ACS Publications. Most Trusted. Most Cited. Most Read
My Activity
CONTENT TYPES

Dynamics of Crystallization and Disorder during Annealing of P3HT/PCBM Bulk Heterojunctions

View Author Information
School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Queens Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff CF243AA, United Kingdom
Department of Physics and Centre for Plastic Electronics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BW, United Kingdom
*E-mail: [email protected]. Tel: +44 (0)29 2087 0162 (lab). Fax: +44 (0)29 2087 4056.
Cite this: Macromolecules 2011, 44, 8, 2725–2734
Publication Date (Web):March 16, 2011
https://doi.org/10.1021/ma102817z
Copyright © 2011 American Chemical Society

    Article Views

    5475

    Altmetric

    -

    Citations

    LEARN ABOUT THESE METRICS
    Other access options
    Supporting Info (7)»

    Abstract

    Abstract Image

    A real-time crystallographic analysis of P3HT/PCBM films during thermal annealing is reported, detailing the temporal variation of crystallization, disorder, and orientational spread during the annealing. Five P3HT/PCBM chlorobenzene solutions with different P3HT concentrations (0, 33, 50, 67, 100 wt %) were spin coated on SiO2 substrates. The thick films (∼100 nm) were studied during annealing (50 min at 140 °C), with in situ synchrotron grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GI-XRD) and a sampling time <8 s. For the first time, the evolution of the crystal structure is analyzed taking into account P3HT paracrystallinity. The following were observed: a predominance of edge-on P3HT lamellae in the as-spun and annealed films; changes in concentration-dependent edge-on lamellar orientation spread along the alkyl-stacking direction and paracrystalline disorder after annealing; a permanent lamellar stretching just along the alky-stacking direction after annealing; an increase in the P3HT domain size along only the alkyl-stacking direction for the edge-on lamellae, with dynamics consistent with PCBM acting as a plasticizer for P3HT; and finally, an increase in the PCBM concentration at the sample−air interface. We show that the paracrystalline correction is important to calculate correctly the domain size as deduced from GI-XRD.

    Read this article

    To access this article, please review the available access options below.

    Get instant access

    Purchase Access

    Read this article for 48 hours. Check out below using your ACS ID or as a guest.

    Recommended

    Access through Your Institution

    You may have access to this article through your institution.

    Your institution does not have access to this content. You can change your affiliated institution below.

    Supporting Information

    ARTICLE SECTIONS
    Jump To

    Experimental details; data analysis (calibration equations, sample−detector distance, conversion pixels q values, out-of-plane line profiles, remarks on P0x, P0y accuracy, line profiles extraction, line profiles fitting); refraction correction; paracrystalline disorder; results (P3HT nanowires, d spacing vs αi, d spacings vs time and annealing temperature); five videos showing 390 images from in situ annealing of P3HT/PCBM films of different compositions; and a video showing the flattening of Δqh002/(2π)2 versus n4 due to the annealing. This material is available free of charge via the Internet at http://pubs.acs.org.

    Terms & Conditions

    Most electronic Supporting Information files are available without a subscription to ACS Web Editions. Such files may be downloaded by article for research use (if there is a public use license linked to the relevant article, that license may permit other uses). Permission may be obtained from ACS for other uses through requests via the RightsLink permission system: http://pubs.acs.org/page/copyright/permissions.html.

    Cited By

    This article is cited by 189 publications.

