ACS Publications. Most Trusted. Most Cited. Most Read
My Activity

Figure 1Loading Img

Toxic Potency of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins, Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans, and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Food Samples from Catalonia (Spain)

View Author Information
Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Department of Ecotechnologies, IIQAB-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona, Spain
Cite this: J. Agric. Food Chem. 2002, 50, 5, 1161–1167
Publication Date (Web):January 23, 2002
Copyright © 2002 American Chemical Society

    Article Views





    Other access options


    A surveillance program on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in 29 foodstuff samples produced all over the four provinces in Catalonia (Spain) is presented. The study included the analyses of milk, egg, meat (beef, chicken, and pork), mussel, and olive oil samples. A previously developed method for the simultaneous analysis of the 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDs/PCDFs and the dioxin-like PCBs, as well as the indicator PCBs, was employed. Total toxicity equivalent (TEQ) values were calculated using the toxicity equivalent factors (TEFs) proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) for dioxin-like PCBs, PCDDs, and PCDFs. The TEQPCDD/F levels were below the limits proposed in the draft of the EC regulation for food commercialization in the European countries. These limits are the following:  2 pg WHO-TEQ/g fat for pork, 3 pg WHO-TEQ/g fat for milk and chicken, 5 pg WHO-TEQ/g fat for egg and beef, and 3 pg WHO-TEQ/g whole product for fish. The contributions of PCDDs/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in the total toxicity of the samples were calculated for each matrix. The results showed that the TEQPCB contribution varied from 27% in olive oil samples to 81% in mussel samples. These findings suggest that the regulation of TEQ contents in food should include not only the TEQPCDD/F, but also the TEQPCB.

    Keywords: Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins; polychlorinated dibenzofurans; polychlorinated biphenyls; food; total toxicity equivalent

    Read this article

    To access this article, please review the available access options below.

    Get instant access

    Purchase Access

    Read this article for 48 hours. Check out below using your ACS ID or as a guest.


    Access through Your Institution

    You may have access to this article through your institution.

    Your institution does not have access to this content. You can change your affiliated institution below.


     To whom correspondence should be addressed. Tel:  +34 (93) 400-6100. Fax:  +34 (93) 204-5904. E-mail:  [email protected].

    Cited By

    This article is cited by 40 publications.

