ACS Publications. Most Trusted. Most Cited. Most Read
My Activity
CONTENT TYPES

Establishment of a Structure–Activity Relationship of 1H-Imidazo[4,5-c]quinoline-Based Kinase Inhibitor NVP-BEZ235 as a Lead for African Sleeping Sickness

View Author Information
Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, United States
Instituto de Parasitología y Biomedicina “López-Neyra”, Granada 18100, Spain
§ Tres Cantos Medicines Development Campus, DDW and CIB, GlaxoSmithKline, 28760 Tres Cantos, Spain
Biomedical Sciences Research Complex, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife, KY16 9ST, United Kingdom
*(M.N.) Phone: +34 958 181651; E-mail: [email protected]
*(M.P.P.) Phone: 617-373-2703; E-mail: [email protected]
Cite this: J. Med. Chem. 2014, 57, 11, 4834–4848
Publication Date (Web):May 7, 2014
https://doi.org/10.1021/jm500361r

Copyright © 2014 American Chemical Society. This publication is licensed under CC-BY.

  • Open Access

Article Views

3738

Altmetric

-

Citations

LEARN ABOUT THESE METRICS
PDF (2 MB)
Supporting Info (1)»

Abstract

Compound NVP-BEZ235 (1) is a potent inhibitor of human phospoinositide-3-kinases and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) that also showed high inhibitory potency against Trypanosoma brucei cultures. With an eye toward using 1 as a starting point for anti-trypanosomal drug discovery, we report efforts to reduce host cell toxicity, to improve the physicochemical properties, and to improve the selectivity profile over human kinases. In this work, we have developed structure–activity relationships for analogues of 1 and have prepared analogues of 1 with improved solubility properties and good predicted central nervous system exposure. In this way, we have identified 4e, 9, 16e, and 16g as the most promising leads to date. We also report cell phenotype and phospholipidomic studies that suggest that these compounds exert their anti-trypanosomal effects, at least in part, by inhibition of lipid kinases.

Introduction

ARTICLE SECTIONS
Jump To

Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), also known as sleeping sickness, is caused by an infection with a subspecies of the eukaryotic protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma brucei. Trypanosoma brucei gambiense occurs in Western and Central Africa and is responsible for over 90% of all reported cases of infection, whereas Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense is found in Eastern and Southern Africa. Both subspecies are transmitted by the bite of infected tsetse flies, and it is estimated that about 60 million people are at risk in sub-Saharan Africa, with at least 10 000 cases occurring annually. (1) Established therapies were introduced in the mid-to-late 20th century and have severe safety and efficacy limitations, and drug resistance is emerging against some treatments. (2)
Thus, there is an urgent need to develop new safe, effective, and affordable therapeutics that can be orally administered and are stable under tropical conditions. (3) However, financial incentives for drug discovery against HAT are quite limited because of the economically disadvantaged regions where this disease is endemic. As a strategy to overcome this disincentive for drug discovery, we have hypothesized that medicinal chemistry knowledge against classes of human drug targets could be repurposed to facilitate rapid and cost-effective drug discovery against parasite drug targets. In this “target repurposing” approach, existing drugs and drug-like compounds serve as early hits or leads from which to optimize parasite-specific therapeutics. (4)
Kinase inhibitors represent one promising class of compounds in both humans and parasites. As a pivotal class of enzymes central to cellular signaling, kinases have been identified as key targets for inflammation, (5, 6) cancer, (7) and a wide range of other therapeutic indications. Indeed, kinases are estimated to represent 22% of the druggable human genome. (8) The genome of T. brucei encodes 176 kinases, and the kinome of the related parasites Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp. consists of highly orthologous enzymes, (9, 10) some of which are beginning to emerge as druggable targets of potential intervention for such parasitic infections. (11-15)
We recently reported that NVP-BEZ235 (1, Figure 1A), currently a phase III clinical candidate for cancer, showed a subnanomolar growth inhibitory phenotype in T. brucei and good-to-modest activities against cultures of T. cruzi and Leishmania major. (12) Recognizing, of course, that 1 is a potent human kinase inhibitor, we started to study the structure–activity relationships (SAR) of this class of compounds in an attempt to reduce the inherent host cellular toxicity and to allow assessment and subsequent improvement of the selectivity profile over human kinases. Furthermore, the physicochemical properties of 1 do not lend it to CNS exposure (a requirement for HAT therapeutics), as suggested by GSK internal models of CNS penetration and by other predictive models recently disclosed, such as the central nervous system multiparameter optimization (CNS MPO) score. (18)

Results and Discussion

ARTICLE SECTIONS
Jump To

In order to establish the SAR of this chemotype, we looked toward the docking studies of 1 that were previously reported using a homology model of the human kinase domain of PI3Kγ, showing that the binding of the inhibitor to the hinge region of the kinase is made mainly through three H-bond interactions (Figure 1A). (16) We anticipated that such interactions would also be important for the parasitic kinase(s) by which 1 effected its potent growth inhibition. We therefore divided the structure of 1 into three regions (R1, R2, and R3), as shown in Figure 1B, for systematic modulation.

Figure 1

Figure 1. (A) Compound 1 and its proposed interactions with human PI3K-γ. (16) (B) General regions of the compound’s core and the structure of 2, a recently disclosed mTOR/PI3K inhibitor. (17)

The docking studies mentioned above showed that the nitrogen atom of the quinoline substituent in the R3 position could play an important role in binding to Asp933. Very recently, a new mTOR/PI3K dual inhibitor, PF-04979064 (2, Figure 1B), was disclosed by Pfizer that contains a 3-pyridine in the same position as the 3-quinolinyl, reinforcing the importance of this substituent for activity against the human targets. (17) To evaluate the importance of this region of the molecule to confer activity against the parasite, we replaced the quinoline with a variety of aromatic and nonaromatic substituents.
Preparation of compounds 410 was accomplished via various cross-coupling reactions using common intermediate 3 (Scheme 1); Suzuki conditions were employed in the preparation of compounds 4, direct amination using a Buchwald–Hartwig reaction for compounds 5, or copper-catalyzed conditions in aqueous ammonia for compound 6. Compound 10 was prepared utilizing Sonogashira coupling conditions. Palladium-mediated dehalogenation of 3 provided 9. Compound 8 was easily obtained utilizing Negishi coupling conditions with chloro(methyl)zinc and palladium catalyst. Biological assessments of these compounds are summarized in Table 1 and are discussed below.

Scheme 1

Scheme 1. a

Scheme aReagents and conditions: (a) ArB(OH)2, Pd(PPh3)4, K2CO3, glyme/EtOH/H2O; (b) NH3/H2O, CuO, N1,N2-diisopropyloxalohydrazide, K3PO4, TBAB, H2O; (c) AcCl, K2CO3, DCM; (d) morpholine or N-methylpiperazine, butyl di-1-adamantylphosphine, Pd(OAc)2, toluene; (e) 3-acetyleneylpyridine, Pd(PhCN)2Cl2, t-Bu3P, CuI, dioxane/NMP; (f) MeZnCl, Pd(PPh3)4, THF; (g) Pd(PPh3)4, K2CO3, glyme/EtOH/H2O.

Table 1. Screening Data for R3 Variants of 1
Table a

Data not obtained due to low solubility.

Table b

EC50 values are an average of two replicates, with SD less than 0.1 log unit.

Table c

SD was less than 0.2 log units.

Table d

SD was over 1 log unit.

Table e

Selectivity = TC50/EC50.

Table f

Stock concentration: 2.5 mM.

Synthesis of analogues with variations of both R1 and R3 was achieved starting from 11, which was prepared via a three-step sequence starting from 2-amino-5-iodobenzoic acid with an overall yield of 51% (Scheme 2). (19) Preparation of anilines 12 was accomplished via nucleophilic aromatic substitution with the requisite amine, and nitro group reduction using iron provided intermediates 13. Cyclization of the imidazolidinone ring was obtained with diphosgene (compounds 14), and N-methylation gave intermediates 15. Final compounds (16 and 17) were synthesized from 14 and 15 using Suzuki cross-couplings in a microwave reactor. We also prepared the ring-opened analogue 20 from 13 using Suzuki conditions. Structure and biological activity of the compounds prepared in Scheme 2 are summarized in Table 2.

Scheme 2

Scheme 2. a,b

Scheme aReagents and conditions: (a) R1NH2, AcOH; (b) Fe, NH4Cl, EtOH/H2O; (c) Cl3OCOCl, Et3N, DCM; (d) MeI, 0.15 M NaOH(aq), DCM, TBAB; (e) ArB(OH)2, Pd(PPh3)4, K2CO3, 1,2-DME, EtOH, H2O; (f) Pd(PPh3)4, K2CO3, 1,2-DME, EtOH, H2O.

Scheme bSee the tables for the R1 substituents.

Table 2. Biological Data for R1 and R3 Variations
Table a

Data were not obtained due to low solubility.

Table b

EC50 average was obtained from two replicates, with SD lower than 0.1 log units.

Table c

SD lower than 0.2 log.

Table d

TC50 average was obtained from two replicates, with SD lower than 0.5 log units.

Table e

Selectivity = TC50/EC50.

Table f

Stock concentration: 2.5 mM.

Table g

Stock concentration: 0.35 mM.

Table h

Stock concentration: 0.75 mM.

Table i

Stock concentration: 2 mM.

Biological Assessments

As shown in Table 1, replacing the quinoline with a 3-pyridine (4b), with the nitrogen atom in the same spatial region, decreased potency by 8-fold (EC50 = 16 nM) compared to that of 1 and exhibited high HepG2 cytotoxicity (TC50 = 575 nM). The same 3-pyridine with an ethyne spacer (10) only loses 4-fold activity (EC50 = 8 nM), but it displays even worse selectivity. In fact, 10 is a clinical backup molecule for 1 from Novartis, (20) so this host cell activity is not unexpected.
However, introducing a trifluoromethyl group in the para position of the 3-pyridine (4d) eliminated HepG2 cytotoxicity (TC50 > 25 μM) while maintaining a good activity against the parasite (EC50 = 53 nM).
Installation of a 4-pyridine (4a) at the R3 position also rendered a potent molecule (EC50 = 136 nM), with 25-fold selectivity over host cells. Overall, the pyridine substituents presented a more favorable profile than an unadorned aromatic phenyl ring (4c), which has lower potency and reduced selectivity.
Following the promising profile exhibited by the pyridine-substituted analogues, other heteroaromatic substituents were explored. For example, the five-membered ring methyl-imidazole afforded a highly potent compound, 4e (EC50 = 51 nM), albeit with only a 12-fold selectivity window. However, more bulky benzothiophene 4f was similarly potent (54 nM), yet with no HepG2 toxicity observed.
Introducing cyclic or linear amines or amides at the R3 position led to complete loss of activity against T. brucei and HepG2. Eliminating R3 substituents from 1 altogether (9) resulted in a ∼300-fold loss of potency, although this compound still remained in submicromolar range (EC50 = 624 nM). We observe that an aromatic system (preferably heteroaromatic) is needed in the R3 region to afford potent anti-trypanosomal activity (cf. 8). Nevertheless the choice of this group influences HepG2 cytotoxicity and the overall physicochemical profile of the molecule.
In the R1 position, we first evaluated the importance of the substituents in the para position of the aromatic ring in R1 with 16ac (Table 2). These derivatives exhibited a 10–15-fold decrease in potency when compared to that of 1. Surprisingly, the most potent compound was the one without a para substituent (16c, EC50 = 24 nM), and both the nitrile (16b) and trifluoromethyl (16a) analogues showed similar anti-trypanosomal potency (EC50 = 91 and 103 nM, respectively). In addition, these three compounds exhibited an excellent selectivity profile against HepG2. This data shows that when R3 = 3-quinolinyl the presence of a substituent in the para position of the phenyl ring of the R1 position is important, but not essential, for anti-trypanosomal activity. Interestingly, when the R3 group is 4-pyridyl, the presence of a nitrile group (16d and 16f) or amine moiety (16h) in the R1 para position seems to afford improved potency over p-methyl or methoxy (16e and 16g). This is perhaps consistent with the predicted binding of 1 to the human p110α orthologue, where the nitrile established hydrogen bonds with Ser774, contributing to a strong binding to the human target. (16) We observe a loss in activity when substituents on both the R1 and R3 substituents are eliminated simultaneously (23, Table 3).
Table 3
Table a

EC50 average was obtained from two replicates, with SD lower than 0.1 log.

Table b

TC50 average was obtained from two replicates, with SD lower than 0.5 log.

Table c

Selectivity = TC50/EC50.

Table f

Stock concentration: 2.5 mM.

Table g

Stock concentration: 1.25 mM.

One of the medicinal chemistry goals of this work was to improve the physicochemical properties of the new compounds. Compound 1 is very lipophilic (cLogP = 5.81, chromLogD = 4.75) (21) and displays very poor solubility (19 μM) (Supporting Information, Table S2). (22) The high number of aromatic rings surely contributes to the establishment of favorable π-stacking interactions, resulting in low solubility. Not unexpectedly, R3 quinolinyl compounds 16ac also presented very low solubility. However, with a 4-pyridyl substituent at R3, a drastic reduction in cLogP was observed (compare 1 vs 4a and 4c), and one of these compounds (4a) maintained good antiparasitic activity (EC50 = 136 nM, TC50 = 3.43 μM).
Using 4a as reference, increase of potency was achieved by removing the two α-methyl groups (16d) or by replacing the −C(CH3)2CN group by a dimethyl amine (16h). We hypothesize that the improved positioning of a nitrogen lone pair for hydrogen bonding lends 16h to having improved potency. However, introduction of a methyl (16e) slightly decreases potency relative to that of 4a, and incorporation of a methoxy group (16g) has little impact on activity. Addition of a larger, nonaromatic heterocycle or replacement of the R1 group with methyl reduces or abrogates activity (16ik).
The R2 substituent on the urea ring adjacent to the quinoline core was also explored in terms of methylation versus nonmethylation of the free NH for compounds 16/17b, 16/17d, 16/17h, and 18/19 (Table 3). However, no clear trends were evident. Compound 16h is also the only example where methylation afforded toxicity in HepG2 (TC50 = 2.34 μM). Opening the imidazolone ring the carbonyl group in the “urea-imidazo” ring seems to play an important role. Disruption of the aromatic ring, affording the free amine (20), led to a significant loss in potency (EC50 = 0.767 μM). From a physicochemical property perspective, we do not observe a trend in solubility and permeability when comparing R2 = Me versus H.
As mentioned above, we note that 1 does not penetrate the blood–brain barrier (BBB), a crucial requirement for new drugs in order to be effective in the second stage of HAT. In evaluating analogue designs, we employed the multiparameter optimization (MPO) algorithm developed by Pfizer scientists for CNS-active drugs. (18, 23) This aforementioned publication showed a correlation between six fundamental physicochemical properties (cLogP, cLogD, MW, TPSA, hydrogen-bond donors, and the pKa of the most basic center) and their impact on CNS-acting agents as well as other critical ADME, toxicity, and binding efficiencies. By summing scores for each of these six properties, one can ascertain the likelihood that a given compound should penetrate the CNS. Importantly, a subsequent report successfully applied this approach prospectively for design of CNS-penetrant PI3K-α inhibitors. (24)
As a point of reference, the CNS MPO score of 1 is 3.22, which is lower than the desirable range of CNS-active molecules (≥4). From the new analogues synthesized and tested here, only four shown in Tables 13 scored equal to or worse than 1, and these were primarily due to unfavorable LogP, LogD, and molecular weight values. The MPO score of our most potent analogue (4b) improved to a score of 3.9, which is a direct effect of MW and cLogP decrease compared to those of 1. However, although 16d is slightly less potent than 4b, we observe significant improvement in cellular selectivity and predicted CNS activity (MPO score = 4.8).

