ACS Publications. Most Trusted. Most Cited. Most Read
My Activity
Recently Viewed
You have not visited any articles yet, Please visit some articles to see contents here.
CONTENT TYPES

Figure 1Loading Img

Air Quality Model Evaluation Data for Organics. 1. Bulk Chemical Composition and Gas/Particle Distribution Factors

View Author Information
Environmental Engineering Science Department, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, DGA, Inc., 4526 Telephone Road, Suite 205, Ventura, California 93003, and Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology, Beaverton, Oregon 97006
Cite this: Environ. Sci. Technol. 1996, 30, 5, 1731–1743
Publication Date (Web):April 25, 1996
https://doi.org/10.1021/es9507325
Copyright © 1996 American Chemical Society
Article Views
345
Altmetric
-
Citations
LEARN ABOUT THESE METRICS
Read OnlinePDF (703 KB)

Abstract

During the period of September 8−9, 1993, the South Coast Air Basin that surrounds Los Angeles experienced the worst photochemical smog episode in recent years; ozone concentrations exceeded 0.29 ppm 1-h average, and NO2 concentrations peaked at 0.21 ppm 1-h average. Field measurements were conducted at a five-station air monitoring network to obtain comprehensive data on the identity and concentration of the individual organic compounds present in both the gas and particle phases during that episode. The data will also serve to support future tests of air quality models designed to study organic air pollutant transport and reaction. Air samples taken in stainless steel canisters were analyzed for 141 volatile organic compounds by GC/ECD, GC/FID, and GC/MS; PAN and PPN were measured by GC/ECD; particulate organics collected by filtration were analyzed for total organics and elemental carbon by thermal evolution and combustion and for individual organic compounds by GC/MS; semivolatile organics were analyzed by GC/MS after collection on polyurethane foam cartridges. The present paper describes this experiment and presents the concentrations of major organic compound classes and their relationship to the inorganic pollutants present. At the farthest downwind site studied (Claremont), extensive modification of primary pollutants by atmospheric chemical reactions was evident during the peak photochemical smog period:  vapor-phase olefins and aromatics were depleted, the majority of the nitrogen-containing pollutants were present as organic plus inorganic nitrates, the fraction of organics in the particle phase rose to 12.5% (versus 2.6−5.4% at the coast), one fourth of the pollutant-derived nitrogen was in the particle phase, and nearly all of the Cl- had been removed from the particle phase. Of the total nitrate measured at Claremont, on the average only 33.6% was present as organic nitrates, which is a much lower ratio of organic nitrate to total nitrate than has been seen in previous years.

 California Institute of Technology.

 DGA, Inc.

§

 Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology.

*

 Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; telephone:  (818) 395-6888; fax:  (818) 395-2940.

 Abstract published in Advance ACS Abstracts, March 15, 1996.

Cited By

This article is cited by 49 publications.

