticles aging and transformation. Water Research 2020, 182 , 115953.
    89. Priyanshu Verma, Sujoy Kumar Samanta, Sandhya Mishra. Photon-independent NaOH/H2O2‒based degradation of rhodamine-B dye in aqueous medium: Kinetics, and impacts of various inorganic salts, antioxidants, and urea. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering 2020, 8 (4) , 103851.
    90. Meng-ru Li, Fei-fei Liu, Su-chun Wang, Xin Cheng, Huan Zhang, Tian-yuan Huang, Guang-zhou Liu. Phototransformation of zinc oxide nanoparticles and coexisting pollutant: Role of reactive oxygen species. Science of The Total Environment 2020, 728 , 138335.
    91. Baodan Jin, Yue Yuan, Ping Zhou, Jiahui Niu, Jintao Niu, Jingwen Dai, Nuonan Li, Hongfan Tao, Zhigang Ma, Ju Zhang, Zhongfang Zhang, Yu Li. Effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles on sludge anaerobic fermentation: phenomenon and mechanism. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A 2020, 55 (9) , 1094-1103.
    92. Buzuayehu Abebe, Ananda Murthy H C, Enyew Zerefa, Eticha Abdisa. Porous PVA/Zn–Fe–Mn oxide nanocomposites: methylene blue dye adsorption studies. Materials Research Express 2020, 7 (6) , 065002.
    93. Sweta Shrestha, Bo Wang, Prabir Dutta. Nanoparticle processing: Understanding and controlling aggregation. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science 2020, 279 , 102162.
    94. George Opletal, Maciej Golebiewski, Amanda S Barnard. Simulated nanoparticle assembly using protoparticles (SNAP). Journal of Physics: Materials 2020, 3 (2) , 026001.
    95. Rungthiwa Methaapanon, Kanchat Chutchakul, Varong Pavarajarn. Photocatalytic zinc oxide on flexible polyacrylonitrile nanofibers via sol–gel coaxial electrospinning. Ceramics International 2020, 46 (6) , 8287-8292.
    96. Buzuayehu Abebe, H C Ananda Murthy, Enyew Zerefa, Yeshaneh Adimasu. PVA assisted ZnO based mesoporous ternary metal oxides nanomaterials: synthesis, optimization, and evaluation of antibacterial activity. Materials Research Express 2020, 7 (4) , 045011.
    97. Albert Queraltó, Enikö György, Raluca Ivan, Ángel Pérez del Pino, Robert Frohnhoven, Sanjay Mathur. Enhanced UV-Vis Photodegradation of Nanocomposite Reduced Graphene Oxide/Ferrite Nanofiber Films Prepared by Laser-Assisted Evaporation. Crystals 2020, 10 (4) , 271.
    98. S. Drew Story, Stephen Boggs, Linda M. Guiney, Mani Ramesh, Mark C. Hersam, C. Jeffrey Brinker, Sharon L. Walker. Aggregation morphology of planar engineered nanomaterials. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 2020, 561 , 849-853.
    99. Mohamed E. Mahmoud, Abdel Moneim El-Ghanam, Rabah Hanem A. Mohamed, Shaimaa R. Saad. Enhanced adsorption of Levofloxacin and Ceftriaxone antibiotics from water by assembled composite of nanotitanium oxide/chitosan/nano-bentonite. Materials Science and Engineering: C 2020, 108 , 110199.
    100. Asma Saljooqi, Tayebeh Shamspur, Ali Mostafavi. Synthesis of titanium nanoplate decorated by Pd and Fe3O4 nanoparticles immobilized on graphene oxide as a novel photocatalyst for degradation of parathion pesticide. Polyhedron 2020, 179 , 114371.
    Load more citations

    Pair your accounts.

    Export articles to Mendeley

    Get article recommendations from ACS based on references in your Mendeley library.

    Pair your accounts.

    Export articles to Mendeley

    Get article recommendations from ACS based on references in your Mendeley library.

    You’ve supercharged your research process with ACS and Mendeley!

    STEP 1:
    Click to create an ACS ID

    Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

    Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

    Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

    Your Mendeley pairing has expired. Please reconnect