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T-2 Toxin, a Trichothecene Mycotoxin: Review of Toxicity, Metabolism, and Analytical Methods

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Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094, People’s Republic of China
Southern Plains Agricultural Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2881 F&B Road, College Station, Texas 77845-4988, United States
§ Laboratory of Food Analysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ghent University, Harelbekestraat 72, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
*Phone: +86-10-6273-1201. Fax: +86-10-6273-1032. E-mail: [email protected]
Cite this: J. Agric. Food Chem. 2011, 59, 8, 3441–3453
Publication Date (Web):March 18, 2011
https://doi.org/10.1021/jf200767q
Copyright © 2011 American Chemical Society

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    Abstract

    This review focuses on the toxicity and metabolism of T-2 toxin and analytical methods used for the determination of T-2 toxin. Among the naturally occurring trichothecenes in food and feed, T-2 toxin is a cytotoxic fungal secondary metabolite produced by various species of Fusarium. Following ingestion, T-2 toxin causes acute and chronic toxicity and induces apoptosis in the immune system and fetal tissues. T-2 toxin is usually metabolized and eliminated after ingestion, yielding more than 20 metabolites. Consequently, there is a possibility of human consumption of animal products contaminated with T-2 toxin and its metabolites. Several methods for the determination of T-2 toxin based on traditional chromatographic, immunoassay, or mass spectroscopy techniques are described. This review will contribute to a better understanding of T-2 toxin exposure in animals and humans and T-2 toxin metabolism, toxicity, and analytical methods, which may be useful in risk assessment and control of T-2 toxin exposure.

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