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Photovoltaic and Photothermoelectric Effect in a Double-Gated WSe2 Device

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Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628 CJ Delft, The Netherlands
Institute of Physics, University of Münster, D-48149 Münster, Germany
*E-mail: (D.J.G.) [email protected]
Cite this: Nano Lett. 2014, 14, 10, 5846–5852
Publication Date (Web):September 18, 2014
https://doi.org/10.1021/nl502741k
Copyright © 2014 American Chemical Society

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    Abstract

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    Tungsten diselenide (WSe2), a semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC), shows great potential as active material in optoelectronic devices due to its ambipolarity and direct bandgap in its single-layer form. Recently, different groups have exploited the ambipolarity of WSe2 to realize electrically tunable PN junctions, demonstrating its potential for digital electronics and solar cell applications. In this Letter, we focus on the different photocurrent generation mechanisms in a double-gated WSe2 device by measuring the photocurrent (and photovoltage) as the local gate voltages are varied independently in combination with above- and below-bandgap illumination. This enables us to distinguish between two main photocurrent generation mechanisms, the photovoltaic and photothermoelectric effect. We find that the dominant mechanism depends on the defined gate configuration. In the PN and NP configurations, photocurrent is mainly generated by the photovoltaic effect and the device displays a maximum responsivity of 0.70 mA/W at 532 nm illumination and rise and fall times close to 10 ms. Photocurrent generated by the photothermoelectric effect emerges in the PP configuration and is a factor of 2 larger than the current generated by the photovoltaic effect (in PN and NP configurations). This demonstrates that the photothermoelectric effect can play a significant role in devices based on WSe2 where a region of strong optical absorption, caused by, for example, an asymmetry in flake thickness or optical absorption of the electrodes, generates a sizable thermal gradient upon illumination.

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    Optical images of the transfer steps, characterization of the 2D materials (AFM, PL, Raman), output characteristics of the device in different gate configurations, extraction of diode parameters, photoconductance in reverse bias in PN configuration, EQE values as a function of wavelength, determination of response times, below-bandgap current measured between the inner leads, and subtraction of a 2D gate map in dark. This material is available free of charge via the Internet at http://pubs.acs.org.

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