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Nanotoxicity of Silver Nanoparticles to Red Blood Cells: Size Dependent Adsorption, Uptake, and Hemolytic Activity

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Asian International Rivers Center, Yunnan Key Laboratory of International Rivers and Trans-boundary Eco-Security, and College of Chemical Science and Technology, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650091, People’s Republic of China
§ Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Real-Time Analytical Chemistry (Southwest University), Ministry of Education, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, P. R. China
*(L.Q.C.) Tel/Fax: 86-871-65034577. E-mail: [email protected]
*(C.Z.H.) Tel/Fax: 86-23-68254659. E-mail: [email protected]
Cite this: Chem. Res. Toxicol. 2015, 28, 3, 501–509
Publication Date (Web):January 20, 2015
Copyright © 2015 American Chemical Society

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    Abstract Image

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are increasingly being used as antimicrobial agents and drug carriers in biomedical fields. However, toxicological information on their effects on red blood cells (RBCs) and the mechanisms involved remain sparse. In this article, we examined the size dependent nanotoxicity of AgNPs using three different characteristic sizes of 15 nm (AgNPs15), 50 nm (AgNPs50), and 100 nm (AgNPs100) against fish RBCs. Optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy observations showed that AgNPs exhibited a size effect on their adsorption and uptake by RBCs. The middle sized AgNPs50, compared with the smaller or bigger ones, showed the highest level of adsorption and uptake by the RBCs, suggesting an optimal size of ∼50 nm for passive uptake by RBCs. The toxic effects determined based on the hemolysis, membrane injury, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant enzyme production were fairly size and dose dependent. In particular, the smallest sized AgNPs15 displayed a greater ability to induce hemolysis and membrane damage than AgNPs50 and AgNPs100. Such cytotoxicity induced by AgNPs should be attributed to the direct interaction of the nanoparticle with the RBCs, resulting in the production of oxidative stress, membrane injury, and subsequently hemolysis. Overall, the results suggest that particle size is a critical factor influencing the interaction between AgNPs and the RBCs.

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