    1. Yushou Zhao, Junying Wu, Wenming Li, Xiaofeng Qin, Menglan Lv, Yong Hua, Weiguo Zhu, Zhicai He, Bin Zhang. Morphology Control Realizes Fast Charge Dissociation and Transport in High-Performance All-Polymer Solar Cells. ACS Applied Energy Materials 2024, Article ASAP.
    2. Md. Shamim Reza, Md. Ferdous Rahman, Abdul Kuddus, Md. Selim Reza, Md. Abdul Monnaf, Md. Rasidul Islam, Sagar Bhattarai, Samah Al-Qaisi, Lamia Ben Farhat, Safa Ezzine. Improving the Efficiency of a New Perovskite Solar Cell Based on Sr3SbI3 by Optimizing the Hole Transport Layer. Energy & Fuels 2024, 38 (3) , 2327-2342. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.3c04099
    3. Zhenmin Zhao, Jingjing Zhao, Sein Chung, Kilwon Cho, Weidong Xu, Zhipeng Kan. Suppressing Bimolecular Charge Recombination and Energetic Disorder with Planar Heterojunction Active Layer Enables 18.1% Efficiency Binary Organic Solar Cells. ACS Materials Letters 2023, 5 (6) , 1718-1726. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsmaterialslett.3c00236
    4. Ruiheng Wu, Micaela Matta, Bryan D. Paulsen, Jonathan Rivnay. Operando Characterization of Organic Mixed Ionic/Electronic Conducting Materials. Chemical Reviews 2022, 122 (4) , 4493-4551. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemrev.1c00597
    5. Lixuan Liu, Yang Yang, Yuheng Wang, Muhammad Abdullah Adil, Yingjie Zhao, Jianqi Zhang, Kun Chen, Dan Deng, Hao Zhang, Kamran Amin, Yuchen Wu, Yajie Zhang, Zhixiang Wei. Building Supramolecular Chirality in Bulk Heterojunctions Enables Amplified Dissymmetry Current for High-Performing Circularly Polarized Light Detection. ACS Materials Letters 2022, 4 (2) , 401-409. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsmaterialslett.1c00726
    6. Liyan Yang, Jinzhao Qin, Sunsun Li, Jianqi Zhang, Yang Yang, Bingqiang Cao, Chang He, Jianhui Hou. Optimized Charge Transport Channel Enables Thick-Film All-Small-Molecule Organic Solar Cells. Energy & Fuels 2021, 35 (23) , 19756-19764. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.1c03579
    7. Yanan Liu, Jianqi Zhang, Yangjun Yan, Chen Yang, Junxiu Pan, Xiaotao Zhang, Zhixiang Wei. Mixed Solvent as a Critical Factor in Optimizing Phase Separation of All Small Molecule Organic Solar Cells. ACS Applied Energy Materials 2021, 4 (10) , 11769-11776. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsaem.1c02534
    8. Junxiu Pan, Yanan Shi, Jianwei Yu, Hao Zhang, Yanan Liu, Jianqi Zhang, Feng Gao, Xi Yu, Kun Lu, Zhixiang Wei. π-Extended Nonfullerene Acceptors for Efficient Organic Solar Cells with a High Open-Circuit Voltage of 0.94 V and a Low Energy Loss of 0.49 eV. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2021, 13 (19) , 22531-22539. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c04273
    9. Qian Wang, Steffen Böckmann, Florian Günther, Martin Streiter, Mario Zerson, Alberto D. Scaccabarozzi, Wen Liang Tan, Hartmut Komber, Carsten Deibel, Robert Magerle, Sibylle Gemming, Christopher R. McNeill, Mario Caironi, Michael Ryan Hansen, Michael Sommer. Hydrogen Bonds Control Single-Chain Conformation, Crystallinity, and Electron Transport in Isoelectronic Diketopyrrolopyrrole Copolymers. Chemistry of Materials 2021, 33 (7) , 2635-2645. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemmater.1c00478
    10. Jong-Woon Ha, Chang Eun Song, Hee Su Kim, Du Hyeon Ryu, Won Suk Shin, Do-Hoon Hwang. Highly Efficient and Photostable Ternary Organic Solar Cells Enabled by the Combination of Non-Fullerene and Fullerene Acceptors with Thienopyrrolodione-based Polymer Donors. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2020, 12 (46) , 51699-51708. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c14367
    11. Klara Stallhofer, Matthias Nuber, Reinhard Kienberger, Volker Körstgens, Peter Müller-Buschbaum, Hristo Iglev. Dynamics of Short-Lived Polaron Pairs and Polarons in Polythiophene Derivatives Observed via Infrared-Activated Vibrations. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C 2019, 123 (46) , 28100-28105. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcc.9b09820
    12. Zaheer Abbas, Jawon Shin, Raju Atla, Shafket Rasool, Chang Eun Song, Hang Ken Lee, Sang Kyu Lee, Won Suk Shin, Won-Wook So, Soon-Ki Kwon, Yun-Hi Kim, Jong-Cheol Lee. Effective Molecular Engineering Approach for Employing a Halogen-Free Solvent for the Fabrication of Solution-Processed Small-Molecule Solar Cells. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2018, 10 (45) , 39107-39115. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.8b14888
    13. Diego Nava, Younghun Shin, Matteo Massetti, Xuechen Jiao, Till Biskup, Madan S. Jagadeesh, Alberto Calloni, Lamberto Duò, Guglielmo Lanzani, Christopher R. McNeill, Michael Sommer, Mario Caironi. Drastic Improvement of Air Stability in an n-Type Doped Naphthalene-Diimide Polymer by Thionation. ACS Applied Energy Materials 2018, 1 (9) , 4626-4634. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsaem.8b00777