Biochemical Kinase Selectivity

On the basis of the cellular potency and selectivity profiles, we prioritized 14 compounds, plus 1, to be tested against PI3K-α, -β, -γ, and -δ as well as mTOR, and this data is shown in the Supporting Information (Table S1). We note that although seven of these compounds retain nanomolar levels of mTOR activity, in most cases we do observe decreases in potency against the mammalian kinases tested.
Next, on the basis of an evaluation of anti-trypanosomal activity, selectivity, MPO score, and the biochemical selectivity assays, we selected four compounds (plus compound 1) to initiate mechanism of action studies. These four prioritized compounds are shown in Table 4.
Table 4. Comparison of Properties of 1 and Prioritized Compounds
 14e916e16g
Potencies     
T. brucei EC50 (μM)0.00250.0510.6170.2000.166
HepG2 TC50 (μM)ndb0.631>504.78611.220
LEc0.320.300.330.330.32
mTOR IC50 (μM)0.0051.1751.6220.4680.380
PI3Kα IC50 (μM)0.0200.3983.981e0.6310.501
PI3Kβ IC50 (μM)0.3167.943>3031.6237.943
PI3Kγ IC50 (μM)0.1000.1261.9950.2510.316
PI3Kδ IC50 (μM)0.0130.79415.8492.5122.512
Properties     
MPO score3.224.084.564.074.57
MW469.6422.5342.4366.4382.4
cLogP5.815.35.625.865.1
chromLogDd, (21)4.75 (6.44)(5.3)(4.69)3.5 (4.95)3.03 (5.32)
TPSA76.5281.4363.6152.7161.94
HBD00000
solubility (μM) (22)19ndanda1722
permeabilityndanda570470860
a

nd = data not obtained.

b

Not obtained due to low solubility.

c

LE = −Log(pEC50) × 1.37/number of heavy atoms.

d

LogD values in parentheses are calculated values.

e

One replicate experiment showed an IC50 >30 μM.

Phospholipidomics Analysis

We originally selected 1 to investigate its potential as an trypanocidal agent on the basis of its activity as a PI3K/mTOR inhibitor in mammalian cells and the fact that PI3K activity is essential for the bloodstream form of the T. brucei parasite. (25) In the interest of elucidating the potential mechanism of action against T. brucei cells, we performed a lipidomic analysis to discern if PI kinases are likely targets of these analogues. Lipid extracts of cells grown in the presence of the best compounds at sublethal doses (200 nM) for 12 h were analyzed by ES-MS. Survey scans in positive and negative ion mode between 600 and 1000 m/z showed a wide range of expected phospholipid species (Supporting Information Figures S1 and S2, respectively). There were no significant differences in the phosphatidylcholine (PC) and sphingomylein (SM) species between the control and cells grown in the presence of the other compounds (Figure S1). Additionally, only minor differences were observed in the negative ion mode survey scans between the control and the treated cells (Figure S2). However, variations were observed in the relative ratios of the PI species 862 m/z (18:0/18:2), 886 m/z (18:0/20:4), and 912 m/z (18:0/22:5), as well as relative to 826 m/z PG (18:0/22:4). This could be a reflection in changes in either the formation of PI (hence, PG increases as PI decreases) because they have a common lipid donor (cytidine-diphosphate-diacylglycerol) or variation in the usage of PI (i.e., for PIP formation). Alternatively, as is often the case, changes in the lipid profile could be a reflection in the cells succumbing to (or adapting to) a defect in a major cellular process, such as endo- or exocytosis or cell cycle arrest.
Because these compounds are thought to target PI3K, negative ion mode scans between 950 and 1300 m/z were conducted to focus upon singly and multiply phosphorylated PIs. As seen in Figure 2A for the control cells, PIP species are observed at ∼992 m/z and ∼1040 m/z, corresponding to 40:5-8 and 44:7-9, respectively, as well as PIP3 (44:9-12) species at ∼1215 m/z.

Figure 2

Figure 2. Negative ion mode survey scans from 950 to 1300 m/z: (A) DMSO (control), (B) 1, (C) 4e, (D) 16g, and (E) 16e.

Compounds 1 and 16g (Figure 2B,C) show almost complete absence of all phosphorylated PIs, clearly indicating that these compounds are targeting PI kinases (e.g., PI3K). Compounds 4e and 16e (Figure 2C,E) also show significant (albeit incomplete) reduction in PIP levels, although this reduction is significant compared to that in the control cells (Figure 2A), indicating that they are affecting metabolism of PIPs, most likely phosphorylation of PI.

Cell Phenotype Analysis

BEZ235 is known to inhibit human PI3K/mTOR; thus, we used the human kinase domain of PI3K-γ (including Ser774, Val855, and Asp933, mentioned above) to search in the T. brucei genome geneDB for homologous enzymes. Two high-homology PI3Ks were identified: the previously characterized TbPI3KIII (Tb927.8.6210), which is orthologous to the yeast Vps34, and an uncharacterized, potentially pseudo TbPIK (Tb927.11.15330). In addition, three of the four TORs described in trypanosomes, TbTOR1, TbTOR2, and TbTOR3, were also identified. In the sequences of these five proteins, similar positions for the important residues, Ser774, Val855, and Asp933, were observed. To resolve the possible target(s) of compound 1, we compared the phenotype of cells treated with 1 with the previously described phenotypes caused by RNAi of these various kinases. TbPI3KIII depletion in T. brucei induced a phenotype characteristic of a defective endocytosis, (25) similar to the phenotype observed in cells treated with 1. Furthermore, ES-MS analyses show complete absence of PIPs, suggesting that 1 is indeed targeting one or more of the PI/PIP kinases, including TbPI3KIII (Figure 2).
Highly efficient and rapid endocytosis is one of the most important cellular processes for this infective parasite to survive and multiply within the bloodstream of the host, and the activity of TbPI3KIII is essential for this process. (25) To gain insight on the possible target(s) of our compounds, we carried out transferrin uptake experiments to measure receptor-mediated endocytosis after drug treatment. The analogues of 1 showed varied trypanocidal potency, so we decided to use concentrations twice that of the EC50 of each of the four compounds in Table 4 over a short treatment period (18 h). These transferrin uptake assays showed that 1 inhibited endocytosis dramatically, as did compounds 16e and 16g (Figure 3). In addition, the fact that PIP3 levels were dramatically reduced after treatment with compounds 1 and 16g further supports the hypothesis they are affecting PIK activity, including TbPI3KIII (Figure 2). Compound 16e induced a phenotype defective in endocytosis (Figure 3); however, the PIP3 molecular species identified (42:7-9) was not the same PIP3 molecular species identified in WT cells (44:9-12). These data suggest that 16e reduces PIP3 44:9-12 formation by inhibiting similar target(s) to that of compounds 1 and 16g, but it may have an additional mode of action because it causes PIP3 42:7-9 to be observed, which may be present in a different subcellular compartment or organelle.

Figure 3

Figure 3. Transferrin uptake of the bloodstream form of T. brucei treated with BEZ235 derivative compounds. The histogram shows the percentage of transferrin uptake relative to that in untreated cells (DMSO) as a control. Mean ± SD of three independent measurements is shown.

Conversely, compound 4e showed a different phenotype, as it did not significantly reduce transferrin endocytosis compared to that of the control (Figure 3). In addition, compound 4e affected cell cycle progression by reducing the proportion of cells in G1 and increasing multinucleated cells, whereas compounds 1, 16g, and 16e did not significantly alter cell cycle progression over this short treatment time (18 h) (Supporting Information Figure S3).
Collectively, these data suggest that compound 4e has a different mode of action than 1, 16e, and 16g because endocytosis was not affected, although the induction of changes in the PIP3 species (Figure 2) suggests PIP metabolism was affected.
Previously published functional analysis showed that TbTOR2 depletion affected endocytosis and cytokinesis, (26) whereas rapamycin (a specific inhibitor of TbTOR2 in trypanosomes) treated cells induce different changes in the lipid profile than those from compound 1 (data not shown). The RNAi of additional TbTOR1 and TOR3 protein kinases (26, 27) does not resemble the defect in endocytosis observed by the treatment with 1, suggesting that the TbTOR family of PIKK is not the main target of 1.
These studies cannot determine unequivocally which member of the trypanosome PI3K family may be the actual molecular target; however, our data strongly suggests that TbPI3KIII is the main target of BEZ235 as well as of derivative compounds 16e and 16g. Regardless, it is possible that additional molecular target(s) in the parasite may be affected
In summary, we have developed initial SAR for analogues of 1 as anti-trypanosomal agents. We have identified regions of the molecule that allow improvement of selectivity over selected kinases and HepG2 cells, and we have measured and computed physicochemical properties that place analogues in a CNS-penetrant region of properties space, as predicted by the CNS MPO scoring regime. With this in mind, we highlight the compounds in Table 4 as our most promising leads in this series, as they possess significant overall improvements over 1. We now have preliminary lipidomics and cell phenotype data to suggest primary targets of action within the lipid kinase pathways, and additional target identification work is continuing using orthogonal methods. Work is also ongoing to establish whether the predicted favorable properties hold true in pharmacokinetic and animal efficacy studies, which will be reported in due course.

Experimental Section

ARTICLE SECTIONS
Jump To

Chemistry

Starting materials were obtained from commercial suppliers and used without further purification unless otherwise stated. Flash column chromatography was carried out using prepacked Isolute Flash or Merck Si60 (15–40 μm) silica gel columns as the stationary phase and analytical grade solvents as the eluent unless otherwise stated. Proton magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectra were recorded at 400 MHz on a Bruker AMX400 spectrometer and are reported as follows: chemical shifts δ (ppm) (multiplicity, coupling constant in J (Hz), number of protons). Multiplicities are labeled s, singlet; d, doublet; t, triplet; m, multiplet; br, broad; or a combination of these. Total ion current traces were obtained for electrospray positive and negative ionization (ES+/ES−) on a Waters SQ detector. Analytical chromatographic conditions used for the LC/MS analysis were as follows. The column was an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 1.7 μm, 3 × 50 mm. Solvent A was an aqueous solvent consisting of 25 mM ammonium acetate. Solvent B was 90% acetonitrile + 10% water (pH 6.6). Additional chromatographic parameters were as follows: flow rate, 0.8 mL/min; injection volume, 2 μL; column temperature, 40 °C; and UV wavelength range, 200–330 nm. The purity of all tested compounds was ≥95% using the analytical method described above unless otherwise stated. Compounds 10 and 11 (20) were prepared as previously described, and their characterization is included in the Supporting Information.

General Procedure A: Aryl Halide Displacement

To a suspension of 4-chloro-6-iodo-3-nitroquinoline (11) (8 g, 24 mmol) in AcOH (100 mL) was added a solution of amine (1.1 equiv) in 70 mL of AcOH. The suspension was stirred for 3 h at rt under N2 and quenched with H2O (150 mL). The resulting yellow precipitate was recovered by filtration, dissolved in CH2Cl2, washed with a saturated aqueous solution of NaHCO3 (100 mL) and then H2O (100 mL), dried over MgSO4, filtered, and concentrated.

General Procedure B: Reduction of Nitroarenes

A suspension of nitroarene 12 (2.6 mmol) in ethanol (37 mL) was heated at reflux. To this mixture was added iron (10 equiv) followed by a solution of NH4Cl (1.42 g, 26 mmol) in H2O (11 mL). The resulting suspension was heated at reflux for 2 h. The hot mixture was then filtered through a Celite pad, and the filtrate was evaporated under vacuum. The residue was dissolved in EtOAc (30 mL) and washed with H2O (30 mL), and the aqueous phase was further extracted with ethyl acetate (2 × 20 mL). The organic extracts were combined, dried over MgSO4, filtered, and evaporated under vacuum.

General Procedure C: Formation of the C ring

A solution of diamine 13 (10.5 mmol) and triethylamine (1.2 equiv) in CH2Cl2 (175 mL) was added dropwise at 0 °C to a solution of trichloromethyl chloroformate (1.1 equiv) in CH2Cl2 (50 mL), and the resultant solution was stirred for 2 h while being allowed to warm slowly to rt. The reaction was quenched with a saturated aqueous solution of NaHCO3 (150 mL) and stirred for 2 h. Phases were separated, and the aqueous layer was further extracted with CH2Cl2 (2 × 60 mL). Organic phases were combined, dried over MgSO4, filtered, and concentrated

General Procedure D: N1 Methylation

An aqueous solution of NaOH (88 mL, 0.15 M) was added to a mixture of intermediate 14 (8.8 mmol), methyl iodide (1.5 equiv), and tetrabutylammonium bromide (0.1 equiv) in CH2Cl2 (180 mL). The resultant mixture was stirred for 24 h at rt in a sealed tube. The reaction was quenched with H2O (100 mL), phases were separated, and the aqueous layer was further extracted with CH2Cl2 (3 × 180 mL). Volatiles were combined and evaporated under reduced pressure.

General Procedure E: Suzuki Coupling

A microwave vessel was loaded with aryl iodide 3 (0.149 mmol), K2CO3 (1.5 equiv), Pd(PPh3)4 5 mol %), and boronate (1.1 equiv) in 1,2-dimethoxyethane (2 mL), EtOH (1 mL), and H2O (0.5 mL). The vessel was evacuated, backfilled with nitrogen, and sealed. The mixture was heated in a microwave reactor at 175 °C for 15 min (including the ramp time). After cooling, the solids were removed by filtration, H2O (10 mL) and CH2Cl2 (10 mL) were added, phases were separated, and the aqueous layer was further extracted with CH2Cl2 (10 mL). Volatiles were combined and evaporated under reduced pressure. Purification was carried out by flash column chromatography over silica gel.

General Procedure F: Buchwald Coupling

A sealed vial was charged with intermediate 3 (0.256 mmol), morpholine (1.2 equiv), butyl(ditricyclo[3.3.1.1∼3,7∼]dec-1-yl)phosphane (0.1 equiv), sodium tert-butoxide (1.2 equiv), Pd(OAc)2 (5 mol %), and toluene (2.3 mL). The resultant mixture was purged with argon for 5 min and then heated at 115 °C for 3 days. The reaction mixture was quenched with H2O (3 mL) and extracted with CH2Cl2 (2 × 10 mL). The organics were combined, dried over MgSO4, filtered, and concentrated under vacuum. Purification was carried out by flash column chromatography over silica gel.

General Procedure G: Negishi Coupling

A microwave vessel was loaded with aryl iodide 3 (80 mg, 171 μmol), methylzinc chloride solution 2 M in THF (4 equiv), and palladium tetrakis(triphenylphosphine) (0.1 equiv) in THF (4 mL). The vessel was evacuated, backfilled with nitrogen, and sealed. The mixture was heated in a microwave reactor at 75 °C for 1 h (including the ramp time). After cooling, the solids were removed by filtration. Saturated solutions of ammonium chloride (5 mL) and EtOAc (10 mL) were added, phases were separated, and the aqueous layer was further extracted with EtOAc (10 mL). Volatiles were combined and evaporated under reduced pressure. Purification was carried out by washing the resultant solid with MeOH.

