ACS Publications. Most Trusted. Most Cited. Most Read
My Activity

Figure 1Loading Img

Fluorescence Enhancement of Di-p-tolyl Viologen by Complexation in Cucurbit[7]uril

View Author Information
Chemistry Department, Rutgers University, 73 Warren Street, Newark, New Jersey 07102, United States
Cite this: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012, 134, 7, 3358–3366
Publication Date (Web):February 9, 2012
Copyright © 2012 American Chemical Society

    Article Views





    Other access options
    Supporting Info (1)»


    Abstract Image

    A viologen derivative, 1,1′-di-p-tolyl-(4,4′-bipyridine)-1,1′-diium dichloride (DTV2+), was studied in solution and encapsulated in cucurbit[7]uril (CB7), a macrocyclic host. Upon encapsulation, DTV2+ exhibited dramatically enhanced fluorescence. Aqueous solutions of DTV2+ were weakly fluorescent (Φ = 0.01, τ < 20 ps), whereas the emission of the DTV2+@2CB7 complex was enhanced by 1 order of magnitude (Φ = 0.12, τ = 0.7 ns) and blue-shifted by 35 nm. Similar properties were observed in the presence of NaCl. DTV2+ in a poly(methyl methacrylate) matrix was fluorescent with a spectrum similar to that observed for the complex in solution. 1H NMR and UV–vis titrations indicated that the DTV2+@2CB7 complex is formed in aqueous solutions with complexation constants K1 = (1.2 ± 0.3) × 104 M–1 and K2= (1.0 ± 0.4) × 104 M–1 in water. Density functional theory and configuration interaction singles calculations suggested that the hindrance of the rotational relaxation of the S1 state of DTV2+ caused by encapsulation within the host or a polymer matrix plays a key role in the observed emission enhancement. The absorption and emission spectra of DTV2+@2CB7 in water exhibited a large Stokes shift (ΔSt ∼ 9000 cm–1) and no fine structure. DTV2+ is a good electron acceptor [E°(DTV2+/DTV•+) = −0.30 V vs Ag/AgCl] and a strong photooxidant [E°(DTV*2+/DTV•+) = 0.09 V vs NHE]).

    Read this article

    To access this article, please review the available access options below.

    Get instant access

    Purchase Access

    Read this article for 48 hours. Check out below using your ACS ID or as a guest.


    Access through Your Institution

    You may have access to this article through your institution.

    Your institution does not have access to this content. You can change your affiliated institution below.

    Supporting Information

    Jump To

    Synthesis and characterization of 1, 1H NMR spectra of CB7 and DTV2+, UV–vis spectra for the determination of binding constants, 1H NMR spectra of the CB7 region, absorption and emission spectra of DTV•+, cyclic voltammograms of DTV2+ and DTV2+@2CB7, and experimental procedure for the Job plot. This material is available free of charge via the Internet at

    Terms & Conditions

    Most electronic Supporting Information files are available without a subscription to ACS Web Editions. Such files may be downloaded by article for research use (if there is a public use license linked to the relevant article, that license may permit other uses). Permission may be obtained from ACS for other uses through requests via the RightsLink permission system:

    Cited By

    This article is cited by 105 publications.

