ACS Publications. Most Trusted. Most Cited. Most Read
My Activity
CONTENT TYPES

Figure 1Loading Img

Nanoscale Electrochemical Sensor Arrays: Redox Cycling Amplification in Dual-Electrode Systems

View Author Information
Institute of Bioelectronics (PGI-8/ICS-8), Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich, Germany
Neuroelectronics, IMETUM, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Technical University of Munich, Boltzmannstr. 11, 85748 Garching, Germany
Cite this: Acc. Chem. Res. 2016, 49, 9, 2031–2040
Publication Date (Web):September 7, 2016
https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.accounts.6b00333
Copyright © 2016 American Chemical Society

    Article Views

    3517

    Altmetric

    -

    Citations

    LEARN ABOUT THESE METRICS
    Other access options
    Supporting Info (1)»

    Abstract

    Abstract Image
    Conspectus

    Micro- and nanofabriation technologies have a tremendous potential for the development of powerful sensor array platforms for electrochemical detection. The ability to integrate electrochemical sensor arrays with microfluidic devices nowadays provides possibilities for advanced lab-on-a-chip technology for the detection or quantification of multiple targets in a high-throughput approach. In particular, this is interesting for applications outside of analytical laboratories, such as point-of-care (POC) or on-site water screening where cost, measurement time, and the size of individual sensor devices are important factors to be considered. In addition, electrochemical sensor arrays can monitor biological processes in emerging cell-analysis platforms. Here, recent progress in the design of disease model systems and organ-on-a-chip technologies still needs to be matched by appropriate functionalities for application of external stimuli and read-out of cellular activity in long-term experiments. Preferably, data can be gathered not only at a singular location but at different spatial scales across a whole cell network, calling for new sensor array technologies.

    In this Account, we describe the evolution of chip-based nanoscale electrochemical sensor arrays, which have been developed and investigated in our group. Focusing on design and fabrication strategies that facilitate applications for the investigation of cellular networks, we emphasize the sensing of redox-active neurotransmitters on a chip. To this end, we address the impact of the device architecture on sensitivity, selectivity as well as on spatial and temporal resolution. Specifically, we highlight recent work on redox-cycling concepts using nanocavity sensor arrays, which provide an efficient amplification strategy for spatiotemporal detection of redox-active molecules.

    As redox-cycling electrochemistry critically depends on the ability to miniaturize and integrate closely spaced electrode systems, the fabrication of suitable nanoscale devices is of utmost importance for the development of this advanced sensor technology. Here, we address current challenges and limitations, which are associated with different redox cycling sensor array concepts and fabrication approaches. State-of-the-art micro- and nanofabrication technologies based on optical and electron-beam lithography allow precise control of the device layout and have led to a new generation of electrochemical sensor architectures for highly sensitive detection. Yet, these approaches are often expensive and limited to clean-room compatible materials. In consequence, they lack possibilities for upscaling to high-throughput fabrication at moderate costs. In this respect, self-assembly techniques can open new routes for electrochemical sensor design. This is true in particular for nanoporous redox cycling sensor arrays that have been developed in recent years and provide interesting alternatives to clean-room fabricated nanofluidic redox cycling devices.

    We conclude this Account with a discussion of emerging fabrication technologies based on printed electronics that we believe have the potential of transforming current redox cycling concepts from laboratory tools for fundamental studies and proof-of-principle analytical demonstrations into high-throughput devices for rapid screening applications.

    Read this article

    To access this article, please review the available access options below.

    Get instant access

    Purchase Access

    Read this article for 48 hours. Check out below using your ACS ID or as a guest.

    Recommended

    Access through Your Institution

    You may have access to this article through your institution.

    Your institution does not have access to this content. You can change your affiliated institution below.

    Supporting Information

    ARTICLE SECTIONS
    Jump To

    The Supporting Information is available free of charge on the ACS Publications website at DOI: 10.1021/acs.accounts.6b00333.