  1. Neha Sareen, Eleanor M. Waxman, Barbara J. Turpin, Rainer Volkamer, and Annmarie G. Carlton . Potential of Aerosol Liquid Water to Facilitate Organic Aerosol Formation: Assessing Knowledge Gaps about Precursors and Partitioning. Environmental Science & Technology 2017, 51 (6) , 3327-3335. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.6b04540
  2. D. J. Rasmussen, Jianlin Hu, Abdullah Mahmud, and Michael J. Kleeman . The Ozone–Climate Penalty: Past, Present, and Future. Environmental Science & Technology 2013, 47 (24) , 14258-14266. https://doi.org/10.1021/es403446m
  3. Dmitry Melnik, Rabi Chhantyal-Pun, and Terry A. Miller. Measurements of the Absolute Absorption Cross Sections of the Ã←X̃ Transition in Organic Peroxy Radicals by Dual-Wavelength Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy. The Journal of Physical Chemistry A 2010, 114 (43) , 11583-11594. https://doi.org/10.1021/jp107340a
  4. Robert J. Griffin,, Meghan K. Revelle, and, Donald Dabdub. Modeling the Oxidative Capacity of the Atmosphere of the South Coast Air Basin of California. 1. Ozone Formation Metrics. Environmental Science & Technology 2004, 38 (3) , 746-752. https://doi.org/10.1021/es0341283
  5. Eladio M. Knipping and, Donald Dabdub. Impact of Chlorine Emissions from Sea-Salt Aerosol on Coastal Urban Ozone. Environmental Science & Technology 2003, 37 (2) , 275-284. https://doi.org/10.1021/es025793z
  6. Amr El-Maradny, Mohamed I. A. Ibrahim, Islam M. Radwan, Mamdouh A. Fahmy, Hosny I. Emara, Laila A. Mohamed. Horizontal and vertical segregation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Egyptian Mediterranean coast. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 2022, 192 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-21880-w
  7. S. Kuzhanthaivelan, B. Rajakumar. Kinetic investigation of the reaction of ethylperoxy radicals with ethanol. International Journal of Chemical Kinetics 2021, 53 (2) , 274-286. https://doi.org/10.1002/kin.21441
  8. Haihua Jiao, Qi Wang, Nana Zhao, Bo Jin, Xuliang Zhuang, Zhihui Bai. Distributions and Sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Soils around a Chemical Plant in Shanxi, China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2017, 14 (10) , 1198. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14101198
  9. Diana L. Ortiz-Montalvo, Allison N. Schwier, Yong B. Lim, V. Faye McNeill, Barbara J. Turpin. Volatility of methylglyoxal cloud SOA formed through OH radical oxidation and droplet evaporation. Atmospheric Environment 2016, 130 , 145-152. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.12.013
  10. J. D. Fast, J. Allan, R. Bahreini, J. Craven, L. Emmons, R. Ferrare, P. L. Hayes, A. Hodzic, J. Holloway, C. Hostetler, J. L. Jimenez, H. Jonsson, S. Liu, Y. Liu, A. Metcalf, A. Middlebrook, J. Nowak, M. Pekour, A. Perring, L. Russell, A. Sedlacek, J. Seinfeld, A. Setyan, J. Shilling, M. Shrivastava, S. Springston, C. Song, R. Subramanian, J. W. Taylor, V. Vinoj, Q. Yang, R. A. Zaveri, Q. Zhang. Modeling regional aerosol and aerosol precursor variability over California and its sensitivity to emissions and long-range transport during the 2010 CalNex and CARES campaigns. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 2014, 14 (18) , 10013-10060. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-10013-2014
  11. Dmitry Melnik, Terry A. Miller. Kinetic measurements of the C 2 H 5 O 2 radical using time-resolved cavity ring-down spectroscopy with a continuous source. The Journal of Chemical Physics 2013, 139 (9) , 094201. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4819474
  12. Francesco Maimone, Barbara J. Turpin, Paul Solomon, QingYu Meng, Allen L. Robinson, R. Subramanian, Andrea Polidori. Correction Methods for Organic Carbon Artifacts When Using Quartz-Fiber Filters in Large Particulate Matter Monitoring Networks: The Regression Method and Other Options. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 2011, 61 (6) , 696-710. https://doi.org/10.3155/1047-3289.61.6.696
  13. Way Long, Haw Farn Lan, Yaw Fuh Huang. Evaluation of formaldehyde adsorption by bamboo charcoal using a photoacoustic method. Journal of Wood Science 2010, 56 (4) , 345-349. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10086-009-1113-6
  14. Larry G. Anderson. Ethanol fuel use in Brazil: air quality impacts. Energy & Environmental Science 2009, 2 (10) , 1015. https://doi.org/10.1039/b906057j
  15. Robert J. Griffin, Jianjun Chen, Kevin Carmody, Satish Vutukuru, Donald Dabdub. Contribution of gas phase oxidation of volatile organic compounds to atmospheric carbon monoxide levels in two areas of the United States. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 2007, 112 (D10) https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JD007602