    1. Qin Wang, Xiao-Feng Wang, Wen-Qi Sun, Rui-Lian Lin, Ming-Fu Ye, Jing-Xin Liu. Supramolecular Host–Guest Hydrogel Based on γ-Cyclodextrin and Carboxybenzyl Viologen Showing Reversible Photochromism and Photomodulable Fluorescence. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2023, 15 (1) , 2479-2485.
    2. Haigen Nie, Zhen Wei, Xin-Long Ni, Yu Liu. Assembly and Applications of Macrocyclic-Confinement-Derived Supramolecular Organic Luminescent Emissions from Cucurbiturils. Chemical Reviews 2022, 122 (9) , 9032-9077.
    3. Yue Wang, Rong-Zu Liang, Tian-Zhi Jia, Xue-Li Cao, Qian Wang, Jing-Rong Cao, Shuo Li, Qixun Shi, Lyle Isaacs, Shi-Peng Sun. Voltage-Gated Membranes Incorporating Cucurbit[n]uril Molecular Containers for Molecular Nanofiltration. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2022, 144 (14) , 6483-6492.
    4. Yeting Zheng, Angel E. Kaifer. Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Binding between Zwitterionic Viologen Guests and the Cucurbit[7]uril Host. The Journal of Organic Chemistry 2020, 85 (15) , 10240-10244.
    5. Danyu Xia, Pi Wang, Xiaofan Ji, Niveen M. Khashab, Jonathan L. Sessler, Feihe Huang. Functional Supramolecular Polymeric Networks: The Marriage of Covalent Polymers and Macrocycle-Based Host–Guest Interactions. Chemical Reviews 2020, 120 (13) , 6070-6123.
    6. M. Mustafa Cetin, Yassine Beldjoudi, Indranil Roy, Ommid Anamimoghadam, Youn Jue Bae, Ryan M. Young, Matthew D. Krzyaniak, Charlotte L. Stern, Douglas Philp, Fehaid M. Alsubaie, Michael R. Wasielewski, J. Fraser Stoddart. Combining Intra- and Intermolecular Charge Transfer with Polycationic Cyclophanes To Design 2D Tessellations. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2019, 141 (47) , 18727-18739.
    7. Nikolai A. Tcyrulnikov, Ramkumar Varadharajan, Anastasiia A. Tikhomirova, Mahesh Pattabiraman, Vaidhyanathan Ramamurthy, R. Marshall Wilson. Modulation of Reduction Potentials of Bis(pyridinium)alkane Dications through Encapsulation within Cucurbit[7]uril. The Journal of Organic Chemistry 2019, 84 (13) , 8759-8765.
    8. Reem H. Alzard, Muna S. Bufaroosha, Noura Al-Shamsi, Amir Sohail, Naji Al-Dubaili, Alaa A. Salem, Ibrahim M. Abdou, Na’il Saleh. Solubilization of Pyridone-Based Fluorescent Tag by Complexation in Cucurbit[7]uril. ACS Omega 2019, 4 (1) , 953-960.
    9. Yu Xia, Shiyan Chen, Xin-Long Ni. White Light Emission from Cucurbituril-Based Host–Guest Interaction in the Solid State: New Function of the Macrocyclic Host. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2018, 10 (15) , 13048-13052.
    10. Hang Yin, Frederic Dumur, Yiming Niu, Mehmet M. Ayhan, Olivier Grauby, Wei Liu, Chunming Wang, Didier Siri, Roselyne Rosas, Alain Tonetto, Didier Gigmes, Ruibing Wang, David Bardelang, and Olivier Ouari . Chameleonic Dye Adapts to Various Environments Shining on Macrocycles or Peptide and Polysaccharide Aggregates. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2017, 9 (38) , 33220-33228.
    11. Yang Yu, Yawen Li, Xiaoqing Wang, Hao Nian, Le Wang, Jie Li, Yanxia Zhao, Xiran Yang, Simin Liu, and Liping Cao . Cucurbit[10]uril-Based [2]Rotaxane: Preparation and Supramolecular Assembly-Induced Fluorescence Enhancement. The Journal of Organic Chemistry 2017, 82 (11) , 5590-5596.
    12. Ngong Kodiah Beyeh, Hyun Hwa Jo, Igor Kolesnichenko, Fangfang Pan, Elina Kalenius, Eric V. Anslyn, Robin H. A. Ras, and Kari Rissanen . Recognition of Viologen Derivatives in Water by N-Alkyl Ammonium Resorcinarene Chlorides. The Journal of Organic Chemistry 2017, 82 (10) , 5198-5203.
    13. Guanglu Wu, Magdalena Olesińska, Yuchao Wu, Dijana Matak-Vinkovic, and Oren A. Scherman . Mining 2:2 Complexes from 1:1 Stoichiometry: Formation of Cucurbit[8]uril–Diarylviologen Quaternary Complexes Favored by Electron-Donating Substituents. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2017, 139 (8) , 3202-3208.