    • Temporal response for different redox-cycling sensor geometries and time-dependent amplification factor; description of printed redox cycling sensor (PDF)

    Terms & Conditions

    Most electronic Supporting Information files are available without a subscription to ACS Web Editions. Such files may be downloaded by article for research use (if there is a public use license linked to the relevant article, that license may permit other uses). Permission may be obtained from ACS for other uses through requests via the RightsLink permission system: http://pubs.acs.org/page/copyright/permissions.html.

    Cited By

    This article is cited by 72 publications.

    1. Zhiyong Zheng, Simon Grall, Soo Hyeon Kim, Arnaud Chovin, Nicolas Clement, Christophe Demaille. Activationless Electron Transfer of Redox-DNA in Electrochemical Nanogaps. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2024, 146 (9) , 6094-6103. https://doi.org/10.1021/jacs.3c13532
    2. Sabine Zips, Boxin Huang, Salammbô Hotte, Lukas Hiendlmeier, Chen Wang, Karthyayani Rajamani, Olivier Buriez, George Al Boustani, Yong Chen, Bernhard Wolfrum, Ayako Yamada. Aerosol Jet-Printed High-Aspect Ratio Micro-Needle Electrode Arrays Applied for Human Cerebral Organoids and 3D Neurospheroid Networks. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2023, 15 (30) , 35950-35961. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.3c06210
    3. Jing-Xian Wang, Xue-Jin Yang, Yan-Zhai Wang, Kai Yang, Huayou Chen, Yang-Chun Yong. Bio-Nanohybrid Cell Based Signal Amplification System for Electrochemical Sensing. Analytical Chemistry 2022, 94 (22) , 7738-7742. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.2c01384
    4. Chao Lu, Xiangbiao Liao, Daining Fang, Xi Chen. Highly Sensitive Ultrastable Electrochemical Sensor Enabled by Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer. Nano Letters 2021, 21 (12) , 5369-5376. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.1c01692
    5. Sabine Zips, Leroy Grob, Philipp Rinklin, Korkut Terkan, Nouran Yehia Adly, Lennart Jakob Konstantin Weiß, Dirk Mayer, Bernhard Wolfrum. Fully Printed μ-Needle Electrode Array from Conductive Polymer Ink for Bioelectronic Applications. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2019, 11 (36) , 32778-32786. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.9b11774
    6. Kosuke Ino, Takehiro Onodera, Mika T. Fukuda, Yuji Nashimoto, Hitoshi Shiku. Combination of Double-Mediator System with Large-Scale Integration-Based Amperometric Devices for Detecting NAD(P)H:quinone Oxidoreductase 1 Activity of Cancer Cell Aggregates. ACS Sensors 2019, 4 (6) , 1619-1625. https://doi.org/10.1021/acssensors.9b00344
    7. Yuan Yang, Yang-Yang Yu, Yu-Tong Shi, Jamile Mohammadi Moradian, Yang-Chun Yong. In Vivo Two-Way Redox Cycling System for Independent Duplexed Electrochemical Signal Amplification. Analytical Chemistry 2019, 91 (8) , 4939-4942. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.9b00053
    8. Hua Gong, Fang Chen, Zhenlong Huang, Yue Gu, Qiangzhe Zhang, Yijie Chen, Yue Zhang, Jia Zhuang, Yoon-Kyoung Cho, Ronnie H. Fang, Weiwei Gao, Sheng Xu, Liangfang Zhang. Biomembrane-Modified Field Effect Transistors for Sensitive and Quantitative Detection of Biological Toxins and Pathogens. ACS Nano 2019, 13 (3) , 3714-3722. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.9b00911
    9. Zhen Wu, Tao Zeng, Wen-Jing Guo, Yi-Yan Bai, Dai-Wen Pang, Zhi-Ling Zhang. Digital Single Virus Immunoassay for Ultrasensitive Multiplex Avian Influenza Virus Detection Based on Fluorescent Magnetic Multifunctional Nanospheres. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2019, 11 (6) , 5762-5770. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.8b18898