2-(4-(8-Iodo-3-methyl-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-1-yl)phenyl)-2-methylpropanenitrile (3)

Prepared using General Procedure D from 14 to give 3 as a yellow solid (yield: 81%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm: 9.01 (s, 1H), 7.85 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 2H), 7.76 (m, 2H), 7.68 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 2H), 7.14 (s, 1H), 3.58 (s, 3H), 1.81 (s, 6H). LCMS found, 469 [M + H]+.

2-Methyl-2-(4-(3-methyl-2-oxo-8-(pyridin-3-yl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-1-yl)phenyl)propanenitrile (4b)

Prepared from 3-pyridinyl boronic acid using General Procedure E. Purification was carried out by flash column chromatography over silica gel (eluent: CH2Cl2/MeOH 100:0 to 95:5) to give 4b as an off-white solid (yield: 40%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm: 9.01 (s, 1H), 8.54 (m, 2H), 8.15 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 7.97 (dd, J = 8.8, 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.88 (m, 2H), 7.75 (m, 3H), 7.41 (m, 1H), 7.12 (d, J = 1.8 Hz,1H), 3.62 (s, 3H), 1.83 (s, 6H). LCMS found, 420 [M + H]+.

2-Methyl-2-(4-(3-methyl-2-oxo-8-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-1-yl)phenyl)propanenitrile (4c)

Prepared from phenylboronic acid using General Procedure E. Purification was carried out by flash column chromatography over silica gel (eluent: CH2Cl2/MeOH 100:0 to 95:5) to give 4c as an off-white solid (yield: 51%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm: 8.81 (s, 1H), 8.19 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 1H), 7.86 (dd, J = 9.0, 1.9 Hz, 1H), 7.79 (m, 2H), 7.63 (m, 2H), 7.35 (m, 5H), 7.29 (d, J = 1.9 Hz, 1H), 3.71 (s, 3H), 1.85 (s, 6H). LCMS found, 419 [M + H]+.

2-Methyl-2-(4-(3-methyl-2-oxo-8-(6-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-3-yl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-1-yl)phenyl)propanenitrile (4d)

Prepared from 2-(trifluorimethyl)pyridin-5-ylboronic acid using General Procedure E. Purification was carried out by flash column chromatography over silica gel (eluent: CH2Cl2/MeOH 100:0 to 95:5) to give 4d as a yellow-orange solid (yield: 25%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm: 8.87 (s, 1H), 8.65 (s, 1H), 8.25 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 1H), 7.80 (m, 5H), 7.71 (d, J = 8.1 Hz, 1H), 7.63 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 2H), 3.73 (s, 3H), 1.86 (s, 6H). LCMS found, 488 [M + H]+.

2-Methyl-2-(4-(3-methyl-8-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-1-yl)phenyl)propanenitrile (4e)

Prepared from 1-methylpyrazole-4-boronic acid pinacol ester using General Procedure E. Purification was carried out by flash column chromatography over silica gel (eluent: CH2Cl2/MeOH 100:0 to 95:5) to give 4e as a yellow solid (yield: 49%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm: 8.75 (s, 1H), 8.10 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 7.81 (m, 2H), 7.68 (dd, J = 8.8 and 2.0 Hz, 2H), 7.63 (m, 2H), 7.41 (s, 1H), 7.34 (s, 1H), 7.14 (d, J = 1.78 Hz, 1H), 3.91 (s, 3H), 3.70 (s, 3H), 1.90 (s, 6H). LCMS found, 423 [M + H]+.

2-(4-(8-(Benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-3-methyl-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-1-yl)phenyl)-2-methylpropanenitrile (4f)

Prepared using General Procedure E, from 3, providing 4f as as an off-white solid (yield: 25%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm: 8.79 (s, 1H), 8.14 (d, J = 9.1 Hz, 1H), 7.94 (dd, 9.1, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.86 (dd, J = 6.6, 2.0 Hz, 2H), 7.75 (m, 2H), 7.64 (dd, J = 6.6, 2.0 Hz, 2H), 7.44 (s, 1H), 7.37 (d, J = 1.8 Hz, 1H), 7.33 (m, 2H), 3.71 (s, 3H), 1.93 (s, 6H). LCMS found, 475 [M + H]+.

2-Methyl-2-(4-(3-methyl-8-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-1-yl)phenyl)propanenitrile (5a)

Prepared from intermediate 3 using General Procedure F. Purification was carried out by flash column chromatography over silica gel (eluent: CH2Cl2/MeOH 100:0 to 95:5) to give 5a as a tan solid (yield: 17%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm: 8.72 (s, 1H), 7.81 (m, 3H), 7.66 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 2H), 7.39 (dd, J = 9.5, 2.5 Hz, 1H), 6.05 (d, J = 2.5 Hz, 1H), 3.54 (s, 3H), 2.82 (m, 4H), 2.31 (m, 4H), 2.16 (s, 3H), 1.78 (s, 6H). LCMS found, 441 [M + H]+.

2-Methyl-2-(4-(3-methyl-8-morpholino-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-1-yl)phenyl)propanenitrile (5b)

Prepared from 3 using General Procedure F, providing 5b as a tan solid following flash column chromatography over silica gel (eluent: 0–3% MeOH/CH2Cl2) (yield: 12%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm: 8.75 (s, 1H), 7.83 (m, 3H), 7.66 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 2H), 7.40 (dd, J = 9.5, 2.5 Hz, 1H), 6.06 (d, J = 2.5 Hz, 1H), 3.61 (m, 4H), 3.55 (s, 3H), 2.77 (m, 4H), 1.78 (s, 6H). LCMS found, 428 [M + H]+.

2-(4-(8-Amino-3-methyl-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-1-yl)phenyl)-2-methylpropanenitrile (6)

A sealed vial was loaded with CuO (1 mg, 13 μmol), N1,N2-diisopropyloxalohydrazide (28) (10.2 mg, 51 μmol), intermediate 3 (120 mg, 0.25 mmol), commercial 25–28% aqueous ammonia solution (0.26 mL), K3PO4 (108 mg, 0.51 mmol), tetra-butyl ammonium bromide (41 mg, 0.13 mmol), and H2O (0.26 mL). The mixture was heated at 110 °C for 3 h. After allowing the mixture to cool to rt, the reaction mixture was extracted with CH2Cl2 (3 × 10 mL). The combined organic phase was washed with brine and concentrated under vacuum. Purification was carried out by flash column chromatography over silica gel (eluent: CH2Cl2/MeOH 100:0 to 95:5) to give 6 as a white solid (18.4 mg, 51 μmol, 28%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm: 8.58 (s, 1H), 7.74 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 2H), 7.69 (d, J = 9.1 Hz, 1H), 7.54 (m, 2H), 6.94 (dd, J = 9.1, 2.3 Hz, 1H), 5.87 (d, J = 2.5 Hz, 1H), 5.39 (brs, 2H), 3.50 (s, 3H), 1.80 (s, 6H). LCMS found, 358 [M + H]+.

N-(1-(4-(2-Cyanopropan-2-yl)phenyl)-3-methyl-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-8-yl)acetamide (7)

Acetyl chloride (10 μL, 0.14 mmol) was added to a mixture of compound 6 (50 mg, 0.14 mmol) and potassium carbonate (20 mg, 0.14 mmol) in CH2Cl2 (4 mL), and the resultant mixture was stirred for 24 h at rt. The mixture was filtered, and volatiles were removed under vacuum. Purification was carried out by flash column chromatography over silica gel (eluent: CH2Cl2/MeOH 100:0 to 93:7) to give 7 as a white solid (4.7 mg, 12 μmol, 8%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm: 9.97 (s, 1H), 8.84 (s, 1H), 7.91 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 1H), 7.79 (m, 1H), 7.74 (m, 2H), 7.55 (m, 2H), 7.33 (dd, J = 9.0, 2.6 Hz, 1H), 3.56 (s, 3H), 1.91 (s, 3H), 1.81 (s, 6H). LCMS found, 400 [M + H]+.

2-(4-(3,8-Dimethyl-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-1-yl)phenyl)-2-methylpropanenitrile (8)

Prepared from intermediate 3 using General Procedure G. Compound 8 was obtained without further purification as an orange solid (yield: 90%, purity: 94%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm: 8.93 (s, 1H), 7.92 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 7.82 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 2H), 7.66 (d, J = 8.3 Hz, 2H), 7.39 (dd, J = 8.8, 1.7 Hz, 1H), 6.64 (s, 1H), 3.58 (s, 3H), 2.16 (s, 3H), 1.82 (s, 6H). LCMS found, 357 [M + H]+.

2-Methyl-2-(4-(3-methyl-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-1-yl)phenyl)propanenitrile (9)

Prepared using General Procedure E, reacting intermediate 3 in the absence of boronic acid. Purification was carried out by flash column chromatography over silica gel (eluent: CH2Cl2/MeOH 100:0 to 95:5) to give 9 as a pale yellow solid (yield: 11%, purity: 93%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm: 9.00 (s, 1H), 8.03 (d, J = 8.3 Hz, 1H), 7.8 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 2H), 7.66 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 2H), 7.55 (m, 1H), 7.31 (m, 1H), 7.03 (d, J = 7.8 Hz, 1H), 3.58 (s, 3H), 1.80 (s, 6H). LCMS found, 343 [M + H]+.

2-(4-((6-Iodo-3-nitroquinolin-4-yl)amino)phenyl)-2-methylpropanenitrile (12)

Prepared using General Procedure A, reacting intermediate 11 with 2-(4-amino-phenyl)-2-methylpropionitrile (Figure S2, Supporting Information). Compound 12 was isolated as a yellow solid (yield: 73%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm: 10.1 (s, 1H), 9.10 (s, 1H), 8.80 (s, 1H), 8.12 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 1H), 7.75 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 1H), 7.46 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 2H), 7.12 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 2H), 1.67 (s, 6H). LCMS found, 459 [M + H]+.

6-Iodo-3-nitro-N-(4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)quinolin-4-amine (12a)

Prepared using General Procedure A, reacting intermediate 11 with 4-(trifluoromethyl) aniline. Compound 12a was isolated as a yellow solid (yield: 78%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm: 10.21 (s, 1H), 9.11 (s, 1H), 8.9 (s, 1H), 8.18 (d, J = 8.7 Hz 1H), 7.8 (d, J = 8.7 Hz, 1H), 7.65 (d, J = 8.3 Hz, 2H), 7.21 (d, J = 8.3 Hz, 2H). LCMS found, 458 [M – H]+.

4-((6-Iodo-3-nitroquinolin-4-yl)amino)benzonitrile (12b)

Prepared using the General Procedure A, reacting intermediate 11 with 4-aminobenzonitrile. Compound 12b was isolated as a yellow solid (yield: 98%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm: 10.36 (s, 1H), 9.11 (s, 1H), 8.85 (s, 1H), 8.16 (dd, J = 8.7, 1.8 Hz, 1H), 7.78 (d, J = 8.7 Hz, 1H), 7.72 (m, 2H), 7.12 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 2H). LCMS found, 417 [M + H]+.

6-Iodo-3-nitro-N-phenylquinolin-4-amine (12c)

Prepared using General Procedure A, reacting intermediate 11 with aniline. Compound 12c was isolated as a brown solid (yield: 83%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm: 10.07 (s, 1H), 9.02 (s, 1H), 8.85 (d, J = 1.8 Hz, 1H), 8.11 (dd, J = 8.6, 1.6 Hz, 1H), 7.74 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 1H), 7.32 (m, 2H), 7.13 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 1H), 7.08 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 2H). LCMS found, 392 [M + H]+.

2-(4-((6-Iodo-3-nitroquinolin-4-yl)amino)phenyl)acetonitrile (12d)

Prepared using General Procedure A, reacting intermediate 11 with 2-(4-aminophenyl)acetonitrile. Compound 12d was isolated as a yellow solid (yield: 93%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm: 10.06 (s, 1H), 9.04 (s, 1H), 8.93 (d, J = 1.8 Hz, 1H), 8.15 (dd, J = 8.7, 1.8 Hz, 1H), 7.77 (d, J = 8.7 Hz, 1H), 7.30 (d, J = 8.3 Hz, 2H), 7.10 (d, J = 8.3 Hz, 2H), 4.02 (s, 2H). LCMS found, 431 [M + H]+.

6-Iodo-3-nitro-N-(p-tolyl)quinolin-4-amine (12e)

Prepared using General Procedure A, reacting intermediate 11 with p-toluidine. Compound 12e was isolated as a yellow solid (yield: 95%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm: 10.03 (s, 1H), 9.01 (s, 1H), 8.87 (d, J = 1.6 Hz, 1H), 8.11 (dd, J = 8.6, 1.6 Hz, 1H), 7.73 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 1H), 7.15 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 2H), 6.99 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 2H), 2.29 (s, 3H). LCMS found, 406 [M + H]+.

6-Iodo-N-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3-nitroquinolin-4-amine (12g)

Prepared using General Procedure A, reacting intermediate 11 with p-anisidine. Compound 12g was isolated as an orange solid (yield: 83%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm: 10.05 (s, 1H), 8.99 (s, 1H), 8.77 (s, 1H), 8.08 (dd, J = 8.7, 1.8 Hz, 1H), 7.70 (d, J = 8.7 Hz, 1H), 7.06 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 2H), 6.91 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 2H), 3.75 (s, 3H). LCMS found, 422 [M + H]+.

N1-(6-Iodo-3-nitroquinolin-4-yl)-N4,N4-dimethylbenzene-1,4-diamine (12h)

Prepared using General Procedure A, reacting intermediate 11 with N,N-dimethyl p-phenylenediamine sulfate. Compound 12h was isolated as an orange solid (yield: 92%).1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm: 10.14 (s, 1H), 9.00 (s, 1H), 8.73 (d, J = 1.5 Hz, 1H), 8.05 (dd, J = 8.7, 1.5 Hz, 1H), 7.68 (d, J = 8.7 Hz, 1H), 6.99 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 2H), 6.70 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 2H), 2.91 (s, 6H). LCMS found, 435 [M + H]+.

6-Iodo-N-(4-morpholinophenyl)-3-nitroquinolin-4-amine (12i)

Prepared using General Procedure A, reacting intermediate 11 with 4-morpholinoaniline. Compound 12i was isolated as an orange solid (yield: 88%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm: 10.09 (s, 1H), 9.01 (s, 1H), 8.72 (d, J = 1.8 Hz, 1H), 8.07 (dd, J = 8.8, 1.8 Hz, 1H), 7.70 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 7.02 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 2H), 6.93 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 2H), 3.74 (t, J = 4.8 Hz, 4H), 3.11 (t, J = 4.8 Hz, 4H). LCMS found, 477 [M + H]+.

6-Iodo-N-(4-((4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)methyl)phenyl)-3-nitroquinolin-4-amine (12j)

Prepared using General Procedure A, reacting intermediate 11 with 4-[(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)methyl]aniline. Compound 12j was isolated as a yellow solid (yield: 78%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm: 10.69 (s, 1H), 9.45 (s, 1H), 7.89 (m, 2H), 7.70 (d, J = 9.3 Hz, 1H), 7.42 (d, J = 8.3 Hz, 2H), 7.14 (d, J = 8.3 Hz, 2H), 3.57 (s, 2H), 2.52 (m, 8H), 2.32 (s, 3H). LCMS found, 504 [M + H]+.