    14. Lubna R. Alrawashdeh, Michael P. Cronin, Clifford E. Woodward, Anthony I. Day, and Lynne Wallace . Iridium Cyclometalated Complexes in Host–Guest Chemistry: A Strategy for Maximizing Quantum Yield in Aqueous Media. Inorganic Chemistry 2016, 55 (13) , 6759-6769.
    15. Xin-Long Ni, Shiyan Chen, Yaping Yang, and Zhu Tao . Facile Cucurbit[8]uril-Based Supramolecular Approach To Fabricate Tunable Luminescent Materials in Aqueous Solution. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2016, 138 (19) , 6177-6183.
    16. Ying-Ming Zhang, Xu-Jie Zhang, Xiufang Xu, Xiao-Ning Fu, Hong-Biao Hou, and Yu Liu . Rigid Organization of Fluorescence-Active Ligands by Artificial Macrocyclic Receptor to Achieve the Thioflavin T-Amyloid Fibril Level Association. The Journal of Physical Chemistry B 2016, 120 (16) , 3932-3940.
    17. Hong Chul Moon, Chang-Hyun Kim, Timothy P. Lodge, and C. Daniel Frisbie . Multicolored, Low-Power, Flexible Electrochromic Devices Based on Ion Gels. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2016, 8 (9) , 6252-6260.
    18. Steven J. Barrow, Setu Kasera, Matthew J. Rowland, Jesús del Barrio, and Oren A. Scherman . Cucurbituril-Based Molecular Recognition. Chemical Reviews 2015, 115 (22) , 12320-12406.
    19. Wei Shi, Feifei Xing, Yue-Ling Bai, Meiling Hu, Yongmei Zhao, Ming-Xing Li, and Shourong Zhu . High Sensitivity Viologen for a Facile and Versatile Sensor of Base and Solvent Polarity in Solution and Solid State in Air Atmosphere. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2015, 7 (26) , 14493-14500.
    20. Aninda Chatterjee, Banibrata Maity, and Debabrata Seth . Supramolecular Interaction between a Hydrophilic Coumarin Dye and Macrocyclic Hosts: Spectroscopic and Calorimetric Study. The Journal of Physical Chemistry B 2014, 118 (32) , 9768-9781.
    21. Seán T. J. Ryan, Jesús Del Barrio, Indrajit Ghosh, Frank Biedermann, Alexandra I. Lazar, Yang Lan, Roger J. Coulston, Werner M. Nau, and Oren A. Scherman . Efficient Host–Guest Energy Transfer in Polycationic Cyclophane–Perylene Diimide Complexes in Water. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2014, 136 (25) , 9053-9060.
    22. Chengcheng Zhou, Xinhao Cheng, Qiang Zhao, Yun Yan, Jide Wang, and Jianbin Huang . Self-Assembly of Nonionic Surfactant Tween 20@2β-CD Inclusion Complexes in Dilute Solution. Langmuir 2013, 29 (43) , 13175-13182.
    23. Hui Yang, Yiliu Liu, Kai Liu, Liulin Yang, Zhiqiang Wang, and Xi Zhang . Rational Adjustment of Multicolor Emissions by Cucurbiturils-Based Host–Guest Chemistry and Photochemistry. Langmuir 2013, 29 (42) , 12909-12914.
    24. Tomohiro Higashi and Takamasa Sagara . Diphenyl Viologen on an HOPG Electrode Surface: Less Sharp Redox Wave than Dibenzyl Viologen. Langmuir 2013, 29 (36) , 11516-11524.
    25. Onur Buyukcakir, F.Tuba Yasar, O. Altan Bozdemir, Burcak Icli, and Engin U. Akkaya . Autonomous Shuttling Driven by an Oscillating Reaction: Proof of Principle in a Cucurbit[7]uril-Bodipy Pseudorotaxane. Organic Letters 2013, 15 (5) , 1012-1015.
    26. Albert C. Fahrenbach, Zhixue Zhu, Dennis Cao, Wei-Guang Liu, Hao Li, Sanjeev K. Dey, Subhadeep Basu, Ali Trabolsi, Youssry Y. Botros, William A. Goddard, III, and J. Fraser Stoddart . Radically Enhanced Molecular Switches. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2012, 134 (39) , 16275-16288.
    27. Enrique Escorihuela, Jesús del Barrio, Ross J. Davidson, Andrew Beeby, Paul J. Low, Francesc Prez-Murano, Pilar Cea, Santiago Martin. Large area arrays of discrete single-molecule junctions derived from host–guest complexes. Nanoscale 2024, 16 (3) , 1238-1246.
    28. Ling Liang, Tuokai Peng, Xin Yao Geng, Wenping Zhu, Chaoyong Liu, Hui-Qing Peng, Bo Zhi Chen, Xin Dong Guo. Aggregation-induced emission photosensitizer microneedles for enhanced melanoma photodynamic therapy. Biomaterials Science 2024, 114