    14. Shai R. Vardeny, Sangita Baniya, Benjamin Cromey, Khanh Kieu, Nasser Peyghambarian, Z. Valy Vardeny. Multiphoton Microscopy of π-Conjugated Copolymers and Copolymer/Fullerene Blends for Organic Photovoltaic Applications. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2018, 10 (37) , 31813-31823. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.8b11378
    15. Liyan Yang, Shaoqing Zhang, Chang He, Jianqi Zhang, Yang Yang, Jie Zhu, Yong Cui, Wenchao Zhao, Hao Zhang, Yun Zhang, Zhixiang Wei, Jianhui Hou. Modulating Molecular Orientation Enables Efficient Nonfullerene Small-Molecule Organic Solar Cells. Chemistry of Materials 2018, 30 (6) , 2129-2134. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemmater.8b00287
    16. Xavier A. Jeanbourquin, Aiman Rahmanudin, Xiaoyun Yu, Melissa Johnson, Néstor Guijarro, Liang Yao, Kevin Sivula. Amorphous Ternary Charge-Cascade Molecules for Bulk Heterojunction Photovoltaics. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2017, 9 (33) , 27825-27831. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.7b04983
    17. Levi M. J. Moore, Mithun Bhattacharya, Qi Wu, Sang Gil Youm, Evgueni E. Nesterov, and Sarah E. Morgan . Three-Dimensional Morphology Control Yielding Enhanced Hole Mobility in Air-Processed Organic Photovoltaics: Demonstration with Grazing-Incidence Wide-Angle X-ray Scattering. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2017, 9 (27) , 22764-22772. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.7b04218
    18. Liyan Yang, Shaoqing Zhang, Chang He, Jianqi Zhang, Huifeng Yao, Yang Yang, Yun Zhang, Wenchao Zhao, and Jianhui Hou . New Wide Band Gap Donor for Efficient Fullerene-Free All-Small-Molecule Organic Solar Cells. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2017, 139 (5) , 1958-1966. https://doi.org/10.1021/jacs.6b11612
    19. Gordon J. Hedley, Arvydas Ruseckas, and Ifor D. W. Samuel . Light Harvesting for Organic Photovoltaics. Chemical Reviews 2017, 117 (2) , 796-837. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemrev.6b00215
    20. Moneim Elshobaki, Ryan Gebhardt, John Carr, William Lindemann, Wenjie Wang, Eric Grieser, Swaminathan Venkatesan, Evan Ngo, Ujjal Bhattacharjee, Joseph Strzalka, Zhang Jiang, Qiquan Qiao, Jacob Petrich, David Vaknin, and Sumit Chaudhary . Tailoring Nanoscale Morphology of Polymer:Fullerene Blends Using Electrostatic Field. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2017, 9 (3) , 2678-2685. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.6b10870
    21. Amy S. Ferreira, Jordan C. Aguirre, Selvam Subramaniyan, Samson A. Jenekhe, Sarah H. Tolbert, and Benjamin J. Schwartz . Understanding How Polymer Properties Control OPV Device Performance: Regioregularity, Swelling, and Morphology Optimization Using Random Poly(3-butylthiophene-co-3-octylthiophene) Polymers. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C 2016, 120 (39) , 22115-22125. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcc.6b03300
    22. Jing Cui, Daniel E. Martínez-Tong, Alejandro Sanz, Tiberio A. Ezquerra, Esther Rebollar, and Aurora Nogales . Relaxation and Conductivity in P3HT/PC71BM Blends As Revealed by Dielectric Spectroscopy. Macromolecules 2016, 49 (7) , 2709-2717. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.macromol.5b02727
    23. M. L. Jones, D. M. Huang, B. Chakrabarti, and C. Groves . Relating Molecular Morphology to Charge Mobility in Semicrystalline Conjugated Polymers. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C 2016, 120 (8) , 4240-4250. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcc.5b11511
    24. Wenbin Wang, Fujun Zhang, Lingliang Li, Mile Gao, and Bin Hu . Improved Performance of Photomultiplication Polymer Photodetectors by Adjustment of P3HT Molecular Arrangement. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2015, 7 (40) , 22660-22668. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.5b07522
    25. Yuki Noguchi, Akinori Saeki, Takenori Fujiwara, Sho Yamanaka, Masataka Kumano, Tsuneaki Sakurai, Naoto Matsuyama, Motohiro Nakano, Naohisa Hirao, Yasuo Ohishi, and Shu Seki . Pressure Modulation of Backbone Conformation and Intermolecular Distance of Conjugated Polymers Toward Understanding the Dynamism of π-Figuration of their Conjugated System. The Journal of Physical Chemistry B 2015, 119 (24) , 7219-7230. https://doi.org/10.1021/jp5100389
    26. Aurélien Tournebize, Agnès Rivaton, Heiko Peisert, and Thomas Chassé . The Crucial Role of Confined Residual Additives on the Photostability of P3HT:PCBM Active Layers. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C 2015, 119 (17) , 9142-9148. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcc.5b01733
