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Preformed Biomarkers Including Dialkylphosphates (DAPs) in Produce May Confound Biomonitoring in Pesticide Exposure and Risk Assessment

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Personal Chemical Exposure Program, Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, California 92521, United States
Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
§ Gem Quality Risk, Inc., Carmichael, California 95608, United States
Cite this: J. Agric. Food Chem. 2012, 60, 36, 9342–9351
Publication Date (Web):August 20, 2012
https://doi.org/10.1021/jf303116p
Copyright © 2012 American Chemical Society

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    Abstract

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    Low levels of pesticides and their metabolites/degradates occur in produce when pesticides are used in conventional or organic crop protection. Human dietary and nonoccupational urine biomonitoring studies may be confounded by preformed pesticide biomarkers in the diet. The extent of formation of putative urine biomarkers, including malathion specific (MMA, MDA; malathion mono- and diacids), organophosphorus generic (DMP, DMTP, DMDTP; dimethyl-, dimethylthio-, and dimethydithiophosphate), pyrethroid generic (3-PBA; 3-phenoxybenzoic acid), and captan-specific metabolites (THPI; tetrahydrophthalimide), was measured in produce samples containing the parent pesticide. Every produce sample of 19 types of fruits and vegetables contained biomarkers of potential human exposure. A total of 134 of 157 (85%) samples contained more molar equivalent biomarkers than parent pesticide. Malathion and fenpropathrin were sprayed (1 lb/A), and the time-dependent formation of pesticide biomarkers in strawberries was investigated under field conditions typical of commercial production in California. Malathion and fenpropathrin residues were always below established residue tolerances. Malathion, MMA, and MDA dissipated, while DMP, DMTP, and DMDTP increased, during a 20 day study period following the preharvest interval. The mole ratios of biomarkers/(malathion + malaoxon) were always greater than 1 and increased from day 4 to day 23 postapplication. Fenpropathrin and 3-PBA also dissipated in strawberries during each monitoring period. The mole ratios of 3-PBA/fenpropathrin were always less than 1 and decreased from day 4 to day 14. The absorption of pesticide biomarkers in produce and excretion in urine would falsely indicate consumer pesticide exposure if used to reconstruct dose for risk characterization.

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    Design and results of experimental studies to optimize the analyses of biomarkers. This material is available free of charge via the Internet at http://pubs.acs.org.

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