6-Iodo-N-methyl-3-nitroquinolin-4-amine (12k)

To a solution of intermediate 3 (1 g, 2.9 mmol) in MeOH (250 mL) was bubbled methylamine, and a precipitate was formed. The reaction mixture was stirred for another hour, after which the precipitate was recovered by filtration, washed with MeOH, and dried under vacuum to afford a yellow solid (0.7 g, 2.1 mmol, 74%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm: 8.93 (s, 1H), 8.85 (m, 2H), 8.06 (dd, J = 8.8, 1.9 Hz, 1H), 7.64 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 2.98 (s, 3H). LCMS found, 330 [M + H]+.

2-(4-((3-Amino-6-iodoquinolin-4-yl)amino)phenyl)-2-methylpropanenitrile (13)

Prepared from intermediate 12 using General Procedure B. Purification by flash column chromatography on silica gel (eluent: CH2Cl2/MeOH 100:0 to 95:5) gave 13 as a yellow solid (yield: 66%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, CD2Cl2) δ ppm: 8.55 (s, 1H), 8.11 (s, 1H), 7.65 (m, 2H), 7.27 (d, J = 8.7 Hz, 2H), 6.60 (d, J = 8.7 Hz, 2H), 5.60 (brs, 1H), 4.04 (brs, 2H), 1.63 (s, 6H). LCMS found, 429 [M + H]+.

6-Iodo-N4-(4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)quinoline-3,4-diamine (13a)

Prepared from intermediate 12a using General Procedure B. Compound 13a was isolated as a tan solid (yield: 94%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm: 8.62 (s, 1H), 8.35 (s, 1H), 8.01 (s, 1H), 7.61 (s, 2H), 7.44 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 2H), 6.59 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 2H), 5.55 (brs, 2H). LCMS found 43,0 [M + H]+.

4-((3-Amino-6-iodoquinolin-4-yl)amino)benzonitrile (13b)

Prepared from intermediate 12b using the General Procedure B. Compound 13b was isolated as a tan solid (yield: 84%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm: 8.61 (s, 1H), 8.56 (s, 1H), 7.96 (s, 1H), 7.61 (m, 2H), 7.52 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 2H), 6.56 (m, 2H), 5.62 (s, 2H). LCMS found, 387 [M + H]+.

6-Iodo-N4-phenylquinoline-3,4-diamine (13c)

Prepared from 12c using General Procedure B. Compound 13c was isolated as a tan solid (yield: 98%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm: 8.58 (s, 1H), 8.05 (s, 1H), 7.81 (s, 1H), 7.59 (d, J = 1.01 Hz, 2H), 7.12 (dd, J = 7.3, 1.0 Hz, 2H), 6.69 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 1H), 6.51 (m, 2H), 1.89 (brs, 2H). LCMS found, 360 [M – H]+.

2-(4-((3-Amino-6-iodoquinolin-4-yl)amino)phenyl)acetonitrile (13d)

Prepared from intermediate using General Procedure B. Compound 13d was isolated as a tan solid (yield: 87%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm: 8.60 (s, 1H), 8.05 (s,1H), 7.91 (s, 1H), 7.60 (m, 2H), 7.10 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 2H), 6.52 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 2H), 5.40 (s, 2H), 3.85 (s, 2H). LCMS found, 401 [M + H]+.

6-Iodo-N4-(p-tolyl)quinoline-3,4-diamine (13e)

Prepared from intermediate 12e using General Procedure B. Compound 13e was isolated as a yellow solid (yield: 30%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm: 8.55 (s, 1H), 8.25 (d, J = 1.5 Hz, 1H), 7.83 (dd, J = 8.8, 1.5 Hz, 1H), 7.70 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 7.09 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 2H), 6.72 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 2H), 5.44 (brs, 2H), 2.26 (s, 3H). LCMS found, 376 [M – H]+.

6-Iodo-N4-(4-methoxyphenyl)quinoline-3,4-diamine (13g)

Prepared from intermediate 12g using General Procedure B. Compound 13g was obtained as a tan solid (yield: 37%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm: 8.55 (s, 1H), 8.09 (m, 1H), 7.56 (m, 3H), 6.75 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 2H), 6.48 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 2H), 5.25 (brs, 2H), 3.64 (s, 3H). LCMS found, 392 [M + H]+.

N4-(4-(Dimethylamino)phenyl)-6-iodoquinoline-3,4-diamine (13h)

Prepared from intermediate 12h using General Procedure B. Compound 13h was isolated as an orange solid (yield: 84%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm: 8.53 (s, 1H), 8.13 (s,1H), 7.58 (d, J = 1.5 Hz, 2H), 7.47 (s, 1H), 6.65 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 2H), 6.49 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 2H), 5.18 (s, 2H), 2.76 (s, 6H). LCMS found, 405 [M + H]+.

6-Iodo-N4-(4-morpholinophenyl)quinoline-3,4-diamine (13i)

Prepared from intermediate 12i using General Procedure B. Purification of the crude was carried out by recrystallization from EtOH/Et2O to give 13i as a yellow solid (yield: 45%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm: 8.56 (s, 1H), 8.11 (s,1H), 7.57 (m, 3H), 6.80 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 2H), 6.48 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 2H), 6.24 (brs, 2H), 3.70 (t, J = 4.7 Hz, 4H), 2.93 (t, J = 4.7 Hz, 4H). LCMS found, 447 [M + H]+.

6-Iodo-N4-(4-((4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)methyl)phenyl)quinoline-3,4-diamine (13j)

Prepared from intermediate 12j using General Procedure B. Compound 13j was isolated as an off-white solid (yield: 66%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm: 8.59 (s, 1H), 8.06 (s, 1H), 7.78 (s, 1H), 7.59 (m, 2H), 7.03 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 2H), 6.48 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 2H), 5.34 (s, 2H), 3.29 (s, 2H), 2.30 (m, 8H), 2.12 (s, 3H). LCMS found, 472 [M – H]+.

6-Iodo-N4-methylquinoline-3,4-diamine (13k)

Prepared from intermediate 12k using General Procedure B. Purification of the crude was carried out by recrystallization from Et2O to give 13k as a yellow gummy solid (yield: 49%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm: 8.46 (s, 1H), 8.20 (s, 1H), 7.68 (m, 2H), 4.30 (s, 1H), 3.82 (brs, 2H), 2.99 (s, 3H). LCMS found, 300 [M + H]+.

2-(4-(8-Iodo-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-1-yl)phenyl)-2-methylpropanenitrile (14)

Prepared from 13 using General Procedure C to give 14 as a brown solid (yield: 91%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm: 8.77 (s, 1H), 7.83 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 2H), 7.74 (m, 2H), 7.67 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 2H), 7.14 (s, 1H), 5.74 (s, 1H), 1.79 (s, 6H). LCMS found, 455 [M + H]+.

8-Iodo-1-(4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-2(3H)-one (14a)

Prepared from intermediate 13a, using General Procedure C. Compound 14a was isolated as a white solid (yield: 91%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm: 8.73 (s, 1H), 8.03 (d, J = 7.9 Hz, 2H), 7.82 (d, J = 7.9 Hz, 2H), 7.71 (m, 2H), 7.29 (s, 1H), 3.35 (brs, 1H). LCMS found, 454 [M – H]+.

4-(8-Iodo-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-1-yl)benzonitrile (14b)

Prepared from intermediate 13b using the General Procedure C. Compound 14b was isolated as a yellow solid (yield: 99%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm: 8.68 (s, 1H), 8.1 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 2H), 7.76 (m, 2H), 7.68 (s, 1H), 7.36 (d, J = 1.8 Hz, 1H), 6.58 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 1H), 6.12 (brs, 1H). LCMS found, 413 [M + H]+.

8-Iodo-1-phenyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-2(3H)-one (14c)

Prepared from intermediate 13c using General Procedure C. Compound 14c was isolated as a white solid (yield: 94%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm: 8.76 (s, 1H), 7.75 (m, 2H), 7. 67 (m, 3H), 7.60 (m, 2H), 7.27 (m, 2H). LCMS found, 386 [M – H]+.

2-(4-(8-Iodo-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-1-yl)phenyl)acetonitrile. (14d)

Prepared from intermediate 13d using General Procedure C. Compound 14d was isolated as a yellow brown solid (yield: 62%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm: 8.68 (s, 1H), 7.76 (s, 1H), 7.69 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 7.62 (m, 3H), 7.54 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 2H), 7.40 (d, J = 1.5 Hz, 1H), 4.23 (s, 2H). LCMS found, 427 [M + H]+

8-Iodo-1-(p-tolyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-2(3H)-one (14e)

Prepared from intermediate 13e using General Procedure C. Compound 14e was isolated as a tan solid (yield: 82%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm: 8.70 (s, 1H), 7.69 (m, 2H), 7.44 (m, 6H), 2.47 (s, 3H). LCMS found, 402 [M + H]+.

8-Iodo-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-2(3H)-one (14g)

Prepared from intermediate 13g using General Procedure C. Compound 14g was obtained as a tan solid (yield: 79%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm: 8.71 (s, 1H), 7.70 (m, 2H), 7.46 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 2H), 7.35 (d, J = 1.0 Hz, 1H), 7.19 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 2H), 3.87 (s, 3H), 3.55 (brs, 1H). LCMS found, 418 [M + H]+.

1-(4-(Dimethylamino)phenyl)-8-iodo-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-2(3H)-one (14h)

Prepared from intermediate 13h using General Procedure C. Compound 14h was isolated as a brown solid (yield: 57%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm: 8.73 (s, 1H), 7.74 (m, 2H), 7.44 (m, 1H), 7.32 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, 2H), 6.93 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, 2H), 3.33 (brs, 1H), 3.02 (s, 6H). LCMS found, 431 [M + H]+.

8-Iodo-1-(4-morpholinophenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-2(3H)-one (14i)

Prepared from intermediate 13i using General Procedure C. Compound 14i was isolated as a brown solid (yield: 39%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm: 8.64 (s, 1H), 7.66 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 7.60 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 7.40 (d, J = 1.8 Hz, 1H), 7.32 (d, J = 8.7 Hz, 2H), 7.16 (d, J = 8.7 Hz, 2H), 3.80 (t, J = 4.7 Hz, 4H), 3.37 (brs, 1H), 3.23 (t, J = 4.7 Hz, 4H). LCMS found, 473 [M + H]+.

8-Iodo-1-(4-((4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)methyl)phenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-2(3H)-one (14j)

Prepared from intermediate 13j using General Procedure C. Compound 14j was isolated as a yellow solid (yield: 87%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm: 8.76 (s, 1H), 7.75 (m, 2H), 7.59 (d, J = 8.1 Hz, 2H), 7.53 (d, J = 8.1 Hz, 2H), 7.20 (s, 1H), 3.61 (s, 2H), 2.36 (m, 9H), 2.16 (s, 3H). LCMS found, 500 [M + H]+.

8-Iodo-1-methyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-2(3H)-one (14k)

Prepared from intermediate 13k using General Procedure C. Compound 14k was isolated as a yellow solid (yield: 98%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm: 8.54 (s, 1H), 8.51 (d, 1.0 Hz, 1H), 7.64 (m, 2H), 3.71 (s, 3H), 3.18 (brs, 1H). LCMS found, 326 [M + H]+.

8-Iodo-3-methyl-1-(4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-2(3H)-one (15a)

Prepared from intermediate 14a using General Procedure D. Compound 15a was isolated as a pale yellow solid (yield: 75%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm: 9.01 (s, 1H), 7.77 (m, 1H), 7.69 (m, 3H), 7.60 (m, 2H), 7.27 (m, 1H), 3.57 (s, 3H). LCMS found, 468 [M – H]+.

4-(8-Iodo-3-methyl-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-1-yl)benzonitrile (15b)

Prepared from intermediate 14b using General Procedure D. Compound 15b was isolated as a yellow solid (yield: 57%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm: 9.05 (s, 1H), 8.20 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 2H), 7.87 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 2H), 7.81 (m, 2H), 7.30 (m, 1H), 3.58 (s, 3H). LCMS found, 427 [M + H]+.

8-Iodo-3-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-2(3H)-one (15c)

Prepared from intermediate 14c using General Procedure D. Compound 15c was isolated as a pale yellow solid (yield: 44%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm: 9.01 (s, 1H), 7.77 (m, 2H), 7.69 (m, 2H), 7.60 (m, 2H), 7.27 (m, 2H), 3.58 (s, 3H). LCMS found, 402 [M + H]+.

2-(4-(8-Iodo-3-methyl-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-1-yl)phenyl)acetonitrile (15d)

To a solution of 14d (0.4 g, 0.94 mmol) in DMF (25 mL) were successively added K2CO3 (156 mg, 1.13 mmol) and methyl iodide (70 μL, 1.13 mmol). The resultant mixture was stirred for 4.5 h at rt and then filtered. Volatiles were evaporated under reduced pressure to give a precipitate that was washed with H2O and dried under vacuum to afford 15d (0.37 g, 0.84 mmol, 90%) as a purple solid. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm: 9.03 (s, 1H), 7.80 (m, 2H), 7.66 (m, 4H), 7.36 (s, 1H), 4.27 (s, 2H), 3.59 (s, 3H). LCMS found, 441 [M + H]+.

8-Iodo-3-methyl-1-(p-tolyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-2(3H)-one (15e)

Prepared from intermediate 14e using General Procedure D. Compound 15e was isolated as a brown solid (yield: 93%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm: 9.01 (s, 1H), 7.78 (d, J = 1.5 Hz, 2H), 7.48 (m, 4H), 7.36 (m, 1H), 3.58 (s, 3H), 3.31 (s, 3H). LCMS found, 416 [M + H]+.

8-Iodo-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3-methyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-2(3H)-one (15g)

Prepared from intermediate 14g using General Procedure D. Compound 15g was obtained as a tan solid (yield: 73%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm: 8.09 (s, 1H), 7.77 (m, 2H), 7.50 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 2H), 7.35 (m, 1H), 7.21 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 2H), 3.88 (s, 3H), 3.57 (s, 3H). LCMS found, 432 [M + H]+.

1-(4-(Dimethylamino)phenyl)-8-iodo-3-methyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-2(3H)-one (15h)

Prepared from intermediate 14h using General Procedure D. Compound 15h was isolated as a brown solid (yield: 70%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm: 8.98 (s, 1H), 7.77 (m, 2H), 7.45 (m, 1H), 7.33 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 2H), 6.93 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 2H), 3.57 (s, 3H), 3.03 (s, 6H). LCMS found, 445 [M + H]+.

8-Iodo-3-methyl-1-(4-morpholinophenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-2(3H)-one (15i)

Prepared from intermediate 14i using General Procedure D. Compound 15i was isolated as a brown solid (yield: 76%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm: 8.99 (s, 1H), 7.78 (m, 2H), 7.41 (m, 3H), 7.20 (d, J = 9.1 Hz, 2H), 3.81 (t, J = 4.8 Hz, 4H), 3.57 (s, 3H), 3.27 (t, J = 4.8 Hz, 4H). LCMS found, 487 [M + H]+.

8-Iodo-1,3-dimethyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-2(3H)-one (15k)

A mixture of intermediate 14k (53 mg, 0.16 mmol), K2CO3 (34 mg, 0.24 mmol), and methyl iodide (15 μL, 0.24 mmol) in acetone (15 mL) was stirred for 17 h at rt. To complete the reaction another equiv of K2CO3 (24 mg, 0.16 mmol) and methyl iodide (10 μL, 0.16 mmol) were added, and the resultant solution was left under stirring for 48 h. The mixture was then taken to dryness, and the solids were washed with H2O to give 15k as a yellow solid (23 mg, 68 μmol, 42%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm: 8.89 (s, 1H), 8.60 (d, J = 1.8 Hz, 1H), 7.87 (dd, J = 8.8, 1.8 Hz, 1H), 7.79 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 3.80 (s, 3H), 3.52 (s, 3H). LCMS found, 340 [M + H]+.

