ACS Publications. Most Trusted. Most Cited. Most Read
My Activity

Direct Optical Imaging of Graphene In Vitro by Nonlinear Femtosecond Laser Spectral Reshaping

View Author Information
† ‡ ∥ Department of Physics, Department of Chemistry, §Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708, United States
Cite this: Nano Lett. 2012, 12, 11, 5936–5940
Publication Date (Web):October 26, 2012
Copyright © 2012 American Chemical Society

    Article Views





    Read OnlinePDF (1 MB)
    Supporting Info (2)»


    Abstract Image

    Nonlinear optical microscopy, based on femtosecond laser spectral reshaping, characterized and imaged graphene samples made from different methods, both on slides and in a biological environment. This technique clearly discriminates between graphene flakes with different numbers of layers and reveals the distinct nonlinear optical properties of reduced graphene oxide as compared to mechanically exfoliated or chemical vapor deposition grown graphene. The nonlinearity makes it applicable to scattering samples (such as tissue) as opposed to previous methods, such as transmission. This was demonstrated by high-resolution imaging of breast cancer cells incubated with graphene flakes.

    Supporting Information

    Jump To

    This material is available free of charge via the Internet at

    Terms & Conditions

    Most electronic Supporting Information files are available without a subscription to ACS Web Editions. Such files may be downloaded by article for research use (if there is a public use license linked to the relevant article, that license may permit other uses). Permission may be obtained from ACS for other uses through requests via the RightsLink permission system:

    Cited By

    This article is cited by 24 publications.

