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Quantification of Flavor-Related Compounds in the Unburned Contents of Bidi and Clove Cigarettes

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Division of Laboratory Sciences, Emergency Response and Air Toxicants Branch, National Center for Environmental Health, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Mailstop F-47, 4770 Buford Highway N.E., Atlanta, Georgia 30341-3719
Cite this: J. Agric. Food Chem. 2006, 54, 22, 8580–8588
Publication Date (Web):October 6, 2006
Copyright © Not subject to U.S. Copyright. Published 2006 American Chemical Society

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    Bidi cigarettes, small hand-rolled cigarettes produced primarily in India, are sold in the United States in a wide variety of candy-like flavors (e.g. dewberry, chocolate, clove) and are popular with adolescents. Many flavored bidis contain high concentrations of compounds such as eugenol, anethole, methyleugenol, pulegone, and estragole; several of these compounds have known toxic or carcinogenic properties. Clove cigarettes, or kreteks, are another highly flavored tobacco product with high levels of eugenol due to clove buds present in the tobacco filler. In this study, compounds in the burnable portionthe filler and wrapper material actually consumed during the smoking of bidis, kreteks, and U.S. cigaretteswere analyzed. Flavor-related compounds were solvent extracted from the burnable portion of each cigarette with methanol. An aliquot of the methanol extract was heated, and the sample headspace was sampled with a solid-phase microextraction fiber and introduced into a gas chromatograph−mass spectrometer for analysis in selected-ion monitoring mode. High levels of eugenol were detected in five clove-flavored bidi brands ranging from 78.6 to 7130 μg/cigarette (μg/cig), whereas diphenyl ether (128−3550 μg/cig) and methyl anthranilate (154−2360 μg/cig) were found in one grape-flavored bidi brand. A nontobacco herbal bidi brand contained the greatest variety of compounds, including anethole (489−665 μg/cig), eugenol (1670−2470 μg/cig), methyleugenol (27.7−36.6 μg/cig), safrole (32.4−34.4 μg/cig), myristicin (170−247 μg/cig), and elemicin (101−109 μg/cig). Filler from kreteks was found to contain high levels of eugenol, anethole, and coumarin. Flavored bidis and clove cigarettes contain a number of compounds that are present at levels far exceeding those reported in U.S. cigarette tobacco. Research is underway to determine the levels of these compounds delivered in smoke. It is not known what effect inhalation of these compounds has on smokers.

    Keywords: Bidi cigarettes; flavors; alkenylbenzenes; solid-phase microextraction; gas chromatography; mass spectrometry


     Corresponding author (e-mail [email protected]).

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