    10. Pavithra Pathirathna, Ryan J. Balla, Shigeru Amemiya. Nanogap-Based Electrochemical Measurements at Double-Carbon-Fiber Ultramicroelectrodes. Analytical Chemistry 2018, 90 (20) , 11746-11750. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.8b02987
    11. Kaiyu Fu and Paul W. Bohn . Nanopore Electrochemistry: A Nexus for Molecular Control of Electron Transfer Reactions. ACS Central Science 2018, 4 (1) , 20-29. https://doi.org/10.1021/acscentsci.7b00576
    12. Yusuke Kanno, Kosuke Ino, Hiroya Abe, Chika Sakamoto, Takehiro Onodera, Kumi Y. Inoue, Atsushi Suda, Ryota Kunikata, Masahki Matsudaira, Hitoshi Shiku, and Tomokazu Matsue . Electrochemicolor Imaging Using an LSI-Based Device for Multiplexed Cell Assays. Analytical Chemistry 2017, 89 (23) , 12778-12786. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.7b03042
    13. Kaoru Hiramoto, Masahiro Yasumi, Hiroshi Ushio, Atsushi Shunori, Kosuke Ino, Hitoshi Shiku, and Tomokazu Matsue . Development of Oxygen Consumption Analysis with an on-Chip Electrochemical Device and Simulation. Analytical Chemistry 2017, 89 (19) , 10303-10310. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.7b02074
    14. Mahdieh Atighilorestani and Alexandre G. Brolo . Recessed Gold Nanoring–Ring Microarray Electrodes. Analytical Chemistry 2017, 89 (18) , 9870-9876. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.7b01943
    15. Junmei Fan, Ruitao Zhu, Wei Han, Hongfei Han, Liping Ding. A multi-wavelength cross-reactive fluorescent sensor ensemble for fingerprinting flavonoids in serum and urine. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 2024, 310 , 123893. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2024.123893
    16. Antonia Perju, Nongnoot Wongkaew. Laser‐Induced Carbon Nanofiber‐Based Redox Cycling System. ChemElectroChem 2024, 11 (5) https://doi.org/10.1002/celc.202300271
    17. Rupali Jandrotia, Ipsa Gupta, Priyanka Mahajan, Daizy Rani Batish, Harminder Pal Singh. Green nanomaterials: an eco-friendly route for sustainable nanotechnology. 2024, 21-52. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-323-99682-2.00002-5
    18. Aleksandra Plačkić, Tilmann J. Neubert, Kishan Patel, Michel Kuhl, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Amaia Zurutuza, Roman Sordan, Kannan Balasubramanian. Electrochemistry at the Edge of a van der Waals Heterostructure. Small 2023, 499 https://doi.org/10.1002/smll.202306361
    19. Rong Ding, Zhaojie Li, Yan Xiong, Wei Wu, Qingli Yang, Xiudan Hou. Electrochemical (Bio)Sensors for the Detection of Organophosphorus Pesticides Based on Nanomaterial-Modified Electrodes: A Review. Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry 2023, 53 (8) , 1766-1791. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408347.2022.2041391
    20. Catherine Sella, Laurent Thouin. Depletion of Electroactive Species in Microchannels. Theory and Experimental Validations for Quantitative Abatement of Interfering Species under Stagnant Conditions. Electrochimica Acta 2023, 469 , 143277. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2023.143277
    21. Hyusim Park, Yuze Sun, Sungyong Jung. Balanced Resistive Matrix Array for High-Density Electrochemical Sensor Array. IEEE Sensors Journal 2023, 23 (13) , 14323-14329. https://doi.org/10.1109/JSEN.2023.3274645
    22. Jun-Hee Park, Ga-Yeon Lee, Zhiquan Song, Ji-Hong Bong, Hong-Rae Kim, Min-Jung Kang, Jae-Chul Pyun. A vertically paired electrode for redox cycling and its application to immunoassays. The Analyst 2023, 148 (6) , 1349-1361. https://doi.org/10.1039/D2AN01648F