    27. Tsubasa Mikie, Akinori Saeki, Yu Yamazaki, Naohiko Ikuma, Ken Kokubo, and Shu Seki . Stereochemistry of Spiro-Acetalized [60]Fullerenes: How the Exo and Endo Stereoisomers Influence Organic Solar Cell Performance. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2015, 7 (16) , 8915-8922. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.5b01818
    28. Taner Aytun, Leonel Barreda, Amparo Ruiz-Carretero, Jessica A. Lehrman, and Samuel I. Stupp . Improving Solar Cell Efficiency through Hydrogen Bonding: A Method for Tuning Active Layer Morphology. Chemistry of Materials 2015, 27 (4) , 1201-1209. https://doi.org/10.1021/cm503915t
    29. Yasuhiro Kobori and Taku Miura . Overcoming Coulombic Traps: Geometry and Electronic Characterizations of Light-Induced Separated Spins at the Bulk Heterojunction Interface. The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 2015, 6 (1) , 113-123. https://doi.org/10.1021/jz5023202
    30. Han Yan, Lingyun Zhu, Denghua Li, Yajie Zhang, Yuanping Yi, Yanlian Yang, Zhixiang Wei, and Jean-Luc Brédas . Rationalization of the Selectivity in the Optimization of Processing Conditions for High-Performance Polymer Solar Cells Based on the Polymer Self-Assembly Ability. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C 2014, 118 (51) , 29473-29481. https://doi.org/10.1021/jp5075797
    31. Patrick E. Hartnett, Amod Timalsina, H. S. S. Ramakrishna Matte, Nanjia Zhou, Xugang Guo, Wei Zhao, Antonio Facchetti, Robert P. H. Chang, Mark C. Hersam, Michael R. Wasielewski, and Tobin J. Marks . Slip-Stacked Perylenediimides as an Alternative Strategy for High Efficiency Nonfullerene Acceptors in Organic Photovoltaics. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2014, 136 (46) , 16345-16356. https://doi.org/10.1021/ja508814z
    32. Long-Biao Huang, Zong-Xiang Xu, Xianfeng Chen, Wei Tian, Su-Ting Han, Ye Zhou, Jia-Ju Xu, Xiong-Bo Yang, and Vellaisamy A. L. Roy . Poly(3-hexylthiophene) Nanotubes with Tunable Aspect Ratios and Charge Transport Properties. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2014, 6 (15) , 11874-11881. https://doi.org/10.1021/am5006207
    33. Xiaoxi He, Subhrangsu Mukherjee, Scott Watkins, Ming Chen, Tianshi Qin, Lars Thomsen, Harald Ade, and Christopher R. McNeill . Influence of Fluorination and Molecular Weight on the Morphology and Performance of PTB7:PC71BM Solar Cells. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C 2014, 118 (19) , 9918-9929. https://doi.org/10.1021/jp501222w
    34. Lucia Bonoldi, Claudio Carati, Luciano Montanari, and Riccardo Po’ . Effects of Aging and Annealing on the Density of Trap States in Organic Photovoltaic Materials. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C 2014, 118 (15) , 7751-7758. https://doi.org/10.1021/jp4114915
    35. Ahsan Ashraf, D. M. Nanditha M. Dissanayake, David S. Germack, Conan Weiland, and Matthew D. Eisaman . Confinement-Induced Reduction in Phase Segregation and Interchain Disorder in Bulk Heterojunction Films. ACS Nano 2014, 8 (1) , 323-331. https://doi.org/10.1021/nn404172m
    36. Peter A. Korevaar, Tom F. A. de Greef, and E. W. Meijer . Pathway Complexity in π-Conjugated Materials. Chemistry of Materials 2014, 26 (1) , 576-586. https://doi.org/10.1021/cm4021172
    37. Taku Miura, Motoko Aikawa, and Yasuhiro Kobori . Time-Resolved EPR Study of Electron–Hole Dissociations Influenced by Alkyl Side Chains at the Photovoltaic Polyalkylthiophene:PCBM Interface. The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 2014, 5 (1) , 30-35. https://doi.org/10.1021/jz402300m
    38. Christopher D. Liman, Soohyung Choi, Dag W. Breiby, Justin E. Cochran, Michael F. Toney, Edward J. Kramer, and Michael L. Chabinyc . Two-Dimensional GIWAXS Reveals a Transient Crystal Phase in Solution-Processed Thermally Converted Tetrabenzoporphyrin. The Journal of Physical Chemistry B 2013, 117 (46) , 14557-14567. https://doi.org/10.1021/jp408220e
    39. Guangzhu Ding, Yangjiang Wu, Yuyan Weng, Weidong Zhang, and Zhijun Hu . Solvent-Assistant Room Temperature Nanoimprinting-Induced Molecular Orientation in Poly(3-hexylthiophene) Nanopillars. Macromolecules 2013, 46 (21) , 8638-8643. https://doi.org/10.1021/ma401700d
    40. Chih-Ming Liu, Ming-Shin Su, Jian-Ming Jiang, Yu-Wei Su, Chun-Jen Su, Charn-Ying Chen, Cheng-Si Tsao, and Kung-Hwa Wei . Distribution of Crystalline Polymer and Fullerene Clusters in Both Horizontal and Vertical Directions of High-Efficiency Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2013, 5 (12) , 5413-5422. https://doi.org/10.1021/am4011995
    41. C. Carach and M. J. Gordon . Optical Measures of Thermally Induced Chain Ordering and Oxidative Damage in Polythiophene Films. The Journal of Physical Chemistry B 2013, 117 (6) , 1950-1957. https://doi.org/10.1021/jp307474u
    42. Neil D. Treat, Thomas E. Mates, Craig J. Hawker, Edward J. Kramer, and Michael L. Chabinyc . Temperature Dependence of the Diffusion Coefficient of PCBM in Poly(3-hexylthiophene). Macromolecules 2013, 46 (3) , 1002-1007. https://doi.org/10.1021/ma302337p