3-Methyl-8-(quinolin-3-yl)-1-(4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-2(3H)-one (16a)

Prepared using General Procedure E, reacting intermediate 15a with 3-quinoline boronic acid. Purification was carried out by flash column chromatography over silica gel (eluent: CH2Cl2/MeOH 100:0 to 95:5) to give 16a as a yellow solid (yield: 26%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm: 9.08 (s, 1H), 8.92 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1H), 8.26 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.21 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 8.14 (m, 3H), 8.03 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 1H), 7.99 (d, J = 8.1 Hz, 2H), 7.92 (d, J = 7.3 Hz, 1H), 7.77 (m, 1H), 7.66 (m, 1H), 7.33 (d, J = 1.8 Hz, 1H), 3.63 (s, 3H). LCMS found, 471 [M + H]+.

4-(3-Methyl-2-oxo-8-(quinolin-3-yl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-1-yl)benzonitrile (16b)

Prepared using General Procedure E, reacting intermediate 15b with 3-quinoline boronic acid. Purification was carried out by flash column chromatography over silica gel (eluent: CH2Cl2/MeOH 100:0 to 95:5) to give 16b as a pale yellow solid (yield: 43%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm: 9.08 (s, 1H), 8.90 (d, J = 2.5 Hz, 1H), 8.37 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1H), 8.26 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 2H), 8.21 (m, 1H), 8.12 (dd, J = 9.1, 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.03 (m, 2H), 7.97 (m, 2H), 7.79 (m, 1H), 7.67 (m, 1H), 7.35 (d, J = 1.8 Hz, 1H), 3.62 (s, 3H). LCMS found, 428 [M + H]+.

3-Methyl-1-phenyl-8-(quinolin-3-yl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-2(3H)-one (16c)

Prepared using General Procedure E, reacting intermediate 15c with 3-quinoline boronic acid. Purification was carried out by flash column chromatography over silica gel (eluent: CH2Cl2/MeOH 100:0 to 95:5) to give 16c as a white solid (yield: 38%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm: 9.04 (s, 1H), 8.79 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1H), 8.37 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1H), 8.18 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 8.10 (dd, J = 8.8, 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.03 (d, J = 8.3 Hz, 1H), 7.98 (d, J = 7.3 Hz, 1H), 7.74 (m, 6H), 7.66 (m, 1H), 7.35 (d, J = 1.8 Hz, 1H),3.62 (s, 3H). LCMS found, 403 [M + H]+.

2-(4-(3-Methyl-2-oxo-8-(pyridin-4-yl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-1-yl)phenyl)acetonitrile (16d)

Prepared using General Procedure E, reacting intermediate 15d with pyridine 4-boronic acid pinacol ester. Purification was carried out by flash column chromatography over silica gel (eluent: CH2Cl2/MeOH 100:0 to 95:5) to give 16d as a yellow solid (yield: 17%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm: 9.05 (s, 1H), 8.60 (d, J = 5.0 Hz, 2H), 8.15 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 1H), 8.00 (d, J = 8.08 Hz, 1H), 7.73 (m, 4H), 7.30 (m, 3H), 4.28 (s, 2H), 3.61 (s, 3H). LCMS found, 392 [M + H]+.

3-Methyl-8-(pyridin-4-yl)-1-(p-tolyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-2(3H)-one (16e)

Prepared using General Procedure E, reacting intermediate 15e with pyridine 4-boronic acid pinacol ester. Purification was carried out by flash column chromatography over silica gel (eluent: CH2Cl2/MeOH 100:0 to 90:10) to give 16e as a yellow solid (yield: 54%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm: 9.04 (s, 1H), 8.59 (dd, J = 4.5, 1.9 Hz, 2H), 8.14 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 7.98 (dd, J = 8.8, 1.9 Hz, 1H), 7.55 (m, 4H), 7.31 (dd, J = 4.5, 1.5 Hz, 2H), 7.25 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 3.61 (s, 3H), 3.31 (s, 3H). LCMS found, 367 [M + H]+.

4-(3-Methyl-2-oxo-8-(pyridin-4-yl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-1-yl)benzonitrile (16f)

Prepared using General Procedure E, reacting intermediate 15b with pyridine 4-boronic acid pinacol ester. Purification was carried out by flash column chromatography over silica gel (eluent: CH2Cl2/MeOH 100:0 to 95:5) to give 16f as a white solid (yield: 5%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm: 9.08 (s, 1H), 8.59 (d, J = 6.3 Hz, 2H), 8.22 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 2H), 8.17 (d, J = 9.1 Hz, 1H), 7.98 (dd, J = 9.1, 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.94 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 2H), 7.35 (d, J = 6.3 Hz, 2H), 7.29 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 3.61 (s, 3H). LCMS found, 428 [M + H]+.

1-(4-Methoxyphenyl)-3-methyl-8-(pyridin-4-yl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-2(3H)-one (16g)

Prepared using General Procedure E, reacting intermediate 15g with pyridine 4-boronic acid pinacol ester. Purification was carried out by flash column chromatography over silica gel (eluent: CH2Cl2/MeOH 100:0 to 95:5) to give 16g as a tan solid (yield: 32%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm: 9.02 (s, 1H), 8.57 (m, 2H), 8.13 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 7.96 (dd, J = 8.8, 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.58 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 2H), 7.34 (m, 2H), 7.30 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.26 (m, 2H), 3.92 (s, 3H), 3.60 (s, 3H). LCMS found, 383 [M + H]+.

1-(4-(Dimethylamino)phenyl)-3-methyl-8-(pyridin-4-yl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-2(3H)-one (16h)

Prepared using General Procedure E, reacting intermediate 15h with pyridine 4-boronic acid pinacol ester. Purification was carried out by flash column chromatography over silica gel (eluent: CH2Cl2/MeOH 100:0 to 90:10) to give 16h as a salmon solid (yield: 16%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm: 9.00 (s, 1H), 8.56 (d, J = 5.8 Hz, 2H), 8.12 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 7.98 (dd, J = 8.4, 1.78 Hz, 1H), 7.38 (m, 5H), 6.99 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 2H), 3.60 (s, 3H), 3.06 (s, 6H). LCMS found, 396 [M + H]+.

3-Methyl-1-(4-morpholinophenyl)-8-(pyridin-4-yl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-2(3H)-one (16i)

Prepared using General Procedure E, reacting intermediate 15i with pyridine 4-boronic acid pinacol ester. Purification was carried out by flash column chromatography over silica gel (eluent: CH2Cl2/MeOH 100:0 to 90:10) to give 16i as a salmon solid (yield: 28%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm: 9.02 (s, 1H), 8.58 (d, J = 5.8 Hz, 2H), 8.13 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 7.99 (dd, J = 8.8, 1.9 Hz, 1H), 7.49 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 2H), 7.37 (m, 3H), 7.25 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 2H), 3.83 (m, 4H), 3.61 (s, 3H), 3.24 (m, 4H). LCMS found, 438 [M + H]+.

1-(4-((4-Methylpiperazin-1-yl)methyl)phenyl)-8-(pyridin-4-yl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-2(3H)-one (16j)

Prepared using General Procedure E, reacting intermediate 14j with pyridine 4-boronic acid pinacol ester. Purification was carried out by flash column chromatography over amino-silica gel (eluent: CH2Cl2/MeOH 100:0 to 95:5) to give 16j as a white solid (yield: 23%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm: 8.78 (s, 1H), 8.54 (m, 2H), 8.10 (d, J = 9.1 Hz, 1H), 7.91 (dd, J = 8.8, 1.9 Hz, 1H), 7.60 (m, 3H), 7.52 (m, 2H), 7.36 (d, J = 1.9 Hz, 1H), 7.31 (dd, J = 4.4, 1.6 Hz, 2H), 3.65 (s, 2H), 2.45 (m, 4H), 2.33 (m, 4H), 2.17 (s, 3H). LCMS found, 451 [M + H]+.

1-Methyl-8-(pyridin-4-yl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-2(3H)-one (16k)

Prepared using General Procedure E, reacting intermediate 15k with pyridine 4-boronic acid pinacol ester. Purification was carried out by flash column chromatography over silica gel (eluent: CH2Cl2/MeOH 100:0 to 90:10) to give 16k as a yellow solid (yield: 20%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm: 8.76 (m, 3H), 8.51 (d, J = 1.7 Hz, 1H), 8.28 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 7.90 (dd, J = 8.8, 1.7 Hz, 1H), 7.64 (dd, J = 4.5, 1.6, 2H), 4.03 (s, 3H), 3.66 (s, 3H). LCMS found, 291 [M + H]+.

4-(2-Oxo-8-(quinolin-3-yl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-1-yl)benzonitrile (17b)

Prepared using General Procedure E, reacting intermediate 14b with 3-quinoline boronic acid. Purification was carried out by flash column chromatography over silica gel (eluent: CH2Cl2/MeOH 100:0 to 95:5) to give 17b as a white solid (yield: 43%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm: 8.90 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1H), 8.81 (s, 1H), 8.37 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.23 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 2H), 8.18 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 8.04 (m, 3H), 7.96 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 2H), 7.78 (m, 1H), 7.66 (m, 1H), 7.38 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 5.95 (s, 1H). LCMS found, 414 [M + H]+.

2-(4-(2-Oxo-8-(pyridin-4-yl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-1-yl)phenyl)acetonitrile (17d)

Prepared using General Procedure E, reacting intermediate 14d with 4-pyridine boronic ester. Purification was carried out by flash column chromatography over silica gel (eluent: CH2Cl2/MeOH 100:0 to 95:5) to give 17d as a yellow solid (yield: 12%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm: 8.81 (s, 1H), 8.59 (dd, J = 4.5, 1.7 Hz, 2H), 8.12 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, 1H), 7.99 (dd, J = 8.9, 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.72 (m, 4H), 7.31 (dd, J = 4.5, 1.7 Hz, 2H), 7.29 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 4.28 (s, 2H), 3.33 (brs, 1H). LCMS found, 378 [M + H]+.

1-(4-(Dimethylamino)phenyl)-8-(pyridin-4-yl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-2(3H)-one (17h)

Prepared using General Procedure E, reacting intermediate 14h with pyridine 4-boronic acid pinacol ester. Purification was carried out by flash column chromatography over silica gel (eluent: CH2Cl2/MeOH 100:0 to 90:10) to give 17h as a salmon solid (yield: 9%, purity: 94%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm: 8.76 (s, 1H), 8.56 (d, J = 5.8 Hz, 2H), 8.09 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 7.97 (dd, J = 8.8, 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.38 (m, 6H), 6.99 (d, J = 9.1 Hz, 2H), 3.06 (s, 6H). LCMS found, 382 [M + H]+. Also isolated from this reaction was 1-(4-(dimethylamino)phenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-2(3H)-one M1009/84/4. (18) (yield: 5%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm: 8.72 (s, 1H), 7.98 (d, J = 8.3 Hz, 1H), 7.47 (m, 2H), 7.31 (m, 3H), 7.15 (d, J = 8.3 Hz, 1H), 6.89 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 2H), 3.02 (s, 6H). LCMS found, 305 [M + H]+.

1-(4-(Dimethylamino)phenyl)-3-methyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-2(3H)-one (19)

Prepared using the General Procedure E, reacting intermediate 15h in the absence of boronic acid. Purification was carried out by flash column chromatography over silica gel (eluent: CH2Cl2/MeOH 100:0 to 95:5) to give 19 as a salmon solid. (yield: 13%, purity: 91%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm: 8.96 (s, 1H), 8.01 (d, J = 8.3 Hz, 1H), 7.56 (m, 1H), 7.31 (m, 3H), 7.16 (d, J = 8.3 Hz, 1H), 6.90 (d, J = 9.10 Hz, 2H), 3.57 (s, 3H), 3.03 (s, 6H). LCMS found, 319 [M + H]+.

2-(4-((3′-Amino-[3,6′-biquinolin]-4′-yl)amino)phenyl)-2-methylpropanenitrile (20)

Prepared using General Procedure E, reacting compound 13 and 3-quinoline boronic acid. Purification was carried out by flash column chromatography over silica gel (eluent: CH2Cl2/MeOH 100:0 to 95:5) to give 20 as a pale yellow solid (yield: 2%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm: 9.23 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1H), 8.63 (s, 2H), 8.16 (m, 1H), 8.09 (s, 1H), 8.02 (m, 3H), 7.87 (dd, J = 8.8, 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.76 (m, 1H), 7.64 (m, 1H), 7.28 (d, 8.8 Hz, 2H), 6.63 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 2H), 5.30 (brs, 2H), 1.60 (s, 6H). LCMS found, 430 [M + H]+.

4-(3-Methyl-2-oxo-1-(p-tolyl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-8-yl)benzoic Acid (21)

Prepared using General Procedure E, reacting intermediate 15e with 4-carboxyphenyl boronic acid. Purification was carried out by flash column chromatography over silica gel (eluent: CH2Cl2/MeOH 100:0 to 90:10) to give 21 as a yellow solid (yield: 27%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm: 9.00 (s, 1H), 8.10 (d, J = 9.1 Hz, 1H), 7.93 (m, 3H), 7.54 (m, 4H), 7.39 (d, J = 8.3 Hz, 2H), 7.21 (d, J = 1.3 Hz, 1H), 3.61 (s, 3H), 3.31 (s, 3H). LCMS found, 410 [M + H]+.

3,8-Dimethyl-1-phenyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-2(3H)-one (22)

Prepared from intermediate 15c using General Procedure G. Compound 22 was obtained as a white solid (yield: 17%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm: 8.92 (s, 1H), 7.92 (d, J = 8.8 Hz 1H), 7.67 (m, 3H), 7.59 (m, 2H), 7.38 (dd, J = 8.8, 1.8 Hz, 1H), 6.70 (s, 1H), 3.58 (s, 3H), 2.16 (s, 3H). LCMS found, 290 [M + H]+.

3-Methyl-1-phenyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-2(3H)-one (23)

Prepared using General Procedure E, reacting intermediate 15c with trimethylboroxin. Purification was carried out by flash column chromatography over silica gel (eluent: CH2Cl2/MeOH 100:0 to 95:5) to give 23 as an off-white solid (yield: 33%, purity: 94%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm: 9.01 (s, 1H), 8.03 (d, J = 7.8 Hz, 1H), 7.6 (m, 6H), 7.29 (m, 1H), 6.99 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 1H), 3.59 (s, 3H). LCMS found, 276 [M + H]+.

Cellular Activity Assays

Trypanosome Cell Culture and Cell Growth Assays

Bloodstream Trypanosoma brucei brucei Lister 427 was the selected strain to perform the HTS experiments and the profiling assay. The cell strain was cultured in Hirumi’s modified Iscove’s medium (HMI-9) (29) supplemented with 10% heat-inactivated FBS at 37 °C and 5% CO2 in T-25 vented flasks (Corning). We evaluated the anti-trypanosomal activity of the newly prepared compounds in Trypanosoma brucei brucei culture according to resazurin viability test.

