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Polymer Nanofiber-Guided Uniform Lithium Deposition for Battery Electrodes

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Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, and §Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, United States
Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025, United States
Cite this: Nano Lett. 2015, 15, 5, 2910–2916
Publication Date (Web):March 30, 2015
Copyright © 2015 American Chemical Society

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    Lithium metal is one of the most promising candidates as an anode material for next-generation energy storage systems due to its highest specific capacity (3860 mAh/g) and lowest redox potential of all. The uncontrolled lithium dendrite growth that causes a poor cycling performance and serious safety hazards, however, presents a significant challenge for the realization of lithium metal-based batteries. Here, we demonstrate a novel electrode design by placing a three-dimensional (3D) oxidized polyacrylonitrile nanofiber network on top of the current collector. The polymer fiber with polar surface functional groups could guide the lithium ions to form uniform lithium metal deposits confined on the polymer fiber surface and in the 3D polymer layer. We showed stable cycling of lithium metal anode with an average Coulombic efficiency of 97.4% over 120 cycles in ether-based electrolyte at a current density of 3 mA/cm2 for a total of 1 mAh/cm2 of lithium.

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    Schematics of the fabrication processes of the polymer nanofiber, SEM characterization and cycling performance of Li deposition on Cu-OxPAN* electrode, statistics of the polymer fiber diameter distribution, SEM characterization and cycling performance of Li deposition on Cu-OxPAN electrode and Cu-PP electrode, high areal capacity electrochemical cycling, statistics of the oxidized PAN fiber porosity distribution, electrochemical testing in electrolyte without LiNO3, XPS study of oxidized PAN fiber before and after cycling, experimental details of polymer fiber fabrication, characterizations, electrochemical testing, and volumetric specific capacity calculation. This material is available free of charge via the Internet at

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