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Characterization of Polydopamine Thin Films Deposited at Short Times by Autoxidation of Dopamine

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Biomolecular Measurement Division, Material Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899, United States
*E-mail [email protected]; telephone 301-975-4912; fax 301-975-2643.
Cite this: Langmuir 2013, 29, 27, 8619–8628
Publication Date (Web):June 10, 2013
Copyright © This article not subject to U.S. Copyright. Published 2013 by the American Chemical Society

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    Abstract Image

    Current interest in melanin films derived from the autoxidation of dopamine stems from their use as a universal adhesion layer. Here we report chemical and physical characterization of polydopamine films deposited on gold surfaces from stirred basic solutions at times ranging from 2 to 60 min, with a focus on times ≤10 min. Data from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and electrochemical methods suggest the presence of starting (dopamine) and intermediate (C=N-containing tautomers of quinone and indole) species in the polydopamine films at all deposition times. A uniform overlayer analysis of the XPS data indicates that film thickness increased linearly at short deposition times of ≤10 min. At deposition times ≥10 min, the films appeared largely continuous with surface roughness ≈ ≤ 2 nm, as determined by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Pinhole-free films, as determined by anionic redox probe measurements, required deposition times of 60 min or greater.

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    Nine figures showing 500 nm × 500 nm AFM images and line scans measured on polydopamine films deposited for 2, 5, 10, and 60 min; enlarged graph of Figure 3b, 10 min time point; and high-resolution XPS spectra of C 1s, N 1s, O 1s, and Au 4f regions collected on polydopamine films deposited for increasing times on gold substrates. This material is available free of charge via the Internet at

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