    23. Vinay Kammarchedu, Aida Ebrahimi. Advancing Electrochemical Screening of Neurotransmitters Using a Customizable Machine Learning-Based Multimodal System. IEEE Sensors Letters 2023, 7 (3) , 1-4. https://doi.org/10.1109/LSENS.2023.3247002
    24. Kentaro Ito, Kumi Y. Inoue, Takahiro Ito-Sasaki, Miho Ikegawa, Shinichiro Takano, Kosuke Ino, Hitoshi Shiku. Highly Sensitive Electrochemical Endotoxin Sensor Based on Redox Cycling Using an Interdigitated Array Electrode Device. Micromachines 2023, 14 (2) , 327. https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14020327
    25. Tatjana Šafarik, Aleksandar Karajić, Stéphane Reculusa, Philip N. Bartlett, Nicolas Mano, Alexander Kuhn. Bottom‐Up Designed Porous Coaxial Twin‐Electrodes for Efficient Redox Cycling. Advanced Functional Materials 2023, 33 (7) https://doi.org/10.1002/adfm.202210638
    26. Abbas Afkhami, Tayyebeh Madrakian, Mazaher Ahmadi. Miniaturized electrochemical devices. 2023, 211-242. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-323-91741-4.00010-5
    27. Monika Kamari, Naveen Kumar, David E. Motaung, Noureddine Issaoui, Suresh Kumar, Gita Rani. Nanosensors for crop protection. 2023, 323-349. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-323-91703-2.00003-8
    28. M. Ramya, P. Senthil Kumar, Gayathri Rangasamy, V. Uma shankar, G. Rajesh, K. Nirmala, A. Saravanan, Alagumalai Krishnapandi. A recent advancement on the applications of nanomaterials in electrochemical sensors and biosensors. Chemosphere 2022, 308 , 136416. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2022.136416
    29. Zahra Karimzadeh, Mansour Mahmoudpour, Elaheh Rahimpour, Abolghasem Jouyban. Nanomaterial based PVA nanocomposite hydrogels for biomedical sensing: Advances toward designing the ideal flexible/wearable nanoprobes. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science 2022, 305 , 102705. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cis.2022.102705
    30. Derrick Butler, Aida Ebrahimi. Rapid and sensitive detection of viral particles by coupling redox cycling and electrophoretic enrichment. Biosensors and Bioelectronics 2022, 208 , 114198. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2022.114198
    31. Elena E. Ferapontova. Bioelectrochemical analysis of neurodegeneration: Refocusing efforts. Current Opinion in Electrochemistry 2022, 32 , 100924. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coelec.2021.100924
    32. Jun-Hee Park, Ga-Yeon Lee, Zhiquan Song, Ji-Hong Bong, Young Wook Chang, Sungbo Cho, Min-Jung Kang, Jae-Chul Pyun. Capacitive biosensor based on vertically paired electrodes for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. Biosensors and Bioelectronics 2022, 202 , 113975. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2022.113975
    33. Tianyu Li, Jesús Adrián Díaz‐Real, Thomas Holm. Design of Electrochemical Microfluidic Detectors: A Review. Advanced Materials Technologies 2021, 6 (12) https://doi.org/10.1002/admt.202100569
    34. Jaan Männik, Tetsuhiko F. Teshima, Bernhard Wolfrum, Da Yang. Lab-on-a-chip based mechanical actuators and sensors for single-cell and organoid culture studies. Journal of Applied Physics 2021, 129 (21) https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0051875
    35. Leroy Grob, Philipp Rinklin, Sabine Zips, Dirk Mayer, Sabrina Weidlich, Korkut Terkan, Lennart J. K. Weiß, Nouran Adly, Andreas Offenhäusser, Bernhard Wolfrum. Inkjet-Printed and Electroplated 3D Electrodes for Recording Extracellular Signals in Cell Culture. Sensors 2021, 21 (12) , 3981. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21123981