    29. Anthony Kermagoret, David Bardelang. The Diversity of Cucurbituril Molecular Switches and Shuttles. Chemistry – A European Journal 2023, 29 (70)
    30. Fengbo Liu, Amine Kriat, Roselyne Rosas, David Bergé-Lefranc, Didier Gigmes, Simon Pascal, Olivier Siri, Simin Liu, Anthony Kermagoret, David Bardelang. Controlled oligomeric guest stacking by cucurbiturils in water. Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry 2023, 21 (47) , 9433-9442.
    31. Dongdong Sun, Xie Han, Simin Liu. The influence mechanism of macrocyclic host on the luminescent properties of organic small molecule. SCIENTIA SINICA Chimica 2023, 53 (12) , 2523-2545.
    32. Falguni Chandra, Maria Bykova, Vijo Poulose, Paltan Laha, Alina Aktanova, Olga Boeva, Margarita Barkovskaya, Ekaterina Pashkina, Na'il Saleh. Alginate supramolecular hydrogels based on viologen and cucurbit[8]uril: Host‐induced caveolae‐mediated endocytosis to white blood cancer cells. VIEW 2023, 4 (6)
    33. Dong-Xue Xia, Li-Wen Fan, Ming-Fu Ye, Wen-Qi Sun, Rui-Lian Lin, Jing-Xin Liu. Supramolecular inclusion complexes of β-cyclodextrin with bathochromic-shifted photochromism and photomodulable fluorescence enable multiple applications. Materials Advances 2023, 4 (21) , 5215-5223.
    34. Xiuping Yin, Xinxing Li, Xuyi Li, Malgorzata Biczysko, Shourong Zhu, Jiaqiang Xu, Yue-Ling Bai. Isomerization-induced fluorescence enhancement of two new viologen derivatives: mechanism insight and DFT calculations. Chemical Science 2023, 14 (25) , 7016-7025.
    35. Amine Kriat, Simon Pascal, Brice Kauffmann, Yann Ferrand, David Bergé‐Lefranc, Didier Gigmes, Olivier Siri, Anthony Kermagoret, David Bardelang. A pH‐ and Metal‐Actuated Molecular Shuttle in Water. Chemistry – A European Journal 2023, 29 (33)
    36. Z.-Y. Zhang, J.-F. Lv, L. Li, M. Dong, J.-J. Zhang, H. Cui, X. Tang, D. Guo, Y. Zhou, Y.-Y. Zhang, B. Ding, X. Wang, C. Li. An emission enhancement strategy realized by introducing phosphorescent antennas and complexing with Cucurbit[7]uril. Materials Today Chemistry 2023, 29 , 101393.
    37. Wei Tao, Long Zhang, Junyi Gong, Jing-Xuan Zhang, Kai Wang, Xiujie Jiang, Xuan He, Peifa Wei. Macrocycle-based supramolecular assembly: An alternative strategy for visualizing the mechanism of piezochromic luminescence. Dyes and Pigments 2023, 210 , 110967.
    38. Jiawei Zhou, Ruihao Zhang, Pin Lv, Shuqing Zhang, Yazhou Zhang, Jing Yang, Bo Yang. Acyclic cucurbit[n]urils-based supramolecular encapsulation for enhancing the protective effect of capsaicin on gastric mucosa and reducing irritation. International Journal of Pharmaceutics 2022, 626 , 122190.
    39. Xinglong Li, Shengsheng Yu, Zhangfeng Shen, Rongzhou Wang, Wei Zhang, Avelino Núñez-Delgado, Ning Han, Ling-Bao Xing. Supramolecular assemblies working as both artificial light-harvesting system and nanoreactor for efficient organic dehalogenation in aqueous environment. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 2022, 617 , 118-128.
    40. Naoki Fujimoto, Koshiro Isono, Kosuke Katagiri. Investigating the synthesis and structure of [2]pseudorotaxanes assembled by crown ether as wheel component and dual-cation axle with phosphonium and ammonium cations. Journal of Molecular Structure 2022, 1259 , 132721.
    41. Z. Chen, R. Khoo, A. Garzón-Ruiz, C. Yang, C.L. Anderson, A. Navarro, X. Zhang, J. Zhang, Y. Lv, Y. Liu. Quinoid-viologen conjugates: Redox properties and host-guest complex with cucurbiturils. Materials Today Chemistry 2022, 24 , 100933.
    42. Qian Li, Jian-Da Sun, Bo Yang, Hui Wang, Dan-Wei Zhang, Da Ma, Zhan-Ting Li. Cucurbit[7]uril-threaded flexible organic frameworks: Quantitative polycatenation through dynamic covalent chemistry. Chinese Chemical Letters 2022, 33 (4) , 1988-1992.
