ACS Publications. Most Trusted. Most Cited. Most Read
My Activity

Figure 1Loading Img

Solvent Vapor Annealing of Single Conjugated Polymer Chains: Building Organic Optoelectronic Materials from the Bottom Up

View Author Information
§ Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universität Regensburg, Universitätsstrasse 31, 93053 Regensburg, Germany
Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112, United States
*E-mail: [email protected]. Tel: +49 (0) 941 943-2076. Fax: +49 (0) 941 943-4226.
Cite this: J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2012, 3, 11, 1503–1513
Publication Date (Web):May 17, 2012
Copyright © 2012 American Chemical Society

    Article Views





    Other access options


    Abstract Image

    Optoelectronic devices based on organic materials show a strong relationship between the morphological structure of the material and the function of the device. One of the grand challenges in improving the efficiencies of these devices is hence achieving morphological control throughout the entire course of processing. One of the most important postprocessing methods is solvent vapor annealing, which has repeatedly demonstrated its utility in improving the efficiency of organic-material-based devices by changing bulk-film morphology. This Perspective discusses the recent impact of single-molecule spectroscopy techniques in unraveling morphological changes and molecular dynamics and presents solvent vapor annealing as a tool to build organic optoelectronic materials from the bottom up. In particular, we discuss examples of how solvent vapor annealing at the single-chain level can be split into two different regimes, (i) the solvation regime, in which intrachain interactions and molecular dynamics during solvent vapor annealing can be probed, and (ii) the aggregation regime, in which the influence of interchain interactions can be probed. Finally, it will be shown that solvent vapor annealing in the aggregation regime can be used to build highly ordered mesoscopic objects with distinct properties such as long-range energy transfer.

    Read this article

    To access this article, please review the available access options below.

    Get instant access

    Purchase Access

    Read this article for 48 hours. Check out below using your ACS ID or as a guest.


    Access through Your Institution

    You may have access to this article through your institution.

    Your institution does not have access to this content. You can change your affiliated institution below.

    Cited By

    This article is cited by 37 publications.

