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Ultrasensitive Flexible Graphene Based Field-Effect Transistor (FET)-Type Bioelectronic Nose

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World Class University Program of Chemical Convergence for Energy & Environment, School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, Korea
School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanangro, Sillim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742, Korea
Cite this: Nano Lett. 2012, 12, 10, 5082–5090
Publication Date (Web):September 10, 2012
Copyright © 2012 American Chemical Society

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    Rapid and precise discrimination of various odorants is vital to fabricating enhanced sensing devices in the fields of disease diagnostics, food safety, and environmental monitoring. Here, we demonstrate an ultrasensitive and flexible field-effect transistor (FET) olfactory system, namely, a bioelectronic nose (B-nose), based on plasma-treated bilayer graphene conjugated with an olfactory receptor. The stable p- and n-type behaviors from modified bilayer graphene (MBLG) took place after controlled oxygen and ammonia plasma treatments. It was integrated with human olfactory receptors 2AG1 (hOR2AG1: OR), leading to the formation of the liquid-ion gated FET-type platform. ORs bind to the particular odorant amyl butyrate (AB), and their interactions are specific and selective. The B-noses behave as flexible and transparent sensing devices and can recognize a target odorant with single-carbon-atom resolution. The B-noses are ultrasensitive and highly selective toward AB. The minimum detection limit (MDL) is as low as 0.04 fM (10–15; signal-to-noise: 4.2), and the equilibrium constants of OR-oxygen plasma-treated graphene (OR-OG) and ammonia plasma-treated graphene (-NG) are ca. 3.44 × 1014 and 1.47 × 1014 M–1, respectively. Additionally, the B-noses have long-term stability and excellent mechanical bending durability in flexible systems.

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