    43. Wenting Wei, Jiaxuan Li, Huiqin Yao, Hongyun Liu. A molecular keypad lock with 3-output signals built on stimulus-responsive polymer film electrodes containing diallyl viologen. Electrochimica Acta 2022, 406 , 139839.
    44. Hiromichi V. Miyagishi, Hiroshi Masai, Jun Terao. Linked Rotaxane Structure Restricts Local Molecular Motions in Solution to Enhance Fluorescence Properties of Tetraphenylethylene. Chemistry – A European Journal 2022, 28 (6)
    45. Jun-Feng Yang, Zhu Tao, Carl Redshaw, Xi Zeng, Hen Luo. Color tuning and white light emission based on tetraphenylethylene-functionalized cucurbit[7]uril and FRET triggered by host-guest self-assembly. Tetrahedron 2021, 101 , 132509.
    46. Qing Liu, Lu Liu, Cao-Ming Yu, Pei-Xin Li, Guo-Cong Guo. Two viologen-based photoluminescent compounds: excitation-wavelength-dependent and photoirradiation-time-dependent photoluminescent switches. CrystEngComm 2021, 23 (21) , 3856-3860.
    47. Ni Yan, Weidong Zhang, Guoping Li, Sikun Zhang, Xiaodong Yang, Kun Zhou, Dandan Pei, Zujin Zhao, Gang He. AIE-active 9,10-azaboraphenanthrene-containing viologens for reversible electrochromic and electrofluorochromic applications. Materials Chemistry Frontiers 2021, 5 (11) , 4128-4137.
    48. Xue Yang, Qian Cheng, Valerie Monnier, Laurence Charles, Hakim Karoui, Olivier Ouari, Didier Gigmes, Ruibing Wang, Anthony Kermagoret, David Bardelang. Guest Exchange by a Partial Energy Ratchet in Water. Angewandte Chemie 2021, 133 (12) , 6691-6697.
    49. Xue Yang, Qian Cheng, Valerie Monnier, Laurence Charles, Hakim Karoui, Olivier Ouari, Didier Gigmes, Ruibing Wang, Anthony Kermagoret, David Bardelang. Guest Exchange by a Partial Energy Ratchet in Water. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 2021, 60 (12) , 6617-6623.
    50. Wei-Hang Jin, Qian Wang, Meng Chen, Qi Zhang, Da-Hui Qu. Color-tunable luminescent materials via a CB[8]-based supramolecular assembly strategy. Materials Chemistry Frontiers 2021, 5 (5) , 2347-2352.
    51. Dan Luo, Long‐Yu Guang, Rong‐Guang Lin, Ning‐Ning Zhang, Mei‐Chen Liu, Rui‐Lian Lin, Wen‐Qi Sun, Jing‐Xin Liu. Chromic Properties of Carboxyphenyl Viologen Induced by Complexation in Cucurbit[7]uril. ChemistrySelect 2021, 6 (7) , 1699-1704.
    52. Jing Zhou, Shengzhen Hou, Jin Zhang, Yanru Chen, Hao Chen, Yebang Tan. Fluorescence enhancement and cytotoxicity reduction of bis-viologen biphenyl by complexation of cucurbit[7]uril. Chinese Chemical Letters 2021, 32 (2) , 725-728.
    53. Hao Yu, Jialing Li, Songsong Li, Jeffrey S. Moore, Charles M. Schroeder. Single-Molecule Charge Transport in Discrete,&nbsp;π-Stacked Pyridinium Dimers. SSRN Electronic Journal 2021, 107
    54. Thomas Delouche, Antoine Vacher, Thierry Roisnel, Marie Cordier, Jean-Frederic Audibert, Boris Le Guennic, Fabien Miomandre, Denis Jacquemin, Muriel Hissler, Pierre-Antoine Bouit. Luminescent molecular switches based on dicationic P-doped polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Materials Advances 2020, 1 (9) , 3369-3377.
    55. Karolina Baranowska, Michał Mońka, Agnieszka Kowalczyk, Nikola Szpakowska, Zbigniew Kaczyński, Piotr Bojarski, Marek Józefowicz. Spectroscopic studies of the excited-state intramolecular proton and electron transfer processes of methyl benzoate derivatives in cucurbit[7]uril nanocage. Journal of Molecular Liquids 2020, 318 , 113921.
    56. Guanglu Wu, Zehuan Huang, Oren A. Scherman. Quantitative Supramolecular Heterodimerization for Efficient Energy Transfer. Angewandte Chemie 2020, 132 (37) , 16097-16101.
    57. Guanglu Wu, Zehuan Huang, Oren A. Scherman. Quantitative Supramolecular Heterodimerization for Efficient Energy Transfer. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 2020, 59 (37) , 15963-15967.