    1. Renqing Zeng, Longxue Cai, Jose Manuel Perez-Aguilar, Zonglin Gu, Xianfa Liu. Robust Mechanical Destruction to the Cell Membrane of Carbon Nitride Polyaniline (C3N): A Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study. Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling 2023, 63 (13) , 4170-4179.
    2. Zonglin Gu, Austin M. Baggetta, Yu Chong, Leigh D. Plant, Xuan-Yu Meng, Ruhong Zhou. Multifaceted Regulation of Potassium-Ion Channels by Graphene Quantum Dots. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2021, 13 (24) , 27784-27795.
    3. Liang Zhao, Zonglin Gu. Potential Unwinding of Double-Stranded DNA upon Binding to a Carbon Nitride Polyaniline (C3N) Nanosheet. The Journal of Physical Chemistry B 2021, 125 (9) , 2258-2265.
    4. Zonglin Gu, Jose Manuel Perez-Aguilar, Lijun Meng, Ruhong Zhou. Partial Denaturation of Villin Headpiece upon Binding to a Carbon Nitride Polyaniline (C3N) Nanosheet. The Journal of Physical Chemistry B 2020, 124 (35) , 7557-7563.
    5. Zonglin Gu, Leigh D. Plant, Xuan-Yu Meng, Jose Manuel Perez-Aguilar, Zegao Wang, Mingdong Dong, Diomedes E. Logothetis, and Ruhong Zhou . Exploring the Nanotoxicology of MoS2: A Study on the Interaction of MoS2 Nanoflakes and K+ Channels. ACS Nano 2018, 12 (1) , 705-717.
    6. Yutaka Matsuno, Yu-uya Sato, Hikaru Sato, and Masahito Sano . Direct Observations of Graphene Dispersed in Solution by Twilight Fluorescence Microscopy. The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 2017, 8 (11) , 2425-2431.
    7. Richard Ciesielski, Alberto Comin, Matthias Handloser, Kevin Donkers, Giovanni Piredda, Antonio Lombardo, Andrea C. Ferrari, and Achim Hartschuh . Graphene Near-Degenerate Four-Wave Mixing for Phase Characterization of Broadband Pulses in Ultrafast Microscopy. Nano Letters 2015, 15 (8) , 4968-4972.
    8. Duan Feng, Yanchao Song, Wen Shi, Xiaohua Li, and Huimin Ma . Distinguishing Folate-Receptor-Positive Cells from Folate-Receptor-Negative Cells Using a Fluorescence Off–On Nanoprobe. Analytical Chemistry 2013, 85 (13) , 6530-6535.
    9. Yuqi Luo, Zonglin Gu, Jose Manuel Perez-Aguilar, Weihua Liao, Yiwen Huang, Yanbo Luo. Moderate binding of villin headpiece protein to C3N3 nanosheet reveals the suitable biocompatibility of this nanomaterial. Scientific Reports 2023, 13 (1)
    10. Zonglin Gu, Guanhua Xie, Jose Manuel Perez-Aguilar. Fluorinated graphene nanomaterial causes potential mechanical perturbations to a biomembrane. Journal of Molecular Modeling 2022, 28 (2)
    11. George I. Lambrou, Anna Tagka, Athanasios Kotoulas, Argyro Chatziioannou, George K. Matsopoulos. Physical and Methodological Perspectives on the Optical Properties of Biological Samples: A Review. Photonics 2021, 8 (12) , 540.
    12. Zonglin Gu, Jose Manuel Perez-Aguilar, Qiwen Shao. Restricted binding of a model protein on C 3 N 4 nanosheets suggests an adequate biocompatibility of the nanomaterial. RSC Advances 2021, 11 (13) , 7417-7425.
    13. Yifan Zhu, Ji-Xin Cheng. Transient absorption microscopy: Technological innovations and applications in materials science and life science. The Journal of Chemical Physics 2020, 152 (2)
    14. Zonglin Gu, Wei Song, Shengtang Liu, Baoyu Li, Leigh D. Plant, Xuan-Yu Meng. Potential blockade of the human voltage-dependent anion channel by MoS 2 nanoflakes. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 2019, 21 (18) , 9520-9530.
    15. Zonglin Gu, Lin Zhao, Cuicui Ge, Shengtang Liu, Ge Fang, Serena S. Chen, Zaixing Yang, Ruhong Zhou. Facet-regulated adhesion of double-stranded DNA on palladium surfaces. Nanoscale 2019, 11 (4) , 1827-1836.
    16. Hsiangkuo Yuan, Yang Liu, Tuan Vo-Dinh. Development of Gold Nanostars for Two-Photon Photoluminescence Imaging and Photothermal Therapy. 2017, 561-578.
    17. Yang Zhao, Qing Han, Zhihua Cheng, Lan Jiang, Liangti Qu. Integrated graphene systems by laser irradiation for advanced devices. Nano Today 2017, 12 , 14-30.
    18. Junjie Li, Weixia Zhang, Ting-Fung Chung, Mikhail N. Slipchenko, Yong P. Chen, Ji-Xin Cheng, Chen Yang. Highly sensitive transient absorption imaging of graphene and graphene oxide in living cells and circulating blood. Scientific Reports 2015, 5 (1)
    19. Zonglin Gu, Zaixing Yang, Yu Chong, Cuicui Ge, Jeffrey K. Weber, David R. Bell, Ruhong Zhou. Surface Curvature Relation to Protein Adsorption for Carbon-based Nanomaterials. Scientific Reports 2015, 5 (1)
    20. Ruhong Zhou. Fullerene and Derivatives. 2015, 17-43.
    21. Suhash Reddy Chavva, Avijit Pramanik, Bhanu Priya Viraka Nellore, Sudarson Sekhar Sinha, Brian Yust, Rajashekhar Kanchanapally, Zhen Fan, Rebecca A Crouch, Anant Kumar Singh, Bethany Neyland, Kimberly Robinson, Xuemei Dai, Dhiraj Sardar, Yuefeng Lu, Paresh Chandra Ray. Theranostic Graphene Oxide for Prostate Cancer Detection and Treatment. Particle & Particle Systems Characterization 2014, 31 (12) , 1252-1259.
    22. Cheng Li, Yue Hu, Minghao Yu, Zifan Wang, Wenxia Zhao, Peng Liu, Yexiang Tong, Xihong Lu. Nitrogen doped graphene paper as a highly conductive, and light-weight substrate for flexible supercapacitors. RSC Adv. 2014, 4 (94) , 51878-51883.
    23. Hsiangkuo Yuan, Janna K. Register, Hsin-Neng Wang, Andrew M. Fales, Yang Liu, Tuan Vo-Dinh. Plasmonic nanoprobes for intracellular sensing and imaging. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 2013, 405 (19) , 6165-6180.
    24. Teng Zhai, Fuxin Wang, Minghao Yu, Shilei Xie, Chaolun Liang, Cheng Li, Fangming Xiao, Renheng Tang, Qixiu Wu, Xihong Lu, Yexiang Tong. 3D MnO2–graphene composites with large areal capacitance for high-performance asymmetric supercapacitors. Nanoscale 2013, 5 (15) , 6790.

    Pair your accounts.

    Export articles to Mendeley

    Get article recommendations from ACS based on references in your Mendeley library.

    Pair your accounts.

    Export articles to Mendeley

    Get article recommendations from ACS based on references in your Mendeley library.

    You’ve supercharged your research process with ACS and Mendeley!

    STEP 1:
    Click to create an ACS ID

    Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

    Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

    Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

    Your Mendeley pairing has expired. Please reconnect