    43. Yasuhiro Kobori, Ryohei Noji, and Shuhei Tsuganezawa . Initial Molecular Photocurrent: Nanostructure and Motion of Weakly Bound Charge-Separated State in Organic Photovoltaic Interface. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C 2013, 117 (4) , 1589-1599. https://doi.org/10.1021/jp309421s
    44. Chih-Cheng Lin, Po-Hsun Ho, Chi-Liang Huang, Chao-Hung Du, Chen-Chieh Yu, Hsuen-Li Chen, Yun-Chieh Yeh, Shao-Sian Li, Cheng-Kuang Lee, Chun-Wei Pao, Ching-Pin Chang, Ming-Wen Chu, and Chun-Wei Chen . Dependence of Nanocrystal Dimensionality on the Polymer Nanomorphology, Anisotropic Optical Absorption, and Carrier Transport in P3HT:TiO2 Bulk Heterojunctions. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C 2012, 116 (47) , 25081-25088. https://doi.org/10.1021/jp306921e
    45. Wing C. Tsoi, David T. James, Ester Buchaca Domingo, Jong Soo Kim, Mohammed Al-Hashimi, Craig E. Murphy, Natalie Stingelin, Martin Heeney, and Ji-Seon Kim . Effects of a Heavy Atom on Molecular Order and Morphology in Conjugated Polymer:Fullerene Photovoltaic Blend Thin Films and Devices. ACS Nano 2012, 6 (11) , 9646-9656. https://doi.org/10.1021/nn304024g
    46. Jonathan Rivnay, Stefan C. B. Mannsfeld, Chad E. Miller, Alberto Salleo, and Michael F. Toney . Quantitative Determination of Organic Semiconductor Microstructure from the Molecular to Device Scale. Chemical Reviews 2012, 112 (10) , 5488-5519. https://doi.org/10.1021/cr3001109
    47. Varun Vohra, Gianmichele Arrighetti, Luisa Barba, Koichi Higashimine, William Porzio, and Hideyuki Murata . Enhanced Vertical Concentration Gradient in Rubbed P3HT:PCBM Graded Bilayer Solar Cells. The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 2012, 3 (13) , 1820-1823. https://doi.org/10.1021/jz300710a
    48. Brian A. Collins, John R. Tumbleston, and Harald Ade . Miscibility, Crystallinity, and Phase Development in P3HT/PCBM Solar Cells: Toward an Enlightened Understanding of Device Morphology and Stability. The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 2011, 2 (24) , 3135-3145. https://doi.org/10.1021/jz2014902
    49. Matthew R. Hammond, R. Joseph Kline, Andrew A. Herzing, Lee J. Richter, David S. Germack, Hyun-Wook Ro, Christopher L. Soles, Daniel A. Fischer, Tao Xu, Luping Yu, Michael F. Toney, and Dean M. DeLongchamp . Molecular Order in High-Efficiency Polymer/Fullerene Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells. ACS Nano 2011, 5 (10) , 8248-8257. https://doi.org/10.1021/nn202951e
    50. Benjamin King, Benoît H. Lessard. Review of recent advances and sensing mechanisms in solid-state organic thin-film transistor (OTFT) sensors. Journal of Materials Chemistry C 2024, 112 https://doi.org/10.1039/D3TC03611A
    51. Wenjing Zhang, Yue Wu, Ruijie Ma, Hongyu Fan, Xiaoxiao Li, Hang Yang, Chaohua Cui, Yongfang Li. Molecular Stacking and Aggregation Optimization of Photoactive Layer through Solid Additive Enables High‐Performance Organic Solar Cells. Angewandte Chemie 2023, 135 (43) https://doi.org/10.1002/ange.202309713
    52. Wenjing Zhang, Yue Wu, Ruijie Ma, Hongyu Fan, Xiaoxiao Li, Hang Yang, Chaohua Cui, Yongfang Li. Molecular Stacking and Aggregation Optimization of Photoactive Layer through Solid Additive Enables High‐Performance Organic Solar Cells. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 2023, 62 (43) https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.202309713
    53. Yanan Liu, Jianqi Zhang, Chenyang Tian, Yifan Shen, Tong Wang, Hao Zhang, Chang He, Dingding Qiu, Yanan Shi, Zhixiang Wei. Efficient Large Area All‐Small‐Molecule Organic Solar Cells Fabricated by Slot‐Die Coating with Nonhalogen Solvent. Advanced Functional Materials 2023, 33 (32) https://doi.org/10.1002/adfm.202300778
    54. Zongze Qin, Songyu Han, Dongfan Li, Chenyang Zhai, Wanlong Lu, Peng Wei, Yuanwei Zhu, Zhen Hu, Laju Bu, Guanghao Lu. Field-effect bulk mobilities in polymer semiconductor films measured by sourcemeters. Review of Scientific Instruments 2023, 94 (6) https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0143003
    55. Zilong Zhang, Can Wang, Feng Li, Lusheng Liang, Liulian Huang, Lihui Chen, Yonghao Ni, Peng Gao, Hui Wu. Bifunctional Cellulose Interlayer Enabled Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells with Simultaneously Enhanced Efficiency and Stability. Advanced Science 2023, 10 (8) https://doi.org/10.1002/advs.202207202
    56. Arul Varman Kesavan, Muthamizh Selvamani, Praveen C. Ramamurthy. Enhancing optical absorption by reducing the trap states in polymer semiconductor processed for solar cell. Results in Optics 2023, 10 , 100337. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rio.2022.100337
    57. Giovanni Landi, Sergio Pagano, Heinz Christoph Neitzert, Costantino Mauro, Carlo Barone. Noise Spectroscopy: A Tool to Understand the Physics of Solar Cells. Energies 2023, 16 (3) , 1296. https://doi.org/10.3390/en16031296