    36. Humaria Rashid Khan, Muhammad Aamir, Ahmed Shuja Syed, Javeed Akhtar. General techniques for preparation of nanosensors. 2021, 19-43. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-823358-0.00003-4
    37. Shipra Solanki, Chandra M. Pandey, Rajinder K. Gupta, Bansi D. Malhotra. Nanobioelectrochemistry: Fundamentals and biosensor applications. 2021, 87-128. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-820055-1.00004-6
    38. Yunshan Fan, Samuel T. Barlow, Bo Zhang. Single-molecule electrochemistry. 2021, 253-293. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-820055-1.00011-3
    39. Urmila Chakraborty, Gurpreet Kaur, Ganga Ram Chaudhary. Development of Environmental Nanosensors for Detection Monitoring and Assessment. 2021, 91-143. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-9239-3_5
    40. Sanjog V. Joshi, Pradeep R. Nair. Electronic Circuit Inspired Optimization of Nanogap Electrochemical Biosensors. IEEE Sensors Journal 2020, 20 (23) , 14245-14252. https://doi.org/10.1109/JSEN.2020.3009285
    41. Marianne Estelle Prévôt, Ahlam Nemati, Tobias Richard Cull, Elda Hegmann, Torsten Hegmann. A Zero‐Power Optical, ppt‐ to ppm‐Level Toxic Gas and Vapor Sensor with Image, Text, and Analytical Capabilities. Advanced Materials Technologies 2020, 5 (5) https://doi.org/10.1002/admt.202000058
    42. Shihao Su, Xun Guo, Yanjun Fu, Yanbo Xie, Xinwei Wang, Jianming Xue. Origin of nonequilibrium 1/ f noise in solid-state nanopores. Nanoscale 2020, 12 (16) , 8975-8981. https://doi.org/10.1039/C9NR09829A
    43. R. Abdel-Karim, Y. Reda, A. Abdel-Fattah. Review—Nanostructured Materials-Based Nanosensors. Journal of The Electrochemical Society 2020, 167 (3) , 037554. https://doi.org/10.1149/1945-7111/ab67aa
    44. Francesca Bettazzi, Ilaria Palchetti. Nanotoxicity assessment: A challenging application for cutting edge electroanalytical tools. Analytica Chimica Acta 2019, 1072 , 61-74. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2019.04.035
    45. L.A. D’Imperio, A.E. Valera, J.R. Naughton, M.M. Archibald, J.M. Merlo, T.J. Connolly, M.J. Burns, T.C. Chiles, M.J. Naughton. An extended core nanocoax pillar architecture for enhanced molecular detection. Biosensors and Bioelectronics 2019, 134 , 83-89. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2019.03.045
    46. Soon Bo Lee, Youngwon Ju, Yongwoon Lee, Joohoon Kim. Indium tin oxide modified with dendrimer-encapsulated Pt nanoparticles as efficient p-aminophenol redox cycling platforms. Applied Surface Science 2019, 473 , 461-467. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2018.12.145
    47. Chun-Lung Lien, Chiun-Jye Yuan. The Development of CMOS Amperometric Sensing Chip with a Novel 3-Dimensional TiN Nano-Electrode Array. Sensors 2019, 19 (5) , 994. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19050994
    48. Germán A. Messina, Matías Regiart, Sirley V. Pereira, Franco A. Bertolino, Pedro R. Aranda, Julio Raba, Martín A. Fernández-Baldo. Nanomaterials in the Development of Biosensor and Application in the Determination of Pollutants in Water. 2019, 195-215. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-02381-2_9
    49. Raghvendra Kumar Mishra, R. Rajakumari. Nanobiosensors for Biomedical Application. 2019, 1-23. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-814031-4.00001-5
    50. Zerong Liao, Jianfeng Wang, Pengjie Zhang, Yang Zhang, Yunfei Miao, Shimeng Gao, Yulin Deng, Lina Geng. Recent advances in microfluidic chip integrated electronic biosensors for multiplexed detection. Biosensors and Bioelectronics 2018, 121 , 272-280. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2018.08.061
