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Citrate-Capped Gold Nanoparticle Electrophoretic Heat Production in Response to a Time-Varying Radio-Frequency Electric Field

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Department of Surgical Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, United States
Department of Chemistry and The Richard E. Smalley Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005, United States
§ Nanomaterials Processing Laboratory, The Rince Institute, Dublin City University, Dublin 9, Rep. of Ireland
School of Chemistry, Beverly and Raymond Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel
Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005, United States
*E-mail [email protected], Ph 713-794-4957, Fax 713-745-2436.
Cite this: J. Phys. Chem. C 2012, 116, 45, 24380–24389
Publication Date (Web):October 18, 2012
Copyright © 2012 American Chemical Society

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    The evaluation of heat production from gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) irradiated with radio-frequency (RF) energy has been problematic due to Joule heating of their background ionic buffer suspensions. Insights into the physical heating mechanism of nanomaterials under RF excitations must be obtained if they are to have applications in fields such as nanoparticle-targeted hyperthermia for cancer therapy. By developing a purification protocol that allows for highly stable and concentrated solutions of citrate-capped AuNPs to be suspended in high-resistivity water, we show herein, for the first time, that heat production is only evident for AuNPs of diameters ≤10 nm, indicating a unique size-dependent heating behavior not previously observed. Heat production has also shown to be linearly dependent on both AuNP concentration and total surface area and was severely attenuated upon AuNP aggregation. These relationships have been further validated using permittivity analysis across a frequency range of 10 MHz–3 GHz as well as static conductivity measurements. Theoretical evaluations suggest that the heating mechanism can be modeled by the electrophoretic oscillation of charged AuNPs across finite length scales in response to a time-varying electric field. It is anticipated these results will assist future development of nanoparticle-assisted heat production by RF fields for applications such as targeted cancer hyperthermia.

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