    58. Junhao Liang, Xing Ouyang, Yan Cao. Interfacial and confined molecular-assembly of poly(3-hexylthiophene) and its application in organic electronic devices. Science and Technology of Advanced Materials 2022, 23 (1) , 619-632. https://doi.org/10.1080/14686996.2022.2125826
    59. Falk Niefind, Rishi Shivhare, Stefan C.B. Mannsfeld, Bernd Abel, Mike Hambsch. Investigating the morphology of bulk heterojunctions by laser photoemission electron microscopy. Polymer Testing 2022, 116 , 107791. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymertesting.2022.107791
    60. Jinna Zhang, Ruixiang Peng, Kuibao Yu, Jinfeng Ge, Yuntong Guo, Dandan Li, Yi Qiu, Ziyi Ge. Isogenous Acceptor Strategy Enables Highly Efficient Ternary Organic Solar Cells via Synergistic Morphology Regulation and Charge Recombination Reduction. Solar RRL 2022, 6 (10) https://doi.org/10.1002/solr.202200508
    61. Lixuan Liu, Yang Yang, Lingyun Zhu, Jianqi Zhang, Kun Chen, Zhixiang Wei. Chiral Non‐Fullerene Acceptor Enriched Bulk Heterojunctions Enable High‐Performance Near‐Infrared Circularly Polarized Light Detection. Small 2022, 18 (31) https://doi.org/10.1002/smll.202202941
    62. Shahidul Alam, Aman Anand, Md Moidul Islam, Rico Meitzner, Aurelien Sokeng Djoumessi, Josef Slowik, Zekarias Teklu, Peter Fischer, Christian Kästner, Jafar I. Khan, Ulrich S. Schubert, Frédéric Laquai, Harald Hoppe. P3HT:PCBM polymer solar cells from a didactic perspective. Journal of Photonics for Energy 2022, 12 (03) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.JPE.12.035501
    63. Kyokunzire Proscovia, Hyeong Jun Cheon, Seo Young Shin, Ganghoon Jeong, Seongmoon Go, Keun Seong Kim, Rae-Su Park, Yang-Il Huh, Mincheol Chang. Enhanced charge transport of conjugated polymer/reduced graphene oxide composite films by solvent vapor pre-treatment. Functional Composites and Structures 2022, 4 (2) , 025002. https://doi.org/10.1088/2631-6331/ac65d7
    64. Yue Yin, Shuyin Zhu, Shuwen Chen, Zhiqun Lin, Juan Peng. Rapid Meniscus‐Assisted Solution‐Printing of Conjugated Block Copolymers for Field‐Effect Transistors. Advanced Functional Materials 2022, 32 (14) https://doi.org/10.1002/adfm.202110824
    65. Tao Zhang, Cunbin An, Yong Cui, Jianqi Zhang, Pengqing Bi, Chenyi Yang, Shaoqing Zhang, Jianhui Hou. A Universal Nonhalogenated Polymer Donor for High‐Performance Organic Photovoltaic Cells. Advanced Materials 2022, 34 (2) https://doi.org/10.1002/adma.202105803
    66. Ziqi Zhang, Dan Deng, Yi Li, Jianwei Ding, Qiong Wu, Lili Zhang, Guangjie Zhang, Muhammad Junaid Iqbal, Rui Wang, Jianqi Zhang, Xiaohui Qiu, Zhixiang Wei. Polymerized Small‐Molecule Acceptor as an Interface Modulator to Increase the Performance of All‐Small‐Molecule Solar Cells. Advanced Energy Materials 2022, 12 (3) https://doi.org/10.1002/aenm.202102394
    67. Pravesh Kumar Yadav, Sunil Kumar, Pralay Maiti. Conjugated polymers for solar cell applications. 2022, 367-401. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-824094-6.00004-2
    68. Shahidul Alam, Aman Anand, Md Moidul Islam, Rico Meitzner, Aurelien Sokeng Djoumessi, Josef Slowik, Zekarias Teklu, Peter Fischer, Christian Kästner, Jafar I. Khan, Ulrich S. Schubert, Frédéric Laquai, Harald Hoppe. P3ht:Pcbm Polymer Solar Cells from a Didactic Perspective. SSRN Electronic Journal 2022, 2019 https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4055072
    69. İdris Candan. Enhancement of inverted organic solar cell parameters by post-production annealing process. Semiconductor Science and Technology 2021, 36 (11) , 115008. https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6641/ac25c7
    70. Tao Zhang, Cunbin An, Pengqing Bi, Qianglong Lv, Jinzhao Qin, Ling Hong, Yong Cui, Shaoqing Zhang, Jianhui Hou. A Thiadiazole‐Based Conjugated Polymer with Ultradeep HOMO Level and Strong Electroluminescence Enables 18.6% Efficiency in Organic Solar Cell. Advanced Energy Materials 2021, 11 (35) https://doi.org/10.1002/aenm.202101705
    71. Yang Wang, Qunping Fan, Yulong Wang, Jin Fang, Qi Liu, Lei Zhu, Jinjing Qiu, Xia Guo, Feng Liu, Wenyan Su, Maojie Zhang. Modulating Crystallinity and Miscibility via Side‐chain Variation Enable High Performance All‐Small‐Molecule Organic Solar Cells. Chinese Journal of Chemistry 2021, 39 (8) , 2147-2153. https://doi.org/10.1002/cjoc.202100216
    72. Mengyun Jiang, Hairui Bai, Hongfu Zhi, Lu Yan, Han Young Woo, Lijia Tong, Jinliang Wang, Fujun Zhang, Qiaoshi An. Rational compatibility in a ternary matrix enables all-small-molecule organic solar cells with over 16% efficiency. Energy & Environmental Science 2021, 14 (7) , 3945-3953. https://doi.org/10.1039/D1EE00496D
    73. Ziqi Zhang, Qiong Wu, Dan Deng, Sihua Wu, Rui Sun, Jie Min, Jianqi Zhang, Zhixiang Wei. The post-treatment effects on open circuit voltages and device performances in a high efficiency all-small-molecule organic solar cell. Journal of Materials Chemistry C 2020, 8 (43) , 15385-15392. https://doi.org/10.1039/D0TC03043K