    1. B. Gómara,, L. R. Bordajandi,, M. A. Fernández,, L. Herrero,, E. Abad,, M. Abalos,, J. Rivera, and, M. J. González. Levels and Trends of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins/Furans (PCDD/Fs) and Dioxin-like Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Spanish Commercial Fish and Shellfish Products, 1995−2003. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2005, 53 (21) , 8406-8413.
    2. Catherine Pirard,, Gauthier Eppe,, Anne-Cécile Massart,, Sébastien Fierens,, Edwin De Pauw, and, Jean-François Focant. Environmental and Human Impact of an Old-Timer Incinerator in Terms of Dioxin and PCB Level:  A Case Study. Environmental Science & Technology 2005, 39 (13) , 4721-4728.
    3. Luisa R. Bordajandi,, Gema Gómez,, Esteban Abad,, Josep Rivera,, María del Mar Fernández-Bastón,, Julián Blasco, and, María José González. Survey of Persistent Organochlorine Contaminants (PCBs, PCDD/Fs, and PAHs), Heavy Metals (Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb, and Hg), and Arsenic in Food Samples From Huelva (Spain):  Levels and Health Implications. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2004, 52 (4) , 992-1001.
    4. Esteban Abad,, Francisca Pérez,, José J. Llerena,, Josep Caixach, and, Josep Rivera. Evidence for a Specific Pattern of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans in Bivalves. Environmental Science & Technology 2003, 37 (22) , 5090-5096.
    5. Pedro Antunes, Ana Gama, Margarida Pereira, Elvira M. M. Gaspar. Spatiotemporal bioavailability of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in wild mussels from the Portuguese Atlantic coast. Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A 2023, 40 (4) , 576-587.
    6. Grazia Barone, Arianna Storelli, Rita Garofalo, Maria Maddalena Storelli, . Update of Indicator PCB Levels in Food in Southern Italy: Assessment of the Dietary Exposure for Adult and Elderly Population. Journal of Food Quality 2022, 2022 , 1-9.
    7. Grazia Barone, Arianna Storelli, Antonio Busco, Rosanna Mallamaci, Maria M. Storelli. Polychlorinated dioxins, furans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin‐like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl‐PCBs) in food from Italy: Estimates of dietaryintake and assessment. Journal of Food Science 2021, 86 (10) , 4741-4753.
    8. Yao-Jen Tu, Gnanasiri S. Premachandra, Stephen A. Boyd, J. Brett Sallach, Hui Li, Brian J. Teppen, Cliff T. Johnston. Synthesis and evaluation of Fe3O4-impregnated activated carbon for dioxin removal. Chemosphere 2021, 263 , 128263.
    9. Jeffrey C. Archer, Roy G. Jenkins. Automated milk fat extraction for the analyses of persistent organic pollutants. Journal of Chromatography B 2017, 1041-1042 , 70-76.
    10. Zenon B. Batang, Nabeel Alikunhi, Michael Gochfeld, Joanna Burger, Ramzi Al-Jahdali, Haitham Al-Jahdali, Mohammed A.M. Aziz, Dalal Al-Jebreen, Abdulaziz Al-Suwailem. Congener-specific levels and patterns of polychlorinated biphenyls in edible fish tissue from the central Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia. Science of The Total Environment 2016, 572 , 915-925.
    11. Eun-su Shin, Jongchul Kim, Sung-Deuk Choi, Young-Woon Kang, Yoon-Seok Chang. Estimated dietary intake and risk assessment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls from fish consumption in the Korean general population. Chemosphere 2016, 146 , 419-425.
    12. Octavio P. Luzardo, Ángel Rodríguez-Hernández, Yohana Quesada-Tacoronte, Norberto Ruiz-Suárez, Maira Almeida-González, Luis Alberto Henríquez-Hernández, Manuel Zumbado, Luis D. Boada. Influence of the method of production of eggs on the daily intake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine contaminants: An independent study in the Canary Islands (Spain). Food and Chemical Toxicology 2013, 60 , 455-462.
    13. María de Lourdes Pérez‐Chabela, Alfonso Totosaus. Poultry Quality and Tainting. 2012, 360-372.
    14. M.M. Storelli, C. Scarano, C. Spanu, E.P.L. De Santis, V.P. Busco, A. Storelli, G.O. Marcotrigiano. Levels and congener profiles of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sheep milk from an industrialised area of Sardinia, Italy. Food and Chemical Toxicology 2012, 50 (5) , 1413-1417.
    15. Nathan L. Howell, Hanadi S. Rifai, Larry Koenig. Comparative distribution, sourcing, and chemical behavior of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in an estuary environment. Chemosphere 2011, 83 (6) , 873-881.
    16. S. Menotta, M. D’antonio, G. Diegoli, L. Montella, S. Raccanelli, G. Fedrizzi. Depletion study of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs concentrations in contaminated home-produced eggs: Preliminary study. Analytica Chimica Acta 2010, 672 (1-2) , 50-54.
    17. Lidia Naccha, Guadalupe Alanis, Anabel Torres, Esteban Abad, Manuela Ábalos, Josep Rivera, Lorenzo Heyer, Alberto Morales, Noemí Waksman. Dioxins in beef samples from Mexico using a low resolution GC/MS screening method. Food Additives and Contaminants: Part B 2010, 3 (1) , 64-72.
    18. I. Van Overmeire, N. Waegeneers, I. Sioen, M. Bilau, S. De Henauw, L. Goeyens, L. Pussemier, G. Eppe. PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in home-produced eggs from Belgium: Levels, contamination sources and health risks. Science of The Total Environment 2009, 407 (15) , 4419-4429.