  16. Qi Ying, Matthew P. Fraser, Robert J. Griffin, Jianjun Chen, Michael J. Kleeman. Verification of a source-oriented externally mixed air quality model during a severe photochemical smog episode. Atmospheric Environment 2007, 41 (7) , 1521-1538. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.10.004
  17. Michael J. Kleeman, Qi Ying, Jin Lu, Mitchel J. Mysliwiec, Robert J. Griffin, Jianjun Chen, Simon Clegg. Source apportionment of secondary organic aerosol during a severe photochemical smog episode. Atmospheric Environment 2007, 41 (3) , 576-591. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.08.042
  18. G.C. Lough, J.J. Schauer, D.R. Lawson. Day-of-week trends in carbonaceous aerosol composition in the urban atmosphere. Atmospheric Environment 2006, 40 (22) , 4137-4149. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.03.009
  19. Satish Vutukuru, Robert J. Griffin, Donald Dabdub. Simulation and analysis of secondary organic aerosol dynamics in the South Coast Air Basin of California. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 2006, 111 (D10) , n/a-n/a. https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JD006139
  20. Y. J. Hu, H. B. Fu, E. R. Bernstein. Generation and Detection of the Peroxyacetyl Radical in the Pyrolysis of Peroxyacetyl Nitrate in a Supersonic Expansion. The Journal of Physical Chemistry A 2006, 110 (8) , 2629-2633. https://doi.org/10.1021/jp058196i
  21. Tony Held, Qi Ying, Michael J. Kleeman, James J. Schauer, Matthew P. Fraser. A comparison of the UCD/CIT air quality model and the CMB source–receptor model for primary airborne particulate matter. Atmospheric Environment 2005, 39 (12) , 2281-2297. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2004.12.034
  22. Yang Zhang. Development and application of the Model of Aerosol Dynamics, Reaction, Ionization, and Dissolution (MADRID). Journal of Geophysical Research 2004, 109 (D1) https://doi.org/10.1029/2003JD003501
  23. Sergey J. Zalyubovsky, Brent G. Glover, Terry A. Miller. Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy of the à − X̃ Electronic Transition of the CH 3 C(O)O 2 Radical. The Journal of Physical Chemistry A 2003, 107 (39) , 7704-7712. https://doi.org/10.1021/jp0305279
  24. . A Study on Chemical Composition of Fine Particles in the Sungdong Area, Seoul, Korea. Journal of the Environmental Sciences 2003,,, 665-676. https://doi.org/10.5322/JES.2003.12.6.665
  25. M. P. Fraser, G. R. Cass, B. R. T. Simoneit. Air Quality Model Evaluation Data for Organics. 6. C 3 −C 24 Organic Acids. Environmental Science & Technology 2003, 37 (3) , 446-453. https://doi.org/10.1021/es0209262
  26. Jeremy Aw. Evaluating the first-order effect of intraannual temperature variability on urban air pollution. Journal of Geophysical Research 2003, 108 (D12) https://doi.org/10.1029/2002JD002688
  27. John G Watson, Tan Zhu, Judith C Chow, Johann Engelbrecht, Eric M Fujita, William E Wilson. Receptor modeling application framework for particle source apportionment. Chemosphere 2002, 49 (9) , 1093-1136. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(02)00243-6
  28. Monica A Mazurek. Molecular identification of organic compounds in atmospheric complex mixtures and relationship to atmospheric chemistry and sources.. Environmental Health Perspectives 2002, 110 (suppl 6) , 995-1003. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.02110s6995
  29. Robert J. Griffin, Donald Dabdub, Michael J. Kleeman, Matthew P. Fraser, Glen R. Cass, John H. Seinfeld. Secondary organic aerosol 3. Urban/regional scale model of size- and composition-resolved aerosols. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 2002, 107 (D17) , AAC 5-1-AAC 5-14. https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JD000544
  30. James J. Schauer, Matthew P. Fraser, Glen R. Cass, Bernd R. T. Simoneit. Source Reconciliation of Atmospheric Gas-Phase and Particle-Phase Pollutants during a Severe Photochemical Smog Episode. Environmental Science & Technology 2002, 36 (17) , 3806-3814. https://doi.org/10.1021/es011458j
  31. Michael J. Kleeman, Glen R. Cass. A 3D Eulerian Source-Oriented Model for an Externally Mixed Aerosol. Environmental Science & Technology 2001, 35 (24) , 4834-4848. https://doi.org/10.1021/es010886m
  32. Matthew P. Fraser, Kalyan Lakshmanan. Using Levoglucosan as a Molecular Marker for the Long-Range Transport of Biomass Combustion Aerosols. Environmental Science & Technology 2000, 34 (21) , 4560-4564. https://doi.org/10.1021/es991229l
  33. K. Funasaka, T. Miyazaki, K. Tsuruho, K. Tamura, T. Mizuno, K. Kuroda. Relationship between indoor and outdoor carbonaceous particulates in roadside households. Environmental Pollution 2000, 110 (1) , 127-134. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0269-7491(99)00281-X
  34. James J. Schauer, Glen R. Cass. Source Apportionment of Wintertime Gas-Phase and Particle-Phase Air Pollutants Using Organic Compounds as Tracers. Environmental Science & Technology 2000, 34 (9) , 1821-1832. https://doi.org/10.1021/es981312t
