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Brain-Specific Delivery of Dopamine Mediated by N,N-Dimethyl Amino Group for the Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease

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Key Laboratory of Drug Targeting and Drug Delivery Systems, Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China
*Telephone: +86-28-85501566. Fax: +86-28-85501615. E-mail: [email protected]
Cite this: Mol. Pharmaceutics 2014, 11, 9, 3174–3185
Publication Date (Web):July 29, 2014
Copyright © 2014 American Chemical Society

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    Parkinson’s disease (PD) has become one of the most deadly diseases due to a lack of effective treatment. Herein, N-3,4-bis(pivaloyloxy)dopamine-3-(dimethylamino)propanamide (PDDP), a brain-specific derivative of dopamine, was designed and synthesized, which consists of a brain targeted ligand, N,N-dimethyl amino group, and two dipivaloyloxy groups for lipophilic modification. PDDP was investigated both in vitro and in vivo by comparing with L-DOPA and another derivative (BPD) without N,N-dimethyl amino group. PDDP showed a more pronounced accumulation in mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells (bEnd.3) than BPD via an active transport process. The increased cellular uptake of PDDP was proven to be mediated by putative pyrilamine cationic transporters. Following intravenous administration, the concentration of PDDP in the brain was 269.28-fold and 6.41-fold higher than that of L-DOPA and BPD at 5 min, respectively. Additionally, PDDP effectively attenuated the striatum lesion caused by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in rats. More importantly, PDDP presented antioxidant and antiapoptotic effects on 6-OHDA-induced toxicity in human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y). Thus, N,N-dimethyl amino group-based PDDP represents an effective and safe treatment for PD.

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