    1. Theresa Eder, Daniel Kraus, Sigurd Höger, Jan Vogelsang, John M. Lupton. Vibrations Responsible for Luminescence from HJ-Aggregates of Conjugated Polymers Identified by Cryogenic Spectroscopy of Single Nanoparticles. ACS Nano 2022, 16 (4) , 6382-6393.
    2. Youngah Kwon, Laura J. Kaufman. Nearly Isotropic Conjugated Polymer Aggregates with Efficient Local Exciton Diffusion. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C 2019, 123 (48) , 29418-29426.
    3. Heungman Park, Youngah Kwon, Laura J. Kaufman. Complex Photophysical Behaviors Affect Single Conjugated Molecule Optical Anisotropy Measurements. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C 2019, 123 (3) , 1960-1965.
    4. Daniel A. Hinton, James D. Ng, Jian Sun, Stephen Lee, Semion K. Saikin, Jenna Logsdon, David S. White, Angela N. Marquard, Andrew C. Cavell, Veronica K. Krasecki, Kassandra A. Knapper, Katherine M. Lupo, Michael R. Wasielewski, Alán Aspuru-Guzik, Julie S. Biteen, Padma Gopalan, Randall H. Goldsmith. Mapping Forbidden Emission to Structure in Self-Assembled Organic Nanoparticles. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2018, 140 (46) , 15827-15841.
    5. Chiara Musumeci, Monika Wałęsa-Chorab, Adam Gorczyński, Grzegorz Markiewicz, Andrzej Bogucki, Roman Świetlik, Zbigniew Hnatejko, Wojciech Jankowski, Marcin Hoffmann, Emanuele Orgiu, Artur R. Stefankiewicz, Violetta Patroniak, Artur Ciesielski, and Paolo Samorì . Generation of Low-Dimensional Architectures through the Self-Assembly of Pyromellitic Diimide Derivatives. ACS Omega 2017, 2 (4) , 1672-1678.
    6. Oksana Ostroverkhova . Organic Optoelectronic Materials: Mechanisms and Applications. Chemical Reviews 2016, 116 (22) , 13279-13412.
    7. Jean-Nicolas Tisserant, Gaëtan Wicht, Ole F. Göbel, Eva Bocek, Gian-Luca Bona, Thomas Geiger, Roland Hany, Raffaele Mezzenga, Stefan Partel, Peter Schmid, Wolfhard Bernd Schweizer, and Jakob Heier . Growth and Alignment of Thin Film Organic Single Crystals from Dewetting Patterns. ACS Nano 2013, 7 (6) , 5506-5513.
    8. Haiyang Wang, Jiangang Liu, Yaozhuo Xu, and Yanchun Han . Fibrillar Morphology of Derivatives of Poly(3-alkylthiophene)s by Solvent Vapor Annealing: Effects of Conformational Transition and Conjugate Length. The Journal of Physical Chemistry B 2013, 117 (19) , 5996-6006.
    9. Zhongjian Hu, Jianhua Liu, Lauren Simón-Bower, Lei Zhai, and Andre J. Gesquiere . Influence of Backbone Rigidness on Single Chain Conformation of Thiophene-Based Conjugated Polymers. The Journal of Physical Chemistry B 2013, 117 (16) , 4461-4467.
    10. Liane S. Slaughter, Britain A. Willingham, Wei-Shun Chang, Maximilian H. Chester, Nathan Ogden, and Stephan Link . Toward Plasmonic Polymers. Nano Letters 2012, 12 (8) , 3967-3972.
    11. Juan Bisquert (Senior Editor, Journal of Physical Chemistry) . Effects of Morphology on the Functionality of Organic Electronic Devices. The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 2012, 3 (11) , 1515-1516.
    12. Yina Moon, Yunseul Kim, Dongseong Yang, Nara Han, Minwoo Lee, Younghyo Kim, Il-Young Jo, Myung-Han Yoon, Dong-Yu Kim. External electric field treatment for improving the morphology and electrical performance of P(NDI2OD-T2). Journal of Materials Chemistry A 2024, 12 (10) , 5824-5833.
    13. Chanwoo Kim, Hyeyoung Joung, Hyung Jun Kim, Keewook Paeng, Laura J. Kaufman, Jaesung Yang. Aggregates of conjugated polymers: bottom-up control of mesoscopic morphology and photophysics. NPG Asia Materials 2023, 15 (1)
    14. Dimitrios Simatos, Ian E. Jacobs, Illia Dobryden, Małgorzata Nguyen, Achilleas Savva, Deepak Venkateshvaran, Mark Nikolka, Jérôme Charmet, Leszek J. Spalek, Mindaugas Gicevičius, Youcheng Zhang, Guillaume Schweicher, Duncan J. Howe, Sarah Ursel, John Armitage, Ivan B. Dimov, Ulrike Kraft, Weimin Zhang, Maryam Alsufyani, Iain McCulloch, Róisín M. Owens, Per M. Claesson, Tuomas P. J. Knowles, Henning Sirringhaus. Effects of Processing‐Induced Contamination on Organic Electronic Devices. Small Methods 2023, 7 (11)
    15. Jakob Schedlbauer, Sabrina Streicher, Michael Forster, Ullrich Scherf, Jan Vogelsang, John M. Lupton. Tracking Exciton Diffusion and Exciton Annihilation in Single Nanoparticles of Conjugated Polymers by Photon Correlation Spectroscopy. Advanced Optical Materials 2022, 10 (14)
    16. John M. Lupton, Jan Vogelsang. Photon correlations probe the quantized nature of light emission from optoelectronic materials. Applied Physics Reviews 2021, 8 (4)
    17. Qiuju Liang, Xuechen Jiao, Ye Yan, Zhiyuan Xie, Guanghao Lu, Jiangang Liu, Yanchun Han. Separating Crystallization Process of P3HT and O‐IDTBR to Construct Highly Crystalline Interpenetrating Network with Optimized Vertical Phase Separation. Advanced Functional Materials 2019, 29 (47)
    18. Gordon J. Hedley, Florian Steiner, Jan Vogelsang, John M. Lupton. Fluctuations in the Emission Polarization and Spectrum in Single Chains of a Common Conjugated Polymer for Organic Photovoltaics. Small 2018, 14 (51)