Dose–Response Assay

For dose–response experiments, serial dilutions of compounds were plotted against compound concentration. Dose–response starting at 10 mM, unless indicated, with 3-fold dilutions for 11 points were made in masterplates. Two hundred nanoliters per well from those masterplates was stamped in final assay plates. Controls of 0% response (control 1, 0.2 μL of 100% DMSO) and 100% response (control 2, 0.2 μL of 1 mM Pentamidine) were included in each assay plate in columns 6 and 18, respectively. Plates containing 0.2 μL of 100% DMSO were included in the assay to assess quality through the entire process. To detect growth inhibition, parasites in log phase growth were diluted to a working concentration of 2500 cells/mL in prewarmed HMI-9 medium and gently stirred until dispensation. Fifty microliters of culture was dispensed in compound-stamped black, clear-bottom, 384-well Greiner microplates using a Multidrop Combi Reagent Dispenser (Thermo Scientific) to give a final solvent concentration of 0.4% DMSO. Plates were covered with a lid, and cells were incubated for 70 h at 37 °C and 5% CO2. After this period, 10 μL of 200 μM resazurin solution in prewarmed HMI-9 was added to each well, and plates were allowed to incubate 2 h more prior to fluorescence reading in a Wallac EnVision multilabel plate reader (PerkinElmer). Raw fluorescent data from the Envision plate reader were uploaded into GSK HTS database (ActivityBase). Activity of each well was normalized as a percentage of inhibition on a per-plate basis using the following equationwhere control 1 represents wells from the same plate containing 0.4% DMSO (0% inhibition, 100% grown control, n = 16) and control 2 represents wells from the same plate treated with pentamidine (100% inhibition, 0% grown, n = 16). A Z′ value greater than 0.4 was required for plate validation during the quality control process.
A four-parameter equation describing a sigmoidal dose–response curve was then fitted with an adjustable baseline using ActivityBase XE Runner software. Fitting of dose–response curves and EC50 determination were normalized as percentage of inhibition based on controls. The curve-fit model was based on a four-parameter logistic equation

HepG2 Cell Culture and Growth Assays

The HepG2 cell line (human liver hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, ATCC) was cultured in Eagle’s MEM supplemented with l-glutamine, Earle’s salts, 10% heat-inactivated FBS, and 1% non-essential amino acids (NEAA) at 37 °C and 5% CO2 in T-175 vented flasks (Corning). The human biological samples were sourced ethically, and their research use was in accord with the terms of informed consent.

Cytotoxicity Assay

This assay was used as a selectivity assay, and compounds were tested at dose–response concentrations against HepG2 in order to identify the level of cytotoxicity. Dose– response starting at 10 mM, unless indicated, with 3-fold dilutions for 11 points was made in master plates (1536). Fifty nanoliters per well was stamped in final assay plates.
Log-phase HepG2 cells were removed from a T-175 TC flask using cell dispersion medium and dispersed by repeated pipetting. Cell density was adjusted to 60 000 cells/mL as the working concentration in prewarmed Eagle’s MEM. The seeding density was checked to ensure that new monolayers were not more than ∼50% confluent at the time of seeding (typically 3000 cells per well), before completing preparation of the plates. Five microliters of culture was dispensed in compound-stamped TC treated, Greiner white 1536-well plates using a Multidrop Combi Reagent Dispenser (Thermo Scientific) to a final concentration of 1% DMSO. Cells were incubated for 48 h at 37 °C and 5% CO2. Viability was determined by CellTiter-Glo kit (Promega) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Briefly, reconstituted CellTiter Buffer was equilibrated to room temperature prior use, and 5 μL per well was dispensed with a Multidrop Combi Reagent Dispenser. Contents were mixed on a plate orbital shaker and incubated for 10 min at room temperature to allow the signal to stabilize before luminescence reading on ViewLux Plate Reader (PerkinElmer).
Raw luminescence data from the ViewLux reader were uploaded into GSK HTS database (ActivityBase). Activity of each well was normalized as a percentage of inhibition on a per-plate basis using the following equationwhere control 1 represents wells from the same plate containing 1% DMSO (0% inhibition, 100% grown control, n = 128) and control 2 represents wells from the same plate treated with digitoxin (100% inhibition, 0% grown, n = 128). A Z′ value greater than 0.4 was required for plate validation during the quality control process.
As previously described for the primary assay, a four-parameter equation describing a sigmoidal dose–response curve was then fitted with an adjustable baseline using ActvityBase XE Runner software.

Phospholipidomics Analyses

Lipid Extraction

Total lipids from mid log phase cells were extracted by the method of Bligh and Dyer. (30) Briefly, mid log phase cells were collected by centrifugation (800g, 10 min), washed with PBS, resuspended in 100 μL of TDB-glucose, transferred to a glass tube containing 375 μL of 1:2 (v/v) CHCl3/MeOH, and vortexed. The sample was agitated vigorously for a further 10–15 min. The sample was made biphasic by the addition of 125 μL of CHCl3 and vortexed, and then 125 μL of H2O was added. The sample was vortexed again and centrifuged at 3000g at rt for 10 min. The lower (organic) phase was transferred into a new glass vial, and the aqueous phase was re-extracted with the fresh lower phase. The resultant lower phase lipid extract was dried under a stream of nitrogen and stored at 4 °C.

Electrospray Mass Spectrometry Analysis

Lipid extracts were dissolved in 15 μL of CHCl3/MeOH (1:2) and 15 μL of acetonitrile/isopropanol/water (6:7:2) and analyzed with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (Absceix 4000 QTrap) equipped with a nanoelectrospray source. Samples were delivered into the spectrometer using either thin-walled nanoflow capillary tips or a Nanomate interface in direct infusion mode (∼125 nL/min). The lipid extracts were analyzed in both positive and negative ion modes using a capillary voltage of 1.25 kV. MS/MS scanning (daughter, precursor, and neutral loss scans) were performed using nitrogen as the collision gas, with collision energies between 35 and 90 V. Each spectrum encompasses at least 50 repetitive scans. Tandem mass spectra (MS/MS) were obtained with collision energies as follows: 35–45 V, PC/SM in positive ion mode, parent-ion scanning of m/z 184; 35–55 V, PI in negative ion mode, parent-ion scanning of m/z 241; 35–65 V, PE in negative ion mode, parent-ion scanning of m/z 196; 20–35 V, PS in negative ion mode, neutral loss scanning of m/z 87; and 40–90 V, for all glycerophospholipids (including PA, PG, and cardiolipin) detected by precursor scanning for m/z 153 in negative ion mode. MS/MS daughter ion scanning was performed with collision energies between 35 and 90 V.
Assignment of phospholipid species was based upon a combination of survey, daughter, precursor, and neutral loss scans as well previous assignments. (31) The identity of phospholipid peaks was verified using the LIPID MAPS: Nature Lipidomics Gateway (www.lipidmaps.org).

Cellular Phenotype Analyses

Transferrin Uptake

Two million trypanosomes were harvested and washed with TDB-glucose plus 1% BSA, resuspended in 250 μL in the same buffer, and incubated for 10 min at 37 °C prior to the addition of 5 μg of AlexaFluor 488-conjugated human holo-Tf (Invitrogen). Incubations were carried out for 0 (no Tf) or 3 min at 37 °C, after which cells were immediately fixed in 4 °C in 1% PFA diluted in cold PBS for at least 1 h. Parasites were finally washed twice with PBS and analyzed with a Becton Dickinson FACSCalibur flow cytometer (BD Biosciences) using BD CellQuest Pro version 4.0.2 software.

FACS Analysis

For cell cycle analysis, samples (1.5 × 106 cells) were collected, centrifuged (1400g at 4 °C for 5 min), and washed in trypanosome dilution buffer (TDB). The cell pellets were gently suspended in 50 μL of TDB and permeabilized by adding 1 μL of saponin (25 mg/mL) for 3 min. It was then mixed with another 450 μL of TDB. RNase and propidium iodide (PI) were added to the suspension at final concentrations of 10 and 20 μg/mL, respectively, and the samples were incubated at room temperature for 30 min and then stored at 4 °C. The DNA content of PI-stained cells and the percentage of cells in each phase of the cell cycle (10 000 cells per sample) were analyzed with a Becton Dickinson FACSCalibur flow cytometer (BD Biosciences) using BD CellQuest Pro version 4.0.2 software.

Supporting Information

ARTICLE SECTIONS
Jump To

Additional mass spectrometry data; data tables from this article annotated with NEU registry numbers; and biochemical and physicochemical assay details. This material is available free of charge via the Internet at http://pubs.acs.org. All of the data included in this work has also been made available as a publically available data set on www.collaborativedrug.com.

Terms & Conditions

Most electronic Supporting Information files are available without a subscription to ACS Web Editions. Such files may be downloaded by article for research use (if there is a public use license linked to the relevant article, that license may permit other uses). Permission may be obtained from ACS for other uses through requests via the RightsLink permission system: http://pubs.acs.org/page/copyright/permissions.html.

Author Information

ARTICLE SECTIONS
Jump To

  • Corresponding Authors
    • Miguel Navarro - Instituto de Parasitología y Biomedicina “López-Neyra”, Granada 18100, Spain Email: [email protected]
    • Michael P. Pollastri - Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, United States Email: [email protected]
  • Authors
    • João D. Seixas - Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, United StatesInstituto de Parasitología y Biomedicina “López-Neyra”, Granada 18100, Spain
    • Sandra A. Luengo-Arratta - Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, United StatesInstituto de Parasitología y Biomedicina “López-Neyra”, Granada 18100, Spain
    • Rosario Diaz - Instituto de Parasitología y Biomedicina “López-Neyra”, Granada 18100, Spain
    • Manuel Saldivia - Instituto de Parasitología y Biomedicina “López-Neyra”, Granada 18100, Spain
    • Domingo I. Rojas-Barros - Instituto de Parasitología y Biomedicina “López-Neyra”, Granada 18100, Spain
    • Pilar Manzano - Tres Cantos Medicines Development Campus, DDW and CIB, GlaxoSmithKline, 28760 Tres Cantos, Spain
    • Silvia Gonzalez - Tres Cantos Medicines Development Campus, DDW and CIB, GlaxoSmithKline, 28760 Tres Cantos, Spain
    • Manuela Berlanga - Tres Cantos Medicines Development Campus, DDW and CIB, GlaxoSmithKline, 28760 Tres Cantos, Spain
    • Terry K. Smith - Biomedical Sciences Research Complex, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife, KY16 9ST, United Kingdom
  • Notes
    The authors declare no competing financial interest.

Acknowledgment

ARTICLE SECTIONS
Jump To

This work was supported in part by the Tres Cantos Open Lab Foundation (M.P.P., M.N., R.D., S.L.-A., and J.D.S.), NIH 7R01AI082577 (M.P.P.), and Wellcome Trust grant 093228 (T.K.S.). M.S., D.R., and M.N. are supported by grants from the Spanish MICINN (SAF2012-40029), Junta de Andalucia (CTS-5841), and RICET (RD12/0018).

Abbreviations Used

ARTICLE SECTIONS
Jump To

HAT

human African trypanosomiasis

SAR

structure–activity relationships

PI3K

phosphoinositol-3-kinase

mTOR

mammalian target of rapamycin

CNS

central nervous system

LE

ligand efficiency

PIP

phosphatidylinositol phosphate

TDB

trypanosome dilution buffer

PBS

phosphate buffered saline

PFA

paraformaldehyde

GSK

GlaxoSmithKline

PIKK

Phosphatidyl inositol 3′-kinase-related kinase

References

ARTICLE SECTIONS
Jump To

This article references 31 other publications.