    74. Muhammed L. Keshtov, Sergei A. Kuklin, Ilya E. Ostapov, Elena E. Makhaeva, Rakesh Suthar, Chuandong Dou, Ganesh D. Sharma. New High‐Bandgap 8,10‐Dihydro‐9 H ‐Bistieno[2′,3′:7.8;3″,2″:5.6]Naphtho[2,3‐d] Imidazole‐9‐One‐Based Donor–Acceptor Copolymers for Nonfullerene Polymer Solar Cells. Energy Technology 2020, 8 (10) https://doi.org/10.1002/ente.202000611
    75. K. D. G. I. Jayawardena, S. M. Silva, R. K. Misra. Solution processed perovskite incorporated tandem photovoltaics: developments, manufacturing, and challenges. Journal of Materials Chemistry C 2020, 8 (31) , 10641-10675. https://doi.org/10.1039/D0TC01440K
    76. Qin Hu, Wei Chen, Wenqiang Yang, Yu Li, Yecheng Zhou, Bryon W. Larson, Justin C. Johnson, Yi-Hsien Lu, Wenkai Zhong, Jinqiu Xu, Liana Klivansky, Cheng Wang, Miquel Salmeron, Aleksandra B. Djurišić, Feng Liu, Zhubing He, Rui Zhu, Thomas P. Russell. Improving Efficiency and Stability of Perovskite Solar Cells Enabled by A Near-Infrared-Absorbing Moisture Barrier. Joule 2020, 4 (7) , 1575-1593. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joule.2020.06.007
    77. Yulong Wang, Yang Wang, Lei Zhu, Haiqin Liu, Jin Fang, Xia Guo, Feng Liu, Zheng Tang, Maojie Zhang, Yongfang Li. A novel wide-bandgap small molecule donor for high efficiency all-small-molecule organic solar cells with small non-radiative energy losses. Energy & Environmental Science 2020, 13 (5) , 1309-1317. https://doi.org/10.1039/C9EE04199K
    78. Lei Zhu, Ming Zhang, Guanqing Zhou, Tianyu Hao, Jinqiu Xu, Jing Wang, Chaoqun Qiu, Nathaniel Prine, Jazib Ali, Wei Feng, Xiaodan Gu, Zaifei Ma, Zheng Tang, Haiming Zhu, Lei Ying, Yongming Zhang, Feng Liu. Efficient Organic Solar Cell with 16.88% Efficiency Enabled by Refined Acceptor Crystallization and Morphology with Improved Charge Transfer and Transport Properties. Advanced Energy Materials 2020, 10 (18) https://doi.org/10.1002/aenm.201904234
    79. Huai-Hsuan Liu, Wei-Wei Liang, Yu-Ying Lai, Yen-Chen Su, Hau-Ren Yang, Kuang-Yi Cheng, Sheng-Cih Huang, Yen-Ju Cheng. Synthesis of side-chain regioregular and main-chain alternating poly(bichalcogenophene)s and an ABC-type periodic poly(terchalcogenophene). Chemical Science 2020, 11 (15) , 3836-3844. https://doi.org/10.1039/D0SC00404A
    80. Pan Wan, Cunbin An, Tao Zhang, Kangqiao Ma, Ningning Liang, Ye Xu, Shaoqing Zhang, Bowei Xu, Jianqi Zhang, Jianhui Hou. The effect of aggregation behavior on photovoltaic performances in benzodithiophene-thiazolothiazole-based wide band-gap conjugated polymers with side chain position changes. Polymer Chemistry 2020, 11 (9) , 1629-1636. https://doi.org/10.1039/C9PY01438A
    81. Kangqiao Ma, Cunbin An, Tao Zhang, Qianglong Lv, Shaoqing Zhang, Pengxin Zhou, Jianqi Zhang, Jianhui Hou. Study of photovoltaic performances for asymmetrical and symmetrical chlorinated thiophene-bridge-based conjugated polymers. Journal of Materials Chemistry C 2020, 8 (7) , 2301-2306. https://doi.org/10.1039/C9TC05610F
    82. Ruimin Zhou, Zhaoyan Jiang, Chen Yang, Jianwei Yu, Jirui Feng, Muhammad Abdullah Adil, Dan Deng, Wenjun Zou, Jianqi Zhang, Kun Lu, Wei Ma, Feng Gao, Zhixiang Wei. All-small-molecule organic solar cells with over 14% efficiency by optimizing hierarchical morphologies. Nature Communications 2019, 10 (1) https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-13292-1
    83. Shafket Rasool, Quoc Viet Hoang, Doan Van Vu, Thi Thu Trang Bui, Seon-Mi Jin, Thuy Thi Ho, Chang Eun Song, Hang Ken Lee, Sang Kyu Lee, Jong-Cheol Lee, Sang-Jin Moon, Eunji Lee, Won Suk Shin. High-efficiency non-halogenated solvent processable polymer/PCBM solar cells via fluorination-enabled optimized nanoscale morphology. Journal of Materials Chemistry A 2019, 7 (43) , 24992-25002. https://doi.org/10.1039/C9TA08960H
    84. Xiaomin Wu, Shuqiong Lan, Guocheng Zhang, Huipeng Chen, Tailiang Guo. The effect of light environment during the film formation process on the morphology and function of organic photovoltaics. Journal of Materials Chemistry C 2019, 7 (34) , 10581-10588. https://doi.org/10.1039/C9TC03443A
    85. Hao Wu, Qihui Yue, Zichun Zhou, Shanshan Chen, Dongyang Zhang, Shengjie Xu, Huiqiong Zhou, Changduk Yang, Haijun Fan, Xiaozhang Zhu. Cathode interfacial layer-free all small-molecule solar cells with efficiency over 12%. Journal of Materials Chemistry A 2019, 7 (26) , 15944-15950. https://doi.org/10.1039/C9TA05023J
    86. Huan Li, Qiong Wu, Ruimin Zhou, Yanan Shi, Chen Yang, Yajie Zhang, Jianqi Zhang, Wenjun Zou, Dan Deng, Kun Lu, Zhixiang Wei. Liquid‐Crystalline Small Molecules for Nonfullerene Solar Cells with High Fill Factors and Power Conversion Efficiencies. Advanced Energy Materials 2019, 9 (6) https://doi.org/10.1002/aenm.201803175