  35. M. P. Fraser, M. J. Kleeman, J. J. Schauer, G. R. Cass. Modeling the Atmospheric Concentrations of Individual Gas-Phase and Particle-Phase Organic Compounds. Environmental Science & Technology 2000, 34 (7) , 1302-1312. https://doi.org/10.1021/es9901922
  36. Barbara J. Finlayson-Pitts, James N. Pitts. Particles in the Troposphere. 2000,,, 349-435. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-012257060-5/50011-3
  37. Barbara J. Turpin, Pradeep Saxena, Elisabeth Andrews. Measuring and simulating particulate organics in the atmosphere: problems and prospects. Atmospheric Environment 2000, 34 (18) , 2983-3013. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(99)00501-4
  38. Lara S. Hughes, Jonathan O. Allen, Michael J. Kleeman, Robert J. Johnson, Glen R. Cass, Deborah S. Gross, Eric E. Gard, Markus E. Gälli, Bradley D. Morrical, David P. Fergenson, Tas Dienes, Christopher A. Noble, Don-Y. Liu, Philip J. Silva, Kimberly A. Prather. Size and Composition Distribution of Atmospheric Particles in Southern California. Environmental Science & Technology 1999, 33 (20) , 3506-3515. https://doi.org/10.1021/es980884a
  39. Christopher G. Nolte, Matthew P. Fraser, Glen R. Cass. Gas Phase C 2 −C 10 Organic Acids Concentrations in the Los Angeles Atmosphere. Environmental Science & Technology 1999, 33 (4) , 540-545. https://doi.org/10.1021/es980626d
  40. Matthew P. Fraser, Glen R. Cass, Bernd R. T. Simoneit. Gas-Phase and Particle-Phase Organic Compounds Emitted from Motor Vehicle Traffic in a Los Angeles Roadway Tunnel. Environmental Science & Technology 1998, 32 (14) , 2051-2060. https://doi.org/10.1021/es970916e
  41. Matthew P. Fraser, Glen R. Cass, Bernd R. T. Simoneit, R. A. Rasmussen. Air Quality Model Evaluation Data for Organics. 5. C 6 −C 22 Nonpolar and Semipolar Aromatic Compounds. Environmental Science & Technology 1998, 32 (12) , 1760-1770. https://doi.org/10.1021/es970349v
  42. Matthew P. Fraser, Glen R. Cass. Detection of Excess Ammonia Emissions from In-Use Vehicles and the Implications for Fine Particle Control. Environmental Science & Technology 1998, 32 (8) , 1053-1057. https://doi.org/10.1021/es970382h
  43. Pradeep Saxena, Lynn M. Hildemann. Water Absorption by Organics:  Survey of Laboratory Evidence and Evaluation of UNIFAC for Estimating Water Activity. Environmental Science & Technology 1997, 31 (11) , 3318-3324. https://doi.org/10.1021/es9703638
  44. Cikui Liang, James F. Pankow, Jay R. Odum, John H. Seinfeld. Gas/Particle Partitioning of Semivolatile Organic Compounds To Model Inorganic, Organic, and Ambient Smog Aerosols. Environmental Science & Technology 1997, 31 (11) , 3086-3092. https://doi.org/10.1021/es9702529
  45. R.J. Barthelmie, S.C. Pryor. Secondary organic aerosols: formation potential and ambient data. Science of The Total Environment 1997, 205 (2-3) , 167-178. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0048-9697(97)00200-3
  46. R Johnson, O T Macina, C Graham, H S Rosenkranz, G R Cass, M H Karol. Prioritizing testing of organic compounds detected as gas phase air pollutants: structure-activity study for human contact allergens.. Environmental Health Perspectives 1997, 105 (9) , 986-992. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.97105986
  47. Matthew P. Fraser, Glen R. Cass, Bernd R. T. Simoneit, R. A. Rasmussen. Air Quality Model Evaluation Data for Organics. 4. C 2 −C 36 Non-Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Environmental Science & Technology 1997, 31 (8) , 2356-2367. https://doi.org/10.1021/es960980g
  48. Eric Grosjean, Daniel Grosjean, Matthew P. Fraser, Glen R. Cass. Air Quality Model Evaluation Data for Organics. 2. C 1 −C 14 Carbonyls in Los Angeles Air. Environmental Science & Technology 1996, 30 (9) , 2687-2703. https://doi.org/10.1021/es950758w
  49. Eric Grosjean, Daniel Grosjean, Matthew P. Fraser, Glen R. Cass. Air Quality Model Evaluation Data for Organics. 3. Peroxyacetyl Nitrate and Peroxypropionyl Nitrate in Los Angeles Air. Environmental Science & Technology 1996, 30 (9) , 2704-2714. https://doi.org/10.1021/es9508535

Pair your accounts.

Export articles to Mendeley

Get article recommendations from ACS based on references in your Mendeley library.

Pair your accounts.

Export articles to Mendeley

Get article recommendations from ACS based on references in your Mendeley library.

You’ve supercharged your research process with ACS and Mendeley!

STEP 1:
Click to create an ACS ID

Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

MENDELEY PAIRING EXPIRED
Your Mendeley pairing has expired. Please reconnect

This website uses cookies to improve your user experience. By continuing to use the site, you are accepting our use of cookies. Read the ACS privacy policy.

CONTINUE