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Lipid Peroxidation Induced by Expandable Clay Minerals

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Facultad de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Instituto de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacan, Mexico, DF 04510, Mexico, Departamento de Procesos y Tecnología, División de Ciencias Naturales e Ingeniería, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Unidad Cuajimalpa (UAM-C), Artificios No. 40, 6° Piso, C.P. 01120 México, NASA Astrobiology Institute, and Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Rd., Berkeley, CA 94720
* Corresponding author phone: (52) (55) 26 36 38 00extension 3827; fax: (52) (55) 26 36 38 00 extension 3832; e-mail: [email protected]
†Facultad de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
‡Instituto de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
§Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana.
⊥NASA Astrobiology Institute.
⊥Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
Cite this: Environ. Sci. Technol. 2009, 43, 19, 7550–7555
Publication Date (Web):August 21, 2009
Copyright © 2009 American Chemical Society

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    Small-sized environmental particles such as 2:1 phyllosilicates induce oxidative stress, a primary indicator of cell damage and toxicity. Herein, potential hazards of clay particle uptake are addressed. This paper reports that the content and distribution of structural Fe influence the ability of expandable clay minerals to induce lipid peroxidation (LP), a major indicator of oxidative stress, in biological matrices. Three smectite clays, hectorite (SHCa-1) and two nontronites (NAu-1) and (NAu-2) containing varying total content and coordination environment of structural Fe, were selected. Screening and monitoring of LP was conducted using a thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay. The higher content of TBARS in nontronites than that in SHCa-1 suspensions was explained because structural Fe contributes to LP. The observed lack of correlation between TBARS content and the extent of Fe dissolution indicated that the formation of TBARS is surface controlled. Results showing a high TBARS content in SHCa-1 but not in nontronite supernatant solutions was explained because the former contains distinct, soluble chemical component(s) that could (i) induce LP by its (their) own right and (ii) whose chemical affinity for organic ligands used as inhibitors is weak. Clays serve as stronger inductors than 2,2′-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) but are much weaker than FeSO4. The outcome of this work shows that LP is clay surface-controlled and dependent on clay structural composition.

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    Additional considerations on the effect of the clay type and surface area on TBARS production, and figures normalized to clay specific surface area. This information is available free of charge via the Internet at

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