    87. Niko Van den Brande, Guy Van Assche, Bruno Van Mele. Fast scanning chip calorimetry study of P3HT/PC 61 BM submicron layers: structure formation and eutectic behaviour. Polymer International 2019, 68 (2) , 277-282. https://doi.org/10.1002/pi.5672
    88. Marta Da Pian, Michele Maggini, G. Julius Vancso, Valerio Causin, Edmondo M. Benetti. Assembly of poly-3-(hexylthiophene) nanocrystals in marginal solvent: The role of PCBM. European Polymer Journal 2018, 109 , 222-228. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2018.09.049
    89. Beibei Qiu, Shanshan Chen, Lingwei Xue, Chenkai Sun, Xiaojun Li, Zhi-Guo Zhang, Changduk Yang, Yongfang Li. Effects of Alkoxy and Fluorine Atom Substitution of Donor Molecules on the Morphology and Photovoltaic Performance of All Small Molecule Organic Solar Cells. Frontiers in Chemistry 2018, 6 https://doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2018.00413
    90. Giovanni Li-Destri, Nunzio Tuccitto, Pietro Antonio Livio, Grazia Maria Lucia Messina, Linus Pithan, Giovanni Marletta. Energy-sustained reversible nanoscale order and conductivity increase in polymer thin films. Polymer 2018, 153 , 344-353. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymer.2018.08.012
    91. Henryk Bednarski, Barbara Hajduk, Marian Domański, Bożena Jarząbek, Paweł Nitschke, Katarzyna Łaba, Andrzej Wanic, Mieczysław Łapkowski. Unveiling of polymer/fullerene blend films morphology by ellipsometrically determined optical order within polymer and fullerene phases. Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics 2018, 56 (15) , 1094-1100. https://doi.org/10.1002/polb.24627
    92. Deepak Bhatia, Sandipta Roy, S. Nawaz, R.S. Meena, V.R. Palkar. Electrostatic force microscopy analysis of Bi0.7Dy0.3FeO3 thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition integrated with ZnO films for microelectromechanical systems and memory applications. Modern Electronic Materials 2018, 4 (2) , 77-85. https://doi.org/10.3897/j.moem.4.2.33306
    93. Jitendra Pal Singh, Mi-Jung Ji, Manish Kumar, Ik-Jae Lee, Keun Hwa Chae. Unveiling the nature of adsorbed species onto the surface of MgO thin films during prolonged annealing. Journal of Alloys and Compounds 2018, 748 , 355-362. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2018.02.344
    94. Torsten Sachse, Todd J. Martínez, Benjamin Dietzek, Martin Presselt. A program for automatically predicting supramolecular aggregates and its application to urea and porphin. Journal of Computational Chemistry 2018, 39 (13) , 763-772. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcc.25151
    95. Huan Li, Yifan Zhao, Jin Fang, Xiangwei Zhu, Benzheng Xia, Kun Lu, Zhen Wang, Jianqi Zhang, Xuefeng Guo, Zhixiang Wei. Improve the Performance of the All‐Small‐Molecule Nonfullerene Organic Solar Cells through Enhancing the Crystallinity of Acceptors. Advanced Energy Materials 2018, 8 (11) https://doi.org/10.1002/aenm.201702377
    96. G. Landi, C. Barone, C. Mauro, S. Pagano, H. C. Neitzert. Evaluation of silicon, organic, and perovskite solar cell reliability with low-frequency noise spectroscopy. 2018, 6C.3-1-6C.3-6. https://doi.org/10.1109/IRPS.2018.8353629
    97. Abul F. Huq, Irina Zvonkina, Abdullah M. Al-Enizi, Alamgir Karim. Controlling nanoparticle crystallinity and surface enrichment in polymer (P3HT)/Nanoparticle(PCBM) blend films with tunable soft confinement. Polymer 2018, 136 , 37-46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymer.2017.12.037
    98. Samira Agbolaghi, Sahar Zenoozi. A comprehensive review on poly(3-alkylthiophene)-based crystalline structures, protocols and electronic applications. Organic Electronics 2017, 51 , 362-403. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orgel.2017.09.038
    99. Takeshi Fukuda, Asuki Toda, Kazuya Takahira, Daiki Kuzuhara, Noriyuki Yoshimoto. Improved performance of organic photovoltaic cells with PTB7-Th:PC71 BM by optimized solvent evaporation time in electrospray deposition. Organic Electronics 2017, 48 , 96-105. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orgel.2017.05.049
    100. Marina Ide, Akinori Saeki. Fluorinated Benzothienoisoindigo Copolymers for Organic Solar Cells: A Comparative Study on Polymer Orientation and Device Performance. Chemistry Letters 2017, 46 (8) , 1133-1136. https://doi.org/10.1246/cl.170307
    Load all citations

    Pair your accounts.

    Export articles to Mendeley

    Get article recommendations from ACS based on references in your Mendeley library.

    Pair your accounts.

    Export articles to Mendeley

    Get article recommendations from ACS based on references in your Mendeley library.

    You’ve supercharged your research process with ACS and Mendeley!

    STEP 1:
    Click to create an ACS ID

    Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

    Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

    Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

    MENDELEY PAIRING EXPIRED
    Your Mendeley pairing has expired. Please reconnect