  1. 1
    World Health Organization. Sustaining the drive to overcome the global impact of neglected tropical diseases. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/77950/1/9789241564540_eng.pdf (accessed April 22, 2014) .
  2. 2
    Jacobs, R. T.; Nare, B.; Phillips, M. A. State of the art in African trypanosome drug discovery Curr. Top. Med. Chem. 2011, 11, 1255 1274
  3. 3
    Target Product Profile for Human African Trypanosomiasis. http://www.dndi.org/diseases-projects/diseases/hat/target-product-profile.html (accessed March 23, 2013) .
  4. 4
    Pollastri, M. P.; Campbell, R. K. Target repurposing for neglected diseases Future Med. Chem. 2011, 3, 1307 1315
  5. 5
    Page, T. H.; Smolinska, M.; Gillespie, J.; Urbaniak, A. M.; Foxwell, B. M. Tyrosine kinases and inflammatory signalling Curr. Mol. Med. 2009, 9, 69 85
  6. 6
    Ito, K.; Caramori, G.; Adcock, I. M. Therapeutic potential of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors in inflammatory respiratory disease J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 2007, 321, 1 8
  7. 7
    Chahrour, O.; Cairns, D.; Omran, Z. Small molecule kinase inhibitors as anti-cancer therapeutics Mini-Rev. Med. Chem. 2012, 12, 399 411
  8. 8
    Hopkins, A. L.; Groom, C. R. The druggable genome Nat. Rev. Drug. Discovery 2002, 1, 727 730
  9. 9
    Johannessen, L. E.; Ringerike, T.; Molnes, J.; Madshus, I. H. Epidermal growth factor receptor efficiently activates mitogen-activated protein kinase in HeLa cells and Hep2 cells conditionally defective in clathrin-dependent endocytosis Exp. Cell Res. 2000, 260, 136 145
  10. 10
    Naula, C.; Parsons, M.; Mottram, J. C. Protein kinases as drug targets in trypanosomes and Leishmania Biochim. Biophys. Acta 2005, 1754, 151 159
  11. 11
    Oduor, R. O.; Ojo, K. K.; Williams, G. P.; Bertelli, F.; Mills, J.; Maes, L.; Pryde, D. C.; Parkinson, T.; Van Voorhis, W. C.; Holler, T. P. Trypanosoma brucei glycogen synthase kinase-3, a target for anti-trypanosomal drug development: A public–private partnership to identify novel leads PLoS Neglected Trop. Dis. 2011, 5, e1017
  12. 12
    Diaz-Gonzalez, R.; Kuhlmann, F. M.; Galan-Rodriguez, C.; Madeira da Silva, L.; Saldivia, M.; Karver, C. E.; Rodriguez, A.; Beverley, S. M.; Navarro, M.; Pollastri, M. P. The susceptibility of trypanosomatid pathogens to PI3/mTOR kinase inhibitors affords a new opportunity for drug repurposing PLoS Neglected Trop. Dis. 2011, 5, e1297
  13. 13
    Ochiana, S. O.; Pandarinath, V.; Wang, Z.; Kapoor, R.; Ondrechen, M. J.; Ruben, L.; Pollastri, M. P. The human Aurora kinase inhibitor danusertib is a lead compound for anti-trypanosomal drug discovery via target repurposing Eur. J. Med. Chem. 2013, 62, 777 784
  14. 14
    Patel, G.; Karver, C. E.; Behera, R.; Guyett, P. J.; Sullenberger, C.; Edwards, P.; Roncal, N. E.; Mensa-Wilmot, K.; Pollastri, M. P. Kinase scaffold repurposing for neglected disease drug discovery: Discovery of an efficacious, lapatanib-derived lead compound for trypanosomiasis J. Med. Chem. 2013, 56, 3820 3832
  15. 15
    Katiyar, S.; Kufareva, I.; Behera, R.; Thomas, S. M.; Ogata, Y.; Pollastri, M.; Abagyan, R.; Mensa-Wilmot, K. Lapatinib-binding protein kinases in the African trypanosome: identification of cellular targets for kinase-directed chemical scaffolds PLoS One 2013, 8, e56150
  16. 16
    Maira, S.-M.; Stauffer, F.; Brueggen, J.; Furet, P.; Schnell, C.; Fritsch, C.; Brachmann, S.; Chène, P.; De Pover, A.; Schoemaker, K.; Fabbro, D.; Gabriel, D.; Simonen, M.; Murphy, L.; Finan, P.; Sellers, W.; García-Echeverría, C. Identification and characterization of NVP-BEZ235, a new orally available dual phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor with potent in vivo antitumor activity Mol. Cancer Ther. 2008, 7, 1851 1863
  17. 17
    Cheng, H.; Li, C.; Bailey, S.; Baxi, S. M.; Goulet, L.; Guo, L.; Hoffman, J.; Jiang, Y.; Johnson, T. O.; Johnson, T. W.; Knighton, D. R.; Li, J.; Liu, K. K. C.; Liu, Z.; Marx, M. A.; Walls, M.; Wells, P. A.; Yin, M.-J.; Zhu, J.; Zientek, M. Discovery of the highly potent PI3K/mTOR dual inhibitor PF-04979064 through structure-based drug design ACS Med. Chem. Lett. 2012, 4, 91 97
  18. 18
    Wager, T. T.; Hou, X.; Verhoest, P. R.; Villalobos, A. Moving beyond rules: The development of a central nervous system multiparameter optimization (CNS MPO) approach to enable alignment of druglike properties ACS Chem. Neurosci. 2010, 1, 435 449
  19. 19
    Engelhardt, H.; Kofink, C.; McConnell, D. Preparation of heterocyclic carboxylic acid amides as PDK1 inhibitors. Patent WO2011131741A1, 2011.
  20. 20
    Stauffer, F.; Maira, S.-M.; Furet, P.; García-Echeverría, C. Imidazo[4,5-c]quinolines as inhibitors of the PI3K/PKB-pathway Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2008, 18, 1027 1030
  21. 21
    Valko, K.; Bevan, C.; Reynolds, D. Chromatographic hydrophobicity index by fast-gradient RP-HPLC: A high-throughput alternative to log P/log D Anal. Chem. 1997, 69, 2022 2029
  22. 22
    Bhattachar, S. N.; Wesley, J. A.; Seadeek, C. Evaluation of the chemiluminescent nitrogen detector for solubility determinations to support drug discovery J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 2006, 41, 152 157
  23. 23
    Wager, T. T.; Chandrasekaran, R. Y.; Hou, X.; Troutman, M. D.; Verhoest, P. R.; Villalobos, A.; Will, Y. Defining desirable central nervous system drug space through the alignment of molecular properties, in vitro ADME, and safety attributes ACS Chem. Neurosci. 2010, 1, 420 434
  24. 24
    Heffron, T. P.; Salphati, L.; Alicke, B.; Cheong, J.; Dotson, J.; Edgar, K.; Goldsmith, R.; Gould, S. E.; Lee, L. B.; Lesnick, J. D.; Lewis, C.; Ndubaku, C.; Nonomiya, J.; Olivero, A. G.; Pang, J.; Plise, E. G.; Sideris, S.; Trapp, S.; Wallin, J.; Wang, L.; Zhang, X. The design and identification of brain penetrant inhibitors of phosphoinositide 3-kinase α J. Med. Chem. 2012, 55, 8007 8020
  25. 25
    Hall, B. S.; Gabernet-Castello, C.; Voak, A.; Goulding, D.; Natesan, S. K.; Field, M. C. TbVps34, the trypanosome orthologue of Vps34, is required for Golgi complex segregation J. Biol. Chem. 2006, 281, 27600 27612
  26. 26
    Barquilla, A.; Crespo, J. L.; Navarro, M. Rapamycin inhibits trypanosome cell growth by preventing TOR complex 2 formation Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2008, 105, 14579 14584
  27. 27
    de Jesus, T. C.; Tonelli, R. R.; Nardelli, S. C.; da Silva Augusto, L.; Motta, M. C.; Girard-Dias, W.; Miranda, K.; Ulrich, P.; Jimenez, V.; Barquilla, A.; Navarro, M.; Docampo, R.; Schenkman, S. Target of rapamycin (TOR)-like 1 kinase is involved in the control of polyphosphate levels and acidocalcisome maintenance in Trypanosoma brucei J. Biol. Chem. 2010, 285, 24131 24140
  28. 28
    Meng, F.; Zhu, X.; Li, Y.; Xie, J.; Wang, B.; Yao, J.; Wan, Y. Efficient copper-catalyzed direct amination of aryl halides using aqueous ammonia in water Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2010, 2010, 6149 6152
  29. 29
    Hirumi, H.; Hirumi, K. Continuous cultivation of Trypanosoma brucei blood stream forms in a medium containing a low concentration of serum protein without feeder cell layers J. Parasitol. 1989, 75, 985 989
  30. 30
    Bligh, E. G.; Dyer, W. J. A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification Can. J. Biochem. Physiol. 1959, 37, 911 917
  31. 31
    Richmond, G. S.; Gibellini, F.; Young, S. A.; Major, L.; Denton, H.; Lilley, A.; Smith, T. K. Lipidomic analysis of bloodstream and procyclic form Trypanosoma brucei Parasitology 2010, 137, 1357 1392

Cited By

ARTICLE SECTIONS
Jump To

This article is cited by 34 publications.

  1. Subrata Sahoo, Manthri Atchuta Rao, Shantanu Pal. An Aldehyde-Driven, Fe(0)-Mediated, One-Pot Reductive Cyclization: Direct Access to 5,6-Dihydro-quinazolino[4,3-b]quinazolin-8-ones and Photophysical Study. The Journal of Organic Chemistry 2023, 88 (15) , 10701-10710. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.joc.3c00766
  2. Markus Baenziger, Werner Pachinger, Frédéric Stauffer, Werner Zaugg. Development of a Robust Synthesis of Dactolisib on a Commercial Manufacturing Scale. Organic Process Research & Development 2019, 23 (9) , 1908-1917. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.oprd.9b00221
  3. Lori Ferrins, Michael P. Pollastri. The Importance of Collaboration between Industry, Academics, and Nonprofits in Tropical Disease Drug Discovery. ACS Infectious Diseases 2018, 4 (4) , 445-448. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsinfecdis.7b00208
  4. Nicholas R. Lee, Agata A. Bikovtseva, Margery Cortes-Clerget, Fabrice Gallou, and Bruce H. Lipshutz . Carbonyl Iron Powder: A Reagent for Nitro Group Reductions under Aqueous Micellar Catalysis Conditions. Organic Letters 2017, 19 (24) , 6518-6521. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.7b03216
  5. Stephanie Russell, Raphaël Rahmani, Amy J. Jones, Harriet L. Newson, Kevin Neilde, Ignacio Cotillo, Marzieh Rahmani Khajouei, Lori Ferrins, Sana Qureishi, Nghi Nguyen, Maria S. Martinez-Martinez, Donald F. Weaver, Marcel Kaiser, Jennifer Riley, John Thomas, Manu De Rycker, Kevin D. Read, Gavin R. Flematti, Eileen Ryan, Scott Tanghe, Ana Rodriguez, Susan A. Charman, Albane Kessler, Vicky M. Avery, Jonathan B. Baell, and Matthew J. Piggott . Hit-to-Lead Optimization of a Novel Class of Potent, Broad-Spectrum Trypanosomacides. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 2016, 59 (21) , 9686-9720. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.6b00442
  6. Emanuele Amata, Hualin Xi, Gonzalo Colmenarejo, Rosario Gonzalez-Diaz, Carlos Cordon-Obras, Manuela Berlanga, Pilar Manzano, Jessey Erath, Norma E. Roncal, Patricia J. Lee, Susan E. Leed, Ana Rodriguez, Richard J. Sciotti, Miguel Navarro, and Michael P. Pollastri . Identification of “Preferred” Human Kinase Inhibitors for Sleeping Sickness Lead Discovery. Are Some Kinases Better than Others for Inhibitor Repurposing?. ACS Infectious Diseases 2016, 2 (3) , 180-186. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsinfecdis.5b00136
  7. William Devine, Jennifer L. Woodring, Uma Swaminathan, Emanuele Amata, Gautam Patel, Jessey Erath, Norma E. Roncal, Patricia J. Lee, Susan E. Leed, Ana Rodriguez, Kojo Mensa-Wilmot, Richard J. Sciotti, and Michael P. Pollastri . Protozoan Parasite Growth Inhibitors Discovered by Cross-Screening Yield Potent Scaffolds for Lead Discovery. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 2015, 58 (14) , 5522-5537. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.5b00515
  8. Christopher Merritt, Lisseth E. Silva, Angela L. Tanner, Kenneth Stuart, and Michael P. Pollastri . Kinases as Druggable Targets in Trypanosomatid Protozoan Parasites. Chemical Reviews 2014, 114 (22) , 11280-11304. https://doi.org/10.1021/cr500197d
  9. Shahab A. Darbandizadeh, Saeed Balalaie. Recent Advances in the Synthesis of Fused‐Cyclic Quinolines. Asian Journal of Organic Chemistry 2024, 13 (5) https://doi.org/10.1002/ajoc.202400041
  10. Siyang Ding, Oana Sanislav, Daniel Missailidis, Claire Yvonne Allan, Tze Cin Owyong, Ming‐Yu Wu, Sijie Chen, Paul Robert Fisher, Sarah Jane Annesley, Yuning Hong. A Novel Fluorogenic Probe Reveals Lipid Droplet Dynamics in ME/CFS Fibroblasts. Advanced Sensor Research 2024, 92 https://doi.org/10.1002/adsr.202300178
  11. Sushovan Jena, Badruzzaman Choudhury, Md Gulzar Ahmad, M.M. Balamurali, Kaushik Chanda. Photophysical evaluation on the electronic properties of synthesized biologically significant pyrido fused imidazo[4,5-c]quinolines. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 2023, 287 , 122081. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2022.122081
  12. Kiyoshi Fujisawa, Keigo Ageishi, Mitsuki Okano, Edward R. T. Tiekink. The crystal structure of 3,5-bis(propan-2-yl)-1 H -pyrazol-4-amine, C 9 H 17 N 3. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie - New Crystal Structures 2022, 237 (6) , 1055-1057. https://doi.org/10.1515/ncrs-2022-0362
  13. Annamaria Martorana, Gabriele La Monica, Antonino Lauria. Quinoline-Based Molecules Targeting c-Met, EGF, and VEGF Receptors and the Proteins Involved in Related Carcinogenic Pathways. Molecules 2020, 25 (18) , 4279. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184279
  14. Dana M. Klug, Rosario Diaz-Gonzalez, Travis J. DeLano, Eftychia M. Mavrogiannaki, Melissa J. Buskes, Raeann M. Dalton, John K. Fisher, Katherine M. Schneider, Vivian Hilborne, Melanie G. Fritsche, Quillon J. Simpson, Westley F. Tear, William G. Devine, Guiomar Pérez-Moreno, Gloria Ceballos-Pérez, Raquel García-Hernández, Cristina Bosch-Navarrete, Luis Miguel Ruiz-Pérez, Francisco Gamarro, Dolores González-Pacanowska, Maria Santos Martinez-Martinez, Pilar Manzano-Chinchon, Miguel Navarro, Michael P. Pollastri, Lori Ferrins. Structure–property studies of an imidazoquinoline chemotype with antitrypanosomal activity. RSC Medicinal Chemistry 2020, 11 (8) , 950-959. https://doi.org/10.1039/D0MD00103A
  15. Trong-Nhat Phan, Kyung-Hwa Baek, Nakyung Lee, Soo Young Byun, David Shum, Joo Hwan No. In Vitro and in Vivo Activity of mTOR Kinase and PI3K Inhibitors Against Leishmania donovani and Trypanosoma brucei. Molecules 2020, 25 (8) , 1980. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25081980
  16. Andrew Spaulding, Mitchell F. Gallerstein, Lori Ferrins. Drug Discovery and Development for Human African Trypanosomiasis. 2019, 115-137. https://doi.org/10.1002/9783527808656.ch5
  17. Clinton G. L. Veale. Unpacking the Pathogen Box—An Open Source Tool for Fighting Neglected Tropical Disease. ChemMedChem 2019, 14 (4) , 386-453. https://doi.org/10.1002/cmdc.201800755
  18. Dana M. Klug, Rosario Diaz-Gonzalez, Guiomar Pérez-Moreno, Gloria Ceballos-Pérez, Raquel García-Hernández, Veronica Gomez-Pérez, Luis Miguel Ruiz-Pérez, Domingo I. Rojas-Barros, Francisco Gamarro, Dolores González-Pacanowska, María S. Martínez-Martínez, Pilar Manzano, Lori Ferrins, Conor R. Caffrey, Miguel Navarro, Michael P. Pollastri, . Evaluation of a class of isatinoids identified from a high-throughput screen of human kinase inhibitors as anti-Sleeping Sickness agents. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases 2019, 13 (2) , e0007129. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007129
  19. Zhi-Rong Guan, Zi-Ming Liu, Ming-Wu Ding. New efficient synthesis of 1H-imidazo-[4,5-c]quinolines by a sequential Van Leusen/Staudinger/aza-Wittig/carbodiimide-mediated cyclization. Tetrahedron 2018, 74 (50) , 7186-7192. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tet.2018.10.052
  20. Sanjay Varikuti, Bijay Kumar Jha, Greta Volpedo, Nathan M. Ryan, Gregory Halsey, Omar M. Hamza, Bradford S. McGwire, Abhay R. Satoskar. Host-Directed Drug Therapies for Neglected Tropical Diseases Caused by Protozoan Parasites. Frontiers in Microbiology 2018, 9 https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.02655
  21. Ogunyemi O. Oderinlo, Matshawandile Tukulula, Michelle Isaacs, Heinrich C. Hoppe, Dale Taylor, Vincent J. Smith, Setshaba D. Khanye. New thiazolidine‐2,4‐dione derivatives combined with organometallic ferrocene: Synthesis, structure and antiparasitic activity. Applied Organometallic Chemistry 2018, 32 (7) https://doi.org/10.1002/aoc.4385
  22. Xiao Lu, Myunghoon Kim, Meghan J. Orr, Hao Li, Wenwei Huang. Acid‐Promoted Cascade Reaction of N ‐(4‐Chloroquinolin‐3‐yl)carbamates with Amines: One‐Pot Assembly of Imidazo[4,5‐ c ]quinolin‐2‐ones. European Journal of Organic Chemistry 2018, 2018 (13) , 1572-1580. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejoc.201701772
  23. Hélène G. Bazin, Laura S. Bess, Mark T. Livesay. Synthesis and Applications of Imidazoquinolines: A Review. Organic Preparations and Procedures International 2018, 50 (2) , 109-244. https://doi.org/10.1080/00304948.2018.1433427
  24. Yanjie Li, Xingmin Zhang, Shengxiu Niu, Yanping Zhao, Lijuan Yang, Xiaowei Shao, Ensi Wang. Synthesis and biological activity of imidazo[4,5-c]quinoline derivatives as PI3K/mTOR inhibitors. Chemical Research in Chinese Universities 2017, 33 (6) , 895-902. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40242-017-7074-1
  25. Jennifer L. Woodring, Kelly A. Bachovchin, Kimberly G. Brady, Mitchell F. Gallerstein, Jessey Erath, Scott Tanghe, Susan E. Leed, Ana Rodriguez, Kojo Mensa-Wilmot, Richard J. Sciotti, Michael P. Pollastri. Optimization of physicochemical properties for 4-anilinoquinazoline inhibitors of trypanosome proliferation. European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 2017, 141 , 446-459. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2017.10.007
  26. Corey S. Keenan, S. Shaun Murphree. Rapid and convenient conversion of nitroarenes to anilines under microwave conditions using nonprecious metals in mildly acidic medium. Synthetic Communications 2017, 47 (11) , 1085-1089. https://doi.org/10.1080/00397911.2017.1310897
  27. Michael Berninger, Ines Schmidt, Alicia Ponte-Sucre, Ulrike Holzgrabe. Novel lead compounds in pre-clinical development against African sleeping sickness. MedChemComm 2017, 8 (10) , 1872-1890. https://doi.org/10.1039/C7MD00280G
  28. Simon A. Young, Matthew D. Roberts, Terry K. Smith. The Importance of Targeting Lipid Metabolism in Parasites for Drug Discovery. 2016, 343-369. https://doi.org/10.1002/9783527694082.ch15
  29. Dana M. Klug, Michael H. Gelb, Michael P. Pollastri. Repurposing strategies for tropical disease drug discovery. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 2016, 26 (11) , 2569-2576. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2016.03.103
  30. Paresma R. Patel, Wei Sun, Myunghoon Kim, Xiuli Huang, Philip E. Sanderson, Takeshi Q. Tanaka, John C. McKew, Anton Simeonov, Kim C. Williamson, Wei Zheng, Wenwei Huang. In vitro evaluation of imidazo[4,5 -c ]quinolin-2-ones as gametocytocidal antimalarial agents. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 2016, 26 (12) , 2907-2911. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2016.04.045
  31. Yadagiri Thigulla, Mahesh Akula, Prakruti Trivedi, Balaram Ghosh, Mukund Jha, Anupam Bhattacharya. Synthesis and anti-cancer activity of 1,4-disubstituted imidazo[4,5-c]quinolines. Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry 2016, 14 (3) , 876-883. https://doi.org/10.1039/C5OB01650A
  32. S. Pomel, F. Dubar, D. Forge, P.M. Loiseau, C. Biot. New heterocyclic compounds: Synthesis and antitrypanosomal properties. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry 2015, 23 (16) , 5168-5174. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bmc.2015.03.029
  33. Jennifer L. Woodring, Gautam Patel, Jessey Erath, Ranjan Behera, Patricia J. Lee, Susan E. Leed, Ana Rodriguez, Richard J. Sciotti, Kojo Mensa-Wilmot, Michael P. Pollastri. Evaluation of aromatic 6-substituted thienopyrimidines as scaffolds against parasites that cause trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and malaria. MedChemComm 2015, 6 (2) , 339-346. https://doi.org/10.1039/C4MD00441H
  34. Rosario Diaz, Sandra A. Luengo-Arratta, João D. Seixas, Emanuele Amata, William Devine, Carlos Cordon-Obras, Domingo I. Rojas-Barros, Elena Jimenez, Fatima Ortega, Sabrinia Crouch, Gonzalo Colmenarejo, Jose Maria Fiandor, Jose Julio Martin, Manuela Berlanga, Silvia Gonzalez, Pilar Manzano, Miguel Navarro, Michael P. Pollastri, . Identification and Characterization of Hundreds of Potent and Selective Inhibitors of Trypanosoma brucei Growth from a Kinase-Targeted Library Screening Campaign. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 2014, 8 (10) , e3253. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003253
  • Abstract