    19. Jaesung Yang, Heungman Park, Laura J. Kaufman. In Situ Optical Imaging of the Growth of Conjugated Polymer Aggregates. Angewandte Chemie 2018, 130 (7) , 1844-1848.
    20. Jaesung Yang, Heungman Park, Laura J. Kaufman. In Situ Optical Imaging of the Growth of Conjugated Polymer Aggregates. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 2018, 57 (7) , 1826-1830.
    21. Zhongjian Hu, Beiyue Shao, Geoffrey T. Geberth, David A. Vanden Bout. Effects of molecular architecture on morphology and photophysics in conjugated polymers: from single molecules to bulk. Chemical Science 2018, 9 (5) , 1101-1111.
    22. Theresa Eder, Thomas Stangl, Max Gmelch, Klaas Remmerssen, Dirk Laux, Sigurd Höger, John M. Lupton, Jan Vogelsang. Switching between H- and J-type electronic coupling in single conjugated polymer aggregates. Nature Communications 2017, 8 (1)
    23. C. F. Calver, B. A. Lago, K. S. Schanze, G. Cosa. Enhancing the photostability of poly(phenylene ethynylene) for single particle studies. Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences 2017, 16 (12) , 1821-1831.
    24. Dominik Wöll, Cristina Flors. Super‐resolution Fluorescence Imaging for Materials Science. Small Methods 2017, 1 (10)
    25. Zhongjian Hu, Ryan T. Haws, Zhuping Fei, Pierre Boufflet, Martin Heeney, Peter J. Rossky, David A. Vanden Bout. Impact of backbone fluorination on nanoscale morphology and excitonic coupling in polythiophenes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2017, 114 (20) , 5113-5118.
    26. Jing Xu, Xueqiang Liu, Hailong Wang, Wenlong Hou, Lele Zhao, Haiquan Zhang. Influence of the morphology of the copper(II) phthalocyanine thin film on the performance of organic field-effect transistors. Solid-State Electronics 2017, 127 , 61-64.
    27. Chun I Wang, Chih H. Hsu, Chi C. Hua. The correspondence between the conformational and chromophoric properties of amorphous conjugated polymers in mesoscale condensed systems. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 2017, 19 (31) , 20818-20828.
    28. Adam Wise, John Grey. Understanding the Structural Evolution of Single Conjugated Polymer Chain Conformers. Polymers 2016, 8 (11) , 388.
    29. Yuxia Chen, Chuanlang Zhan, Jiannian Yao. Understanding Solvent Manipulation of Morphology in Bulk‐Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells. Chemistry – An Asian Journal 2016, 11 (19) , 2620-2632.
    30. Dat Tien Hoang, Jaesung Yang, Keewook Paeng, Youngah Kwon, Oh Sang Kweon, Laura J. Kaufman. In situ multi-modal monitoring of solvent vapor swelling in polymer thin films. Review of Scientific Instruments 2016, 87 (1)
    31. F L Araújo, G T Valente, R M Faria, F E G Guimarães. How surface interactions freeze polymer molecules at room temperature: a single molecule approach. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering 2015, 97 , 012003.
    32. O. Yu. Posudievsky, N.V. Konoshchuk, A.G. Shkavro, V.G. Koshechko, V.D. Pokhodenko. Structure and electronic properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrene sulfonate) prepared under ultrasonic irradiation. Synthetic Metals 2014, 195 , 335-339.
    33. Liane S. Slaughter, Lin-Yung Wang, Britain A. Willingham, Jana M. Olson, Pattanawit Swanglap, Sergio Dominguez-Medina, Stephan Link. Plasmonic polymers unraveled through single particle spectroscopy. Nanoscale 2014, 6 (19) , 11451-11461.
    34. Zhongjian Hu, Takuji Adachi, Young‐Gi Lee, Ryan T. Haws, Benjamin Hanson, Robert J. Ono, Christopher W. Bielawski, Venkat Ganesan, Peter J. Rossky, David A. Vanden Bout. Effect of the Side‐Chain‐Distribution Density on the Single‐Conjugated‐Polymer‐Chain Conformation. ChemPhysChem 2013, 14 (18) , 4143-4148.
    35. Haiyang Wang, Yaozhuo Xu, Xinhong Yu, Rubo Xing, Jiangang Liu, Yanchun Han. Structure and Morphology Control in Thin Films of Conjugated Polymers for an Improved Charge Transport. Polymers 2013, 5 (4) , 1272-1324.
    36. X-T Hao, L M Hirvonen, T A Smith. Nanomorphology of polythiophene–fullerene bulk-heterojunction films investigated by structured illumination optical imaging and time-resolved confocal microscopy. Methods and Applications in Fluorescence 2013, 1 (1) , 015004.
    37. Caleb M. Hill, Shanlin Pan. Efficient Analysis of Single Molecule Spectroscopic Data via MATLAB. MRS Proceedings 2013, 1493 , 309-314.

    Pair your accounts.

    Export articles to Mendeley

    Get article recommendations from ACS based on references in your Mendeley library.

    Pair your accounts.

    Export articles to Mendeley

    Get article recommendations from ACS based on references in your Mendeley library.

    You’ve supercharged your research process with ACS and Mendeley!

    STEP 1:
    Click to create an ACS ID

    Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

    Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

    Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

    Your Mendeley pairing has expired. Please reconnect