    51. Nouran Adly, Sabrina Weidlich, Silke Seyock, Fabian Brings, Alexey Yakushenko, Andreas Offenhäusser, Bernhard Wolfrum. Printed microelectrode arrays on soft materials: from PDMS to hydrogels. npj Flexible Electronics 2018, 2 (1) https://doi.org/10.1038/s41528-018-0027-z
    52. M. A. Edwards, D. A. Robinson, H. Ren, C. G. Cheyne, C. S. Tan, H. S. White. Nanoscale electrochemical kinetics & dynamics: the challenges and opportunities of single-entity measurements. Faraday Discussions 2018, 210 , 9-28. https://doi.org/10.1039/C8FD00134K
    53. Feng Zhu, Haihui Chen, Wenjing Feng, Lijun Liu, Limin Liu. Fabrication of compact disk-based submicroband electrode and its application for Cu2+ detection. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 2018, 823 , 171-175. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jelechem.2018.06.008
    54. Amélie J.C. Wahl, Ian P. Seymour, Micheal Moore, Pierre Lovera, Alan O'Riordan, James F. Rohan. Diffusion profile simulations and enhanced iron sensing in generator-collector mode at interdigitated nanowire electrode arrays. Electrochimica Acta 2018, 277 , 235-243. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2018.04.181
    55. Mathieu Odijk, Albert van den Berg. Nanoscale Electrochemical Sensing and Processing in Microreactors. Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry 2018, 11 (1) , 421-440. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-anchem-061417-125642
    56. Hamid Reza Zafarani, Liza Rassaei, Ernst J.R. Sudhölter, Barak D.B. Aaronson, Frank Marken. Generator–collector electrochemical sensor configurations based on track-Etch membrane separated platinum leaves. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 2018, 255 , 2904-2909. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.snb.2017.09.110
    57. Karima Kahlouche, Roxana Jijie, Ioana Hosu, Alexandre Barras, Tijani Gharbi, Reda Yahiaoui, Guillaume Herlem, Marhoun Ferhat, Sabine Szunerits, Rabah Boukherroub. Controlled modification of electrochemical microsystems with polyethylenimine/reduced graphene oxide using electrophoretic deposition: Sensing of dopamine levels in meat samples. Talanta 2018, 178 , 432-440. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2017.09.065
    58. Nabin Kumar Karna, Andres Rojano Crisson, Enrique Wagemann, Jens H. Walther, Harvey A. Zambrano. Effect of an external electric field on capillary filling of water in hydrophilic silica nanochannels. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 2018, 20 (27) , 18262-18270. https://doi.org/10.1039/C8CP03186J
    59. Pavithra Pathirathna, Ryan J. Balla, Shigeru Amemiya. Simulation of Fast-Scan Nanogap Voltammetry at Double-Cylinder Ultramicroelectrodes. Journal of The Electrochemical Society 2018, 165 (12) , G3026-G3032. https://doi.org/10.1149/2.0051812jes
    60. Henry S. White, Kim McKelvey. Redox cycling in nanogap electrochemical cells. Current Opinion in Electrochemistry 2018, 7 , 48-53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coelec.2017.10.021
    61. Frank Marken, Klaus Mathwig. Nano- and micro-gap electrochemical transducers: Novel benchtop fabrication techniques and electrical migration effects. Current Opinion in Electrochemistry 2018, 7 , 15-21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coelec.2017.10.004
    62. Mao-Sung Wu, Wei-Ann Chen. Numerical simulation of differential cyclic voltammetry for amplified and separate detection of redox couples using dual-plate microgap device. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers 2017, 80 , 518-524. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtice.2017.08.020