    Figure 1

    Figure 1. (A) Compound 1 and its proposed interactions with human PI3K-γ. (16) (B) General regions of the compound’s core and the structure of 2, a recently disclosed mTOR/PI3K inhibitor. (17)

    Scheme 1

    Scheme 1. a

    Scheme aReagents and conditions: (a) ArB(OH)2, Pd(PPh3)4, K2CO3, glyme/EtOH/H2O; (b) NH3/H2O, CuO, N1,N2-diisopropyloxalohydrazide, K3PO4, TBAB, H2O; (c) AcCl, K2CO3, DCM; (d) morpholine or N-methylpiperazine, butyl di-1-adamantylphosphine, Pd(OAc)2, toluene; (e) 3-acetyleneylpyridine, Pd(PhCN)2Cl2, t-Bu3P, CuI, dioxane/NMP; (f) MeZnCl, Pd(PPh3)4, THF; (g) Pd(PPh3)4, K2CO3, glyme/EtOH/H2O.

    Scheme 2

    Scheme 2. a,b

    Scheme aReagents and conditions: (a) R1NH2, AcOH; (b) Fe, NH4Cl, EtOH/H2O; (c) Cl3OCOCl, Et3N, DCM; (d) MeI, 0.15 M NaOH(aq), DCM, TBAB; (e) ArB(OH)2, Pd(PPh3)4, K2CO3, 1,2-DME, EtOH, H2O; (f) Pd(PPh3)4, K2CO3, 1,2-DME, EtOH, H2O.

    Scheme bSee the tables for the R1 substituents.

    Figure 2

    Figure 2. Negative ion mode survey scans from 950 to 1300 m/z: (A) DMSO (control), (B) 1, (C) 4e, (D) 16g, and (E) 16e.

    Figure 3

    Figure 3. Transferrin uptake of the bloodstream form of T. brucei treated with BEZ235 derivative compounds. The histogram shows the percentage of transferrin uptake relative to that in untreated cells (DMSO) as a control. Mean ± SD of three independent measurements is shown.

  • References

    ARTICLE SECTIONS
    Jump To

    This article references 31 other publications.

    1. 1
      World Health Organization. Sustaining the drive to overcome the global impact of neglected tropical diseases. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/77950/1/9789241564540_eng.pdf (accessed April 22, 2014) .
    2. 2
      Jacobs, R. T.; Nare, B.; Phillips, M. A. State of the art in African trypanosome drug discovery Curr. Top. Med. Chem. 2011, 11, 1255 1274
    3. 3
      Target Product Profile for Human African Trypanosomiasis. http://www.dndi.org/diseases-projects/diseases/hat/target-product-profile.html (accessed March 23, 2013) .
    4. 4
      Pollastri, M. P.; Campbell, R. K. Target repurposing for neglected diseases Future Med. Chem. 2011, 3, 1307 1315
    5. 5
      Page, T. H.; Smolinska, M.; Gillespie, J.; Urbaniak, A. M.; Foxwell, B. M. Tyrosine kinases and inflammatory signalling Curr. Mol. Med. 2009, 9, 69 85
    6. 6
      Ito, K.; Caramori, G.; Adcock, I. M. Therapeutic potential of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors in inflammatory respiratory disease J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 2007, 321, 1 8
    7. 7
      Chahrour, O.; Cairns, D.; Omran, Z. Small molecule kinase inhibitors as anti-cancer therapeutics Mini-Rev. Med. Chem. 2012, 12, 399 411
    8. 8
      Hopkins, A. L.; Groom, C. R. The druggable genome Nat. Rev. Drug. Discovery 2002, 1, 727 730
    9. 9
      Johannessen, L. E.; Ringerike, T.; Molnes, J.; Madshus, I. H. Epidermal growth factor receptor efficiently activates mitogen-activated protein kinase in HeLa cells and Hep2 cells conditionally defective in clathrin-dependent endocytosis Exp. Cell Res. 2000, 260, 136 145
    10. 10
      Naula, C.; Parsons, M.; Mottram, J. C. Protein kinases as drug targets in trypanosomes and Leishmania Biochim. Biophys. Acta 2005, 1754, 151 159
    11. 11
      Oduor, R. O.; Ojo, K. K.; Williams, G. P.; Bertelli, F.; Mills, J.; Maes, L.; Pryde, D. C.; Parkinson, T.; Van Voorhis, W. C.; Holler, T. P. Trypanosoma brucei glycogen synthase kinase-3, a target for anti-trypanosomal drug development: A public–private partnership to identify novel leads PLoS Neglected Trop. Dis. 2011, 5, e1017
    12. 12
      Diaz-Gonzalez, R.; Kuhlmann, F. M.; Galan-Rodriguez, C.; Madeira da Silva, L.; Saldivia, M.; Karver, C. E.; Rodriguez, A.; Beverley, S. M.; Navarro, M.; Pollastri, M. P. The susceptibility of trypanosomatid pathogens to PI3/mTOR kinase inhibitors affords a new opportunity for drug repurposing PLoS Neglected Trop. Dis. 2011, 5, e1297
    13. 13
      Ochiana, S. O.; Pandarinath, V.; Wang, Z.; Kapoor, R.; Ondrechen, M. J.; Ruben, L.; Pollastri, M. P. The human Aurora kinase inhibitor danusertib is a lead compound for anti-trypanosomal drug discovery via target repurposing Eur. J. Med. Chem. 2013, 62, 777 784
    14. 14
      Patel, G.; Karver, C. E.; Behera, R.; Guyett, P. J.; Sullenberger, C.; Edwards, P.; Roncal, N. E.; Mensa-Wilmot, K.; Pollastri, M. P. Kinase scaffold repurposing for neglected disease drug discovery: Discovery of an efficacious, lapatanib-derived lead compound for trypanosomiasis J. Med. Chem. 2013, 56, 3820 3832
    15. 15
      Katiyar, S.; Kufareva, I.; Behera, R.; Thomas, S. M.; Ogata, Y.; Pollastri, M.; Abagyan, R.; Mensa-Wilmot, K. Lapatinib-binding protein kinases in the African trypanosome: identification of cellular targets for kinase-directed chemical scaffolds PLoS One 2013, 8, e56150
    16. 16
      Maira, S.-M.; Stauffer, F.; Brueggen, J.; Furet, P.; Schnell, C.; Fritsch, C.; Brachmann, S.; Chène, P.; De Pover, A.; Schoemaker, K.; Fabbro, D.; Gabriel, D.; Simonen, M.; Murphy, L.; Finan, P.; Sellers, W.; García-Echeverría, C. Identification and characterization of NVP-BEZ235, a new orally available dual phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor with potent in vivo antitumor activity Mol. Cancer Ther. 2008, 7, 1851 1863
    17. 17
      Cheng, H.; Li, C.; Bailey, S.; Baxi, S. M.; Goulet, L.; Guo, L.; Hoffman, J.; Jiang, Y.; Johnson, T. O.; Johnson, T. W.; Knighton, D. R.; Li, J.; Liu, K. K. C.; Liu, Z.; Marx, M. A.; Walls, M.; Wells, P. A.; Yin, M.-J.; Zhu, J.; Zientek, M. Discovery of the highly potent PI3K/mTOR dual inhibitor PF-04979064 through structure-based drug design ACS Med. Chem. Lett. 2012, 4, 91 97
    18. 18
      Wager, T. T.; Hou, X.; Verhoest, P. R.; Villalobos, A. Moving beyond rules: The development of a central nervous system multiparameter optimization (CNS MPO) approach to enable alignment of druglike properties ACS Chem. Neurosci. 2010, 1, 435 449
    19. 19
      Engelhardt, H.; Kofink, C.; McConnell, D. Preparation of heterocyclic carboxylic acid amides as PDK1 inhibitors. Patent WO2011131741A1, 2011.
    20. 20
      Stauffer, F.; Maira, S.-M.; Furet, P.; García-Echeverría, C. Imidazo[4,5-c]quinolines as inhibitors of the PI3K/PKB-pathway Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2008, 18, 1027 1030
    21. 21
      Valko, K.; Bevan, C.; Reynolds, D. Chromatographic hydrophobicity index by fast-gradient RP-HPLC: A high-throughput alternative to log P/log D Anal. Chem. 1997, 69, 2022 2029
    22. 22
      Bhattachar, S. N.; Wesley, J. A.; Seadeek, C. Evaluation of the chemiluminescent nitrogen detector for solubility determinations to support drug discovery J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 2006, 41, 152 157
    23. 23
      Wager, T. T.; Chandrasekaran, R. Y.; Hou, X.; Troutman, M. D.; Verhoest, P. R.; Villalobos, A.; Will, Y. Defining desirable central nervous system drug space through the alignment of molecular properties, in vitro ADME, and safety attributes ACS Chem. Neurosci. 2010, 1, 420 434
    24. 24
      Heffron, T. P.; Salphati, L.; Alicke, B.; Cheong, J.; Dotson, J.; Edgar, K.; Goldsmith, R.; Gould, S. E.; Lee, L. B.; Lesnick, J. D.; Lewis, C.; Ndubaku, C.; Nonomiya, J.; Olivero, A. G.; Pang, J.; Plise, E. G.; Sideris, S.; Trapp, S.; Wallin, J.; Wang, L.; Zhang, X. The design and identification of brain penetrant inhibitors of phosphoinositide 3-kinase α J. Med. Chem. 2012, 55, 8007 8020
    25. 25
      Hall, B. S.; Gabernet-Castello, C.; Voak, A.; Goulding, D.; Natesan, S. K.; Field, M. C. TbVps34, the trypanosome orthologue of Vps34, is required for Golgi complex segregation J. Biol. Chem. 2006, 281, 27600 27612
    26. 26
      Barquilla, A.; Crespo, J. L.; Navarro, M. Rapamycin inhibits trypanosome cell growth by preventing TOR complex 2 formation Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2008, 105, 14579 14584
    27. 27
      de Jesus, T. C.; Tonelli, R. R.; Nardelli, S. C.; da Silva Augusto, L.; Motta, M. C.; Girard-Dias, W.; Miranda, K.; Ulrich, P.; Jimenez, V.; Barquilla, A.; Navarro, M.; Docampo, R.; Schenkman, S. Target of rapamycin (TOR)-like 1 kinase is involved in the control of polyphosphate levels and acidocalcisome maintenance in Trypanosoma brucei J. Biol. Chem. 2010, 285, 24131 24140
    28. 28
      Meng, F.; Zhu, X.; Li, Y.; Xie, J.; Wang, B.; Yao, J.; Wan, Y. Efficient copper-catalyzed direct amination of aryl halides using aqueous ammonia in water Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2010, 2010, 6149 6152
    29. 29
      Hirumi, H.; Hirumi, K. Continuous cultivation of Trypanosoma brucei blood stream forms in a medium containing a low concentration of serum protein without feeder cell layers J. Parasitol. 1989, 75, 985 989
    30. 30
      Bligh, E. G.; Dyer, W. J. A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification Can. J. Biochem. Physiol. 1959, 37, 911 917
    31. 31
      Richmond, G. S.; Gibellini, F.; Young, S. A.; Major, L.; Denton, H.; Lilley, A.; Smith, T. K. Lipidomic analysis of bloodstream and procyclic form Trypanosoma brucei Parasitology 2010, 137, 1357 1392
  • Supporting Information

    Supporting Information

    ARTICLE SECTIONS
    Jump To

    Additional mass spectrometry data; data tables from this article annotated with NEU registry numbers; and biochemical and physicochemical assay details. This material is available free of charge via the Internet at http://pubs.acs.org. All of the data included in this work has also been made available as a publically available data set on www.collaborativedrug.com.


    Terms & Conditions

    Most electronic Supporting Information files are available without a subscription to ACS Web Editions. Such files may be downloaded by article for research use (if there is a public use license linked to the relevant article, that license may permit other uses). Permission may be obtained from ACS for other uses through requests via the RightsLink permission system: http://pubs.acs.org/page/copyright/permissions.html.

Pair your accounts.

Export articles to Mendeley

Get article recommendations from ACS based on references in your Mendeley library.

Pair your accounts.

Export articles to Mendeley

Get article recommendations from ACS based on references in your Mendeley library.

You’ve supercharged your research process with ACS and Mendeley!

STEP 1:
Click to create an ACS ID

Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

MENDELEY PAIRING EXPIRED
Your Mendeley pairing has expired. Please reconnect