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Identification and Analysis of Multivalent Proteolytically Resistant Peptides from Gluten:  Implications for Celiac Sprue

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Departments of Chemical Engineering, Medicine, Chemistry and Biochemistry, Stanford University, Stanford California 94305-5025
Cite this: J. Proteome Res. 2005, 4, 5, 1732–1741
Publication Date (Web):August 17, 2005
Copyright © 2005 American Chemical Society

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    Dietary gluten proteins from wheat, rye, and barley are the primary triggers for the immuno-pathogenesis of Celiac Sprue, a widespread immune disease of the small intestine. Recent molecular and structural analyses of representative gluten proteins, most notably α- and γ-gliadin proteins from wheat, have improved our understanding of these pathogenic mechanisms. In particular, based on the properties of a 33-mer peptide, generated from α-gliadin under physiological conditions, a link between digestive resistance and inflammatory character of gluten has been proposed. Here, we report three lines of investigation in support of this hypothesis. First, biochemical and immunological analysis of deletion mutants of α-2 gliadin confirmed that the DQ2 restricted T cell response to the α-2 gliadin are directed toward the epitopes clustered within the 33-mer. Second, proteolytic analysis of a representative γ-gliadin led to the identification of another multivalent 26-mer peptide that was also resistant to further gastric, pancreatic and intestinal brush border degradation, and was a good substrate of human transglutaminase 2 (TG2). Analogous to the 33-mer, the synthetic 26-mer peptide displayed markedly enhanced T cell antigenicity compared to monovalent control peptides. Finally, in silico analysis of the gluten proteome led to the identification of at least 60 putative peptides that share the common characteristics of the 33-mer and the 26-mer peptides. Together, these results highlight the pivotal role of physiologically generated, proteolytically stable, TG2-reactive, multivalent peptides in the immune response to dietary gluten in Celiac Sprue patients. Prolyl endopeptidase treatment was shown to abolish the antigenicity of both the 33-mer and the 26-mer peptides, and was also predicted to have comparable effects on other proline-rich putatively immunotoxic peptides identified from other polypeptides within the gluten proteome.

    Keywords: Celiac Disease • Celiac Sprue • gliadin • gluten • proteolysis • prolyl endopeptidase

     Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University.

     Institute of Immunology, University of Oslo and Rikshospitalet University Hospital, N-0027 Oslo, Norway.


     Department of Chemical Medicine, Stanford University.

     Department of Chemical Chemistry, Stanford University.


     Department of Biochemistry, Stanford University.


     To whom correspondence should be addressed. Phone/FAX:  (650) 723-6538. E-mail:  [email protected].

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