    58. Thomas Delouche, Antoine Vacher, Elsa Caytan, Thierry Roisnel, Boris Le Guennic, Denis Jacquemin, Muriel Hissler, Pierre‐Antoine Bouit. Multi‐Stage Redox Systems Based on Dicationic P‐Containing Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Chemistry – A European Journal 2020, 26 (37) , 8226-8229.
    59. Arindam Mal, Samiyappan Vijayakumar, Rakesh K. Mishra, Jubi Jacob, Renjith S. Pillai, B. S. Dileep Kumar, Ayyappanpillai Ajayaghosh. Supramolecular Surface Charge Regulation in Ionic Covalent Organic Nanosheets: Reversible Exfoliation and Controlled Bacterial Growth. Angewandte Chemie 2020, 132 (22) , 8791-8797.
    60. Arindam Mal, Samiyappan Vijayakumar, Rakesh K. Mishra, Jubi Jacob, Renjith S. Pillai, B. S. Dileep Kumar, Ayyappanpillai Ajayaghosh. Supramolecular Surface Charge Regulation in Ionic Covalent Organic Nanosheets: Reversible Exfoliation and Controlled Bacterial Growth. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 2020, 59 (22) , 8713-8719.
    61. Dan Zhang, Le‐Kai Hou, Qiang Zhang, Jia‐Wei He, Hong‐Jian Feng, Frank Würthner, Xiao‐Juan Yang, Biao Wu. Anion‐Coordination‐Assisted Assembly of Supramolecular Charge‐Transfer Complexes Based on Tris(urea) Ligands. Chemistry – A European Journal 2020, 26 (6) , 1414-1421.
    62. Guanglu Wu, Youn Jue Bae, Magdalena Olesińska, Daniel Antón-García, István Szabó, Edina Rosta, Michael R. Wasielewski, Oren A. Scherman. Controlling the structure and photophysics of fluorophore dimers using multiple cucurbit[8]uril clampings. Chemical Science 2020, 11 (3) , 812-825.
    63. Dengmeng Song, Bo Li, Xin Li, Xuzhuo Sun, Jun Li, Chengbo Li, Tongyu Xu, Yong Zhu, Fei Li, Ning Wang. Orthogonal Supramolecular Assembly Triggered by Inclusion and Exclusion Interactions with Cucurbit[7]uril for Photocatalytic H 2 Evolution. ChemSusChem 2020, 13 (2) , 394-399.
    64. Raffaello Papadakis. Mono- and Di-Quaternized 4,4′-Bipyridine Derivatives as Key Building Blocks for Medium- and Environment-Responsive Compounds and Materials. Molecules 2020, 25 (1) , 1.
    65. Gobinda Das, Sudhir Kumar Sharma, Thirumurugan Prakasam, Felipe Gándara, Renny Mathew, Nour Alkhatib, Na’il Saleh, Renu Pasricha, John-Carl Olsen, Maria Baias, Serdal Kirmizialtin, Ramesh Jagannathan, Ali Trabolsi. A polyrotaxanated covalent organic network based on viologen and cucurbit[7]uril. Communications Chemistry 2019, 2 (1)
    66. Palash Jana, Tarushyam Mukherjee, Raman Khurana, Nilotpal Barooah, Virupakshi Soppina, Jyotirmayee Mohanty, Sriram Kanvah. Fluorescence enhancement of cationic styrylcoumarin-cucurbit[7]uril complexes: Enhanced stability and cellular membrane localization. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry 2019, 384 , 112062.
    67. Guanglu Wu, István Szabó, Edina Rosta, Oren A. Scherman. Cucurbit[8]uril-mediated pseudo[2,3]rotaxanes. Chemical Communications 2019, 55 (88) , 13227-13230.
    68. Toshiaki Mori, Yusuke Yoshigoe, Yoichiro Kuninobu. Control of Multicolor and White Emission by Adjusting the Equilibrium between Fluorophores, Lewis Acids, and Their Complexes in Polymers. Angewandte Chemie 2019, 131 (41) , 14599-14603.
    69. Toshiaki Mori, Yusuke Yoshigoe, Yoichiro Kuninobu. Control of Multicolor and White Emission by Adjusting the Equilibrium between Fluorophores, Lewis Acids, and Their Complexes in Polymers. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 2019, 58 (41) , 14457-14461.
    70. Magdalena Olesińska, Guanglu Wu, Silvia Gómez-Coca, Daniel Antón-García, Istvan Szabó, Edina Rosta, Oren A. Scherman. Modular supramolecular dimerization of optically tunable extended aryl viologens. Chemical Science 2019, 10 (38) , 8806-8811.
    71. Zumei Zhu, Jinqiao Xue, Bin Wen, Weiming Ji, Binyang Du, Jingjing Nie. Ultrasensitive and selective detection of MnO4− in aqueous solution with fluorescent microgels. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 2019, 291 , 441-450.
