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Photothermally Driven High-Speed Crystal Actuation and Its Simulation

  • Shodai Hasebe
    Shodai Hasebe
    Department of Advanced Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555, Japan
  • Yuki Hagiwara
    Yuki Hagiwara
    Department of Advanced Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555, Japan
  • Jun Komiya
    Jun Komiya
    Department of Nanoscience and Nanoengineering, Graduate School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555, Japan
    More by Jun Komiya
  • Meguya Ryu
    Meguya Ryu
    Research Institute for Material and Chemical Measurement, National Metrology Institute of Japan (AIST), Tsukuba Central 3, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba 305-8563, Japan
    More by Meguya Ryu
  • Hiroki Fujisawa
    Hiroki Fujisawa
    School of Materials and Chemical Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550, Japan
  • Junko Morikawa
    Junko Morikawa
    School of Materials and Chemical Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550, Japan
  • Tetsuro Katayama
    Tetsuro Katayama
    Department of Optical Science, Tokushima University, 2-1 minamisanjyojima-cho, Tokushima-shi 770-8506, Japan
  • Daiki Yamanaka
    Daiki Yamanaka
    Department of Optical Science, Tokushima University, 2-1 minamisanjyojima-cho, Tokushima-shi 770-8506, Japan
  • Akihiro Furube
    Akihiro Furube
    Department of Optical Science, Tokushima University, 2-1 minamisanjyojima-cho, Tokushima-shi 770-8506, Japan
  • Hiroyasu Sato
    Hiroyasu Sato
    Rigaku Corporation, 3-9-12 Matasubara-cho, Akishima-shi, Tokyo 196-8666, Japan
  • Toru Asahi
    Toru Asahi
    Department of Advanced Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555, Japan
    Department of Nanoscience and Nanoengineering, Graduate School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555, Japan
    Research Organization for Nano and Life Innovation, Waseda University, 513 Wasedatsurumaki-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-0041, Japan
    More by Toru Asahi
  • , and 
  • Hideko Koshima*
    Hideko Koshima
    Research Organization for Nano and Life Innovation, Waseda University, 513 Wasedatsurumaki-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-0041, Japan
    *Email [email protected]
Cite this: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2021, 143, 23, 8866–8877
Publication Date (Web):June 7, 2021
https://doi.org/10.1021/jacs.1c03588
Copyright © 2021 American Chemical Society

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    Abstract

    Abstract Image

    Mechanically responsive crystals have been increasingly explored, mainly based on photoisomerization. However, photoisomerization has some disadvantages for crystal actuation, such as a slow actuation speed, no actuation of thick crystals, and a narrow wavelength range. Here we report photothermally driven fast-bending actuation and simulation of a salicylideneaniline derivative crystal with an o-amino substituent in enol form. Under ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation, these thin (<20 μm) crystals bent but the thick (>40 μm) crystals did not due to photoisomerization; in contrast, thick crystals bent very quickly (in several milliseconds) due to the photothermal effect, even by visible light. Finally, 500 Hz high-frequency bending was achieved by pulsed UV laser irradiation. The generated photothermal energy was estimated based on the photodynamics using femtosecond transient absorption. Photothermal bending is caused by a nonsteady temperature gradient in the thickness direction due to the heat conduction of photothermal energy generated near the crystal surface. The temperature gradient was calculated based on the one-dimensional nonsteady heat conduction equation to simulate photothermally driven crystal bending successfully. Most crystals that absorb light have their own photothermal effects. It is expected that the creation and design of actuation of almost all crystals will be possible via the photothermal effect, which cannot be realized by photoisomerization, and the potential and versatility of crystals as actuation materials will expand in the near future.

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    The Supporting Information is available free of charge at https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/jacs.1c03588.

    • Detailed method and supporting results (PDF)

    • Movie S1: bending of the thin plate-like enol-1 crystal (1170 × 14.5 × 10.2 μm3) by photoisomerization upon UV-LED (365 nm, 1300 mW cm–2) irradiation from the right for 2 s and then turning off the UV light (real time) (MP4)

    • Movie S2: bending of the thick plate-like enol-1 crystal (1520 × 68.0 × 48.3 μm3) by the photothermal effect upon UV laser (375 nm, 960 mW cm–2) irradiation from the top for 2.26 s and then turning off the UV light and simultaneous monitor of surface temperature with an IR thermography camera (real time) (MP4)

    • Movie S3: bending of the large and thick enol-1 crystal (1700 × 248 × 70.4 μm3) upon visible laser (488 nm 280 mW cm–2) irradiation from the top for 3 s and then turning off the light (real time) (MP4)

    • Movie S4: high-frequency (500 Hz) bending of the thick plate-like enol-1 crystal (1912 × 48.2 × 35.4 μm3) by pulsed exposure (1 ms ON, 1 ms OFF) of UV laser (375 nm, 960 mW cm–2) (slow motion ×0.04) (MP4)

    Accession Codes

    CCDC 20684362068442 contain the supplementary crystallographic data for this paper. These data can be obtained free of charge via www.ccdc.cam.ac.uk/data_request/cif, or by emailing [email protected], or by contacting The Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre, 12 Union Road, Cambridge CB2 1EZ, UK; fax: +44 1223 336033.

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