    19. Iffat Abdul Tawab Khan, Zahida Tasneem Maqsood. Determination of Some Congeners of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins (PCDDs) in Milk Using Gas Chromatography. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 2009, 82 (6) , 722-726.
    20. Chate Jaikanlaya, Daam Settachan, Michael S. Denison, Mathuros Ruchirawat, Martin van den Berg. PCBs contamination in seafood species at the Eastern Coast of Thailand. Chemosphere 2009, 76 (2) , 239-249.
    21. C. Munschy, N. Guiot, K. Héas-Moisan, C. Tixier, J. Tronczyński. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in marine mussels from French coasts: Levels, patterns and temporal trends from 1981 to 2005. Chemosphere 2008, 73 (6) , 945-953.
    22. N. Carro, I. García, M. Ignacio, A. Mouteira. Spatial and temporal trends of PCDDs and PCDFs in bivalve mollusc coming from Galicia (2000–2005). Possible relationship between biometric parameters and PCDDs and PCDFs levels. Chemosphere 2008, 73 (1) , 43-49.
    23. Škrbić Biljana. Assessment of the Serbian population exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls by crops. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 2008, 25 (2) , 171-175.
    24. H.L. Chen, H.J. Su, J.F. Hsu, P.C. Liao, C.C. Lee. High variation of PCDDs, PCDFs, and dioxin-like PCBs ratio in cooked food from the first total diet survey in Taiwan. Chemosphere 2008, 70 (4) , 673-681.
    25. Roser Martí-Cid, Ana Bocio, Juan M. Llobet, José L. Domingo. Intake of chemical contaminants through fish and seafood consumption by children of Catalonia, Spain: Health risks. Food and Chemical Toxicology 2007, 45 (10) , 1968-1974.
    26. Biljana Škrbić, Nataša Đurišić-Mladenović. Non-dioxin-like PCBs in crops and related products: Levels and intakes in Serbia. Food Additives and Contaminants 2007, 24 (6) , 652-662.
    27. I. Van Overmeire, L. Pussemier, V. Hanot, L. De Temmerman, M. Hoenig, L. Goeyens. Chemical contamination of free-range eggs from Belgium. Food Additives and Contaminants 2006, 23 (11) , 1109-1122.
    28. L.R. Bordajandi, I. Martín, E. Abad, J. Rivera, M.J. González. Organochlorine compounds (PCBs, PCDDs and PCDFs) in seafish and seafood from the Spanish Atlantic Southwest Coast. Chemosphere 2006, 64 (9) , 1450-1457.
    29. E. Abad, K. Martínez, J. Caixach, J. Rivera. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and ‘dioxin-like’ PCBs in flue gas emissions from municipal waste management plants. Chemosphere 2006, 63 (4) , 570-580.
    30. Jana Chovancová, Anton Kočan, Stanislav Jursa. PCDDs, PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs in food of animal origin (Slovakia). Chemosphere 2005, 61 (9) , 1305-1311.
    31. G. Falcó, A. Bocio, J.M. Llobet, J.L. Domingo. Health risks of dietary intake of environmental pollutants by elite sportsmen and sportswomen. Food and Chemical Toxicology 2005, 43 (12) , 1713-1721.
    32. J.R. Oh, S.H. Hong, W.J. Shim, N. Kannan. A survey of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans in Korean seafood—a congener-specific approach. Marine Pollution Bulletin 2005, 50 (10) , 1121-1127.
    33. David D. Kitts. Toxicity and Safety of Fats and Oils. 2005
    34. M. A. Fernández, B. Gómara, L. R. Bordajandi, L. Herrero, E. Abad, M. Abalos, J. Rivera, M. J. González *. Dietary intakes of polychlorinated dibenzo- p -dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in Spain. Food Additives and Contaminants 2004, 21 (10) , 983-991.
    35. Shu-Li Wang, Chin-Yu Lin, Yueliang Leon Guo, Long-Yau Lin, Wei-Ling Chou, Louis W. Chang. Infant exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and biphenyls (PCDD/Fs, PCBs)––correlation between prenatal and postnatal exposure. Chemosphere 2004, 54 (10) , 1459-1473.
    36. M Nadal, G Espinosa, M Schuhmacher, J.L Domingo. Patterns of PCDDs and PCDFs in human milk and food and their characterization by artificial neural networks. Chemosphere 2004, 54 (10) , 1375-1382.
    37. T. L. Builee, J. R. Hatherill. The Role of Polyhalogenated Aromatic Hydrocarbons on Thyroid Hormone Disruption and Cognitive Function: A Review. Drug and Chemical Toxicology 2004, 27 (4) , 405-424.
    38. Xiang Dong Liu, Yoko Murayama, Masanori Yamada, Motoyoshi Nomizu, Masaji Matsunaga, Norio Nishi. DNA aqueous solution used for dialytical removal and enrichment of dioxin derivatives. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 2003, 32 (3-5) , 121-127.
    39. Juan M. Llobet, Ana Bocio, Jose L. Domingo, Angel Teixidó, Conrad Casas, Lutz Müller. Levels of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Foods from Catalonia, Spain: Estimated Dietary Intake. Journal of Food Protection 2003, 66 (3) , 479-484.
    40. Antonio Agudo, Carlos A. González. Potenciales cancerígenos de la dieta y riesgo de cáncer. Medicina Clínica 2002, 119 (15) , 579-589.

    Pair your accounts.

    Export articles to Mendeley

    Get article recommendations from ACS based on references in your Mendeley library.

    Pair your accounts.

    Export articles to Mendeley

    Get article recommendations from ACS based on references in your Mendeley library.

    You’ve supercharged your research process with ACS and Mendeley!

    STEP 1:
    Click to create an ACS ID

    Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

    Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

    Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

    Your Mendeley pairing has expired. Please reconnect