    72. Stefan Schoder, Hendrik V. Schröder, Luca Cera, Rakesh Puttreddy, Arne Güttler, Ute Resch‐Genger, Kari Rissanen, Christoph A. Schalley. Strong Emission Enhancement in pH‐Responsive 2:2 Cucurbit[8]uril Complexes. Chemistry – A European Journal 2019, 25 (13) , 3257-3261.
    73. Ting Yin, Sheng Zhang, Mengxuan Li, Carl Redshaw, Xin-Long Ni. Macrocycle encapsulation triggered supramolecular pKa shift: A fluorescence indicator for detecting octreotide in aqueous solution. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 2019, 281 , 568-573.
    74. Zenghui Han, Qiongbo Zhou, Yaoji Li. Self-assembled (pseudo)rotaxane and polyrotaxane through host–guest chemistry based on the cucurbituril family. Journal of Inclusion Phenomena and Macrocyclic Chemistry 2018, 92 (1-2) , 81-101.
    75. Sayeed Ashique Ahmed, Soma Seth (Duley), Rajesh Kumar Gautam, Debabrata Seth. Inclusion of a coumarin derivative inside the macrocyclic hosts: A spectroscopic, thermodynamic and theoretical investigation. Journal of Molecular Liquids 2018, 264 , 550-562.
    76. Tae Yong Yun, Hong Chul Moon. Highly stable ion gel-based electrochromic devices: Effects of molecular structure and concentration of electrochromic chromophores. Organic Electronics 2018, 56 , 178-185.
    77. Stephan Sinn, Frank Biedermann. Chemical Sensors Based on Cucurbit[ n ]uril Macrocycles. Israel Journal of Chemistry 2018, 58 (3-4) , 357-412.
    78. Maali Saad Mokhtar, FakhrEldin O. Suliman, Abdalla A. Elbashir. The binding interaction of imazapyr with cucurbit[ n ]uril (n = 6–8): Combined experimental and molecular modeling study. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 2018, 194 , 67-75.
    79. Min Jung Lee, Min Kyoung Kim, Nirmal K. Shee, Jooran Lee, Minjoong Yoon, Hee‐Joon Kim. Supramolecular Complexation between Porphyrin‐Viologen Dyad and Cucurbit[7]uril. ChemistrySelect 2018, 3 (1) , 256-261.
    80. Sayeed Ashique Ahmed, Debabrata Seth. Investigation of interaction of an alkaloid harmaline with cucurbit[7]uril: A spectroscopic and calorimetric study. Chemical Physics Letters 2018, 692 , 340-344.
    81. Lubna R. Alrawashdeh, Michael P. Cronin, Anthony I. Day, Lynne Wallace, Clifford E. Woodward. Modelling the luminescence of iridium cyclometalated complexes encapsulated in cucurbituril. The Analyst 2018, 143 (2) , 519-527.
    82. Ekaterina A. Kovalenko, Ekaterina A. Pashkina, Lyubov Y. Kanazhevskaya, Alexey N. Masliy, Vladimir A. Kozlov. Chemical and biological properties of a supramolecular complex of tuftsin and cucurbit[7]uril. International Immunopharmacology 2017, 47 , 199-205.
    83. Zhaoxu Wang, Nicolay V. Tsarevsky. Well‐defined polymers containing high density of pendant viologen groups. Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry 2017, 55 (7) , 1173-1182.
    84. Nianxing Wang, Zsófia Lukáacs, Bhushan Gadgil, Pia Damlin, Csaba Janáky, Carita Kvarnström. Electrochemical deposition of polyviologen-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite thin films. Electrochimica Acta 2017, 231 , 279-286.
    85. Yingfeng Song, Xinghua Huang, Haojie Hua, Qiaochun Wang. The synthesis of a rigid conjugated viologen and its cucurbituril pseudorotaxanes. Dyes and Pigments 2017, 137 , 229-235.
    86. J. Mohanty, S Dutta Choudhury, N. Barooah, H. Pal, A.C. Bhasikuttan. Mechanistic Aspects of Host–Guest Binding in Cucurbiturils: Physicochemical Properties. 2017, 435-457.
    87. Soumen K. Samanta, Kimberly G. Brady, Lyle Isaacs. Self-assembly of cucurbit[7]uril based triangular [4]molecular necklaces and their fluorescence properties. Chemical Communications 2017, 53 (18) , 2756-2759.
    88. Jinglin Shen, Jinyu Pang, Guiying Xu, Xia Xin, Yingjie Yang, Xiaoyu Luan, Shiling Yuan. Smart stimuli-responsive fluorescent vesicular sensor based on inclusion complexation of cyclodextrins with Tyloxapol. RSC Advances 2016, 6 (14) , 11683-11690.