    63. Ka My Dang, Philipp Rinklin, Jan Schnitker, Bastian Haberkorn, Kathrin Zobel, Simona Gribaudo, Anselme L. Perrier, Jorne Carolus, Michaël Daenen, Stefan Weigel, Harald Luksch, Andreas Offenhäusser, Bernhard Wolfrum. Fabrication of precisely aligned microwire and microchannel structures: Toward heat stimulation of guided neurites in neuronal cultures. physica status solidi (a) 2017, 214 (9) , 1600729. https://doi.org/10.1002/pssa.201600729
    64. Bernd Bachmann, Nouran Y Adly, Jan Schnitker, Alexey Yakushenko, Philipp Rinklin, Andreas Offenhäusser, Bernhard Wolfrum. All-inkjet-printed gold microelectrode arrays for extracellular recording of action potentials. Flexible and Printed Electronics 2017, 2 (3) , 035003. https://doi.org/10.1088/2058-8585/aa7928
    65. Martina Komendová, Radovan Metelka, Jiří Urban. Miniaturized Biamperometric Detectors for Electrochemical Detection in Flowing Streams. Electroanalysis 2017, 29 (7) , 1670-1673. https://doi.org/10.1002/elan.201700027
    66. Kosuke Ino, Yusuke Kanno, Kumi Y. Inoue, Atsushi Suda, Ryota Kunikata, Masahki Matsudaira, Hitoshi Shiku, Tomokazu Matsue. Electrochemical Motion Tracking of Microorganisms Using a Large‐Scale‐Integration‐Based Amperometric Device. Angewandte Chemie 2017, 129 (24) , 6922-6926. https://doi.org/10.1002/ange.201701541
    67. Kosuke Ino, Yusuke Kanno, Kumi Y. Inoue, Atsushi Suda, Ryota Kunikata, Masahki Matsudaira, Hitoshi Shiku, Tomokazu Matsue. Electrochemical Motion Tracking of Microorganisms Using a Large‐Scale‐Integration‐Based Amperometric Device. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 2017, 56 (24) , 6818-6822. https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.201701541
    68. Nouran Adly, Lingyan Feng, Kay J. Krause, Dirk Mayer, Alexey Yakushenko, Andreas Offenhäusser, Bernhard Wolfrum. Flexible Microgap Electrodes by Direct Inkjet Printing for Biosensing Application. Advanced Biosystems 2017, 1 (3) https://doi.org/10.1002/adbi.201600016
    69. Philipp Rinklin, Dirk Mayer, Bernhard Wolfrum. Electrochemical Nanocavity Devices. 2017, 199-214. https://doi.org/10.1007/5346_2017_8
    70. Kosuke Ino, Mustafa Şen, Hitoshi Shiku, Tomokazu Matsue. Micro/nanoelectrochemical probe and chip devices for evaluation of three-dimensional cultured cells. The Analyst 2017, 142 (23) , 4343-4354. https://doi.org/10.1039/C7AN01442B
    71. Govindhan Maduraiveeran, Wei Jin. Nanomaterials based electrochemical sensor and biosensor platforms for environmental applications. Trends in Environmental Analytical Chemistry 2017, 13 , 10-23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.teac.2017.02.001
    72. Jules Hammond, Mark Rosamond, Siva Sivaraya, Frank Marken, Pedro Estrela. Fabrication of a Horizontal and a Vertical Large Surface Area Nanogap Electrochemical Sensor. Sensors 2016, 16 (12) , 2128. https://doi.org/10.3390/s16122128

    Pair your accounts.

    Export articles to Mendeley

    Get article recommendations from ACS based on references in your Mendeley library.

    Pair your accounts.

    Export articles to Mendeley

    Get article recommendations from ACS based on references in your Mendeley library.

    You’ve supercharged your research process with ACS and Mendeley!

    STEP 1:
    Click to create an ACS ID

    Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

    Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

    Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

    MENDELEY PAIRING EXPIRED
    Your Mendeley pairing has expired. Please reconnect