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Structure−Function Relationships of Inhibition of Human Cytochromes P450 1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2C9, and 3A4 by 33 Flavonoid Derivatives

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Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-58 Rinku-Orai-Kita, Izumisano, Osaka 598-8531, Japan, Laboratory of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, Showa Pharmaceutical University, Machida, Tokyo 194-8543, Japan, Department of Biochemistry and Center in Molecular Toxicology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232-0146, United States, and Departments of Chemistry and Cell and Molecular Biology, Chemistry Department, Xavier University of Louisiana, New Orleans, Louisiana 70125, United States
* To whom correspondence should be addressed. (T.S.) Tel/Fax: +81-72-463-5326. E-mail: [email protected]. (H.Y.) Tel/Fax: +81-42-721-1406. E-mail: [email protected]
†Osaka Prefecture University.
‡Showa Pharmaceutical University.
§Vanderbilt University School of Medicine.
∥Xavier University of Louisiana.
Cite this: Chem. Res. Toxicol. 2010, 23, 12, 1921–1935
Publication Date (Web):November 5, 2010
Copyright © 2010 American Chemical Society

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    Structure−function relationships for the inhibition of human cytochrome P450s (P450s) 1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2C9, and 3A4 by 33 flavonoid derivatives were studied. Thirty-two of the 33 flavonoids tested produced reverse type I binding spectra with P450 1B1, and the potencies of binding were correlated with the abilities to inhibit 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation activity. The presence of a hydroxyl group in flavones, for example, 3-, 5-, and 7-monohydroxy- and 5,7-dihydroxyflavone, decreased the 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) of P450 1B1 from 0.6 μM to 0.09, 0.21, 0.25, and 0.27 μM, respectively, and 3,5,7-trihydroxyflavone (galangin) was the most potent, with an IC50 of 0.003 μM. The introduction of a 4′-methoxy- or 3′,4′-dimethoxy group into 5,7-dihydroxyflavone yielded other active inhibitors of P450 1B1 with IC50 values of 0.014 and 0.019 μM, respectively. The above hydroxyl and/or methoxy groups in flavone molecules also increased the inhibition activity with P450 1A1 but not always toward P450 1A2, where 3-, 5-, or 7-hydroxyflavone and 4′-methoxy-5,7-dihydroxyflavone were less inhibitory than flavone itself. P450 2C9 was more inhibited by 7-hydroxy-, 5,7-dihydroxy-, and 3,5,7-trihydroxyflavones than by flavone but was weakly inhibited by 3- and 5-hydroxyflavone. Flavone and several other flavonoids produced type I binding spectra with P450 3A4, but such binding was not always related to the inhibitiory activities toward P450 3A4. These results indicate that there are different mechanisms of inhibition for P450s 1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2C9, and 3A4 by various flavonoid derivatives and that the number and position of hydroxyl and/or methoxy groups highly influence the inhibitory actions of flavonoids toward these enzymes. Molecular docking studies suggest that there are different mechanisms involved in the interaction of various flavonoids with the active site of P450s, thus causing differences in inhibition of these P450 catalytic activities by flavonoids.

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