    89. Nicolas Leblanc, Stephen Sproules, Karin Fink, Lionel Sanguinet, Olivier Alévêque, Eric Levillain, Patrick Rosa, Annie K. Powell. A fascinating multifaceted redox-active chelating ligand: introducing the N,N′-dimethyl-3,3′-biquinoxalinium “methylbiquinoxen” platform. Chemical Science 2016, 7 (6) , 3820-3828.
    90. Zhaoxu Wang, Nicolay V. Tsarevsky. Well-defined polymers containing a single mid-chain viologen group: synthesis, environment-sensitive fluorescence, and redox activity. Polymer Chemistry 2016, 7 (26) , 4402-4410.
    91. Sayeed Ashique Ahmed, Aninda Chatterjee, Banibrata Maity, Debabrata Seth. Supramolecular interaction of a cancer cell photosensitizer in the nanocavity of cucurbit[7]uril: A spectroscopic and calorimetric study. International Journal of Pharmaceutics 2015, 492 (1-2) , 103-108.
    92. Farah Benyettou, Katia Nchimi‐Nono, Mustapha Jouiad, Yoann Lalatonne, Irena Milosevic, Laurence Motte, John‐Carl Olsen, Na'il Saleh, Ali Trabolsi. Viologen‐Templated Arrays of Cucurbit[7]uril‐Modified Iron‐Oxide Nanoparticles. Chemistry – A European Journal 2015, 21 (12) , 4607-4613.
    93. Chengcheng Zhou, Xinhao Cheng, Qiang Zhao, Yun Yan, Jide Wang, Jianbin Huang. Self-Assembly of Channel Type β-CD Dimers Induced by Dodecane. Scientific Reports 2014, 4 (1)
    94. Giacomo Bergamini, Andrea Fermi, Marianna Marchini, Mirko Locritani, Alberto Credi, Margherita Venturi, Fabrizia Negri, Paola Ceroni, Massimo Baroncini. A Highly Luminescent Tetramer from a Weakly Emitting Monomer: Acid‐ and Redox‐Controlled Multiple Complexation by Cucurbit[7]uril. Chemistry – A European Journal 2014, 20 (23) , 7054-7060.
    95. Christian C. De Filippo, Hao Tang, Luca Ravotto, Giacomo Bergamini, Patrizio Salice, Miriam Mba, Paola Ceroni, Elena Galoppini, Michele Maggini. Synthesis and Electronic Properties of 1,2‐Hemisquarimines and Their Encapsulation in a Cucurbit[7]uril Host. Chemistry – A European Journal 2014, 20 (21) , 6412-6420.
    96. Maher Fathalla, Nathan L. Strutt, Jonathan C. Barnes, Charlotte L. Stern, Chenfeng Ke, J. Fraser Stoddart. Fluorescence Enhancement of a Porphyrin–Viologen Dyad by Pseudorotaxane Formation with Cucurbit[7]uril. European Journal of Organic Chemistry 2014, 2014 (14) , 2873-2877.
    97. Xu-Hui Jin, Cheng Chen, Cai-Xia Ren, Li-Xuan Cai, Jie Zhang. Bright white-light emission from a novel donor–acceptor organic molecule in the solid state via intermolecular charge transfer. Chem. Commun. 2014, 50 (100) , 15878-15881.
    98. Shunwei Chen, Zhe Han, Dongju Zhang, Jinhua Zhan. Theoretical study of the inclusion complexation of TCDD with cucurbit[n]urils. RSC Adv. 2014, 4 (94) , 52415-52422.
    99. Xin-Long Ni, Jun-Ming Yi, Sen Song, Yun-Qian Zhang, Sai-Feng Xue, Qian-Jiang Zhu, Zhu Tao. Supramolecular interactions of bisbenzimidazolyl derivatives with cucurbit[7]uril, potential axle molecules bearing a novel fluorescent signal response. Tetrahedron 2013, 69 (30) , 6219-6222.
    100. Karel J. Hartlieb, Ashish N. Basuray, Chenfeng Ke, Amy A. Sarjeant, Henri‐Pierre Jacquot de Rouville, Takashi Kikuchi, Ross S. Forgan, Josh W. Kurutz, J. Fraser Stoddart. Chameleonic Binding of the Dimethyldiazaperopyrenium Dication by Cucurbit[8]uril. Asian Journal of Organic Chemistry 2013, 2 (3) , 225-229.
    Load all citations

    Pair your accounts.

    Export articles to Mendeley

    Get article recommendations from ACS based on references in your Mendeley library.

    Pair your accounts.

    Export articles to Mendeley

    Get article recommendations from ACS based on references in your Mendeley library.

    You’ve supercharged your research process with ACS and Mendeley!

    STEP 1:
    Click to create an ACS ID

    Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

    Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

    Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

    Your Mendeley pairing has expired. Please reconnect