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Hematocrit-Independent Quantitation of Stimulants in Dried Blood Spots: Pipet versus Microfluidic-Based Volumetric Sampling Coupled with Automated Flow-Through Desorption and Online Solid Phase Extraction-LC-MS/MS Bioanalysis

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Cite this: Anal. Chem. 2016, 88, 13, 6789–6796
Publication Date (Web):June 7, 2016
https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.6b01190
Copyright © 2016 American Chemical Society

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    Abstract

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    A workflow overcoming microsample collection issues and hematocrit (HCT)-related bias would facilitate more widespread use of dried blood spots (DBS). This report describes comparative results between the use of a pipet and a microfluidic-based sampling device for the creation of volumetric DBS. Both approaches were successfully coupled to HCT-independent, fully automated sample preparation and online liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis allowing detection of five stimulants in finger prick blood. Reproducible, selective, accurate, and precise responses meeting generally accepted regulated bioanalysis guidelines were observed over the range of 5–1000 ng/mL whole blood. The applied heated flow-through solvent desorption of the entire spot and online solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure were unaffected by the blood’s HCT value within the tested range of 28.0–61.5% HCT. Enhanced stability for mephedrone on DBS compared to liquid whole blood was observed. Finger prick blood samples were collected using both volumetric sampling approaches over a time course of 25 h after intake of a single oral dose of phentermine. A pharmacokinetic curve for the incurred phentermine was successfully produced using the described validated method. These results suggest that either volumetric sample collection method may be amenable to field-use followed by fully automated, HCT-independent DBS-SPE-LC-MS/MS bioanalysis for the quantitation of these representative controlled substances. Analytical data from DBS prepared with a pipet and microfluidic-based sampling devices were comparable, but the latter is easier to operate, making this approach more suitable for sample collection by unskilled persons.

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    The Supporting Information is available free of charge on the ACS Publications website at DOI: 10.1021/acs.analchem.6b01190.

    • Characteristics of the stimulants investigated; DBS-SPE valve settings; setup of long-term on-card stability experiments; accuracy and precision data; stability data (PDF)

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    24. Anthony A. Provatas, Steven L. Kolakowski, Francis H. Sternberg, James D. Stuart, Christopher R. Perkins. Analysis of Dried Blood Spots for Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Organochlorine Pesticides by Gas Chromatography Coupled with Tandem Mass Spectrometry. Analytical Letters 2019, 52 (9) , 1379-1395. https://doi.org/10.1080/00032719.2018.1541994
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    28. Sofie Velghe, Lisa Delahaye, Christophe P. Stove. Is the hematocrit still an issue in quantitative dried blood spot analysis?. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 2019, 163 , 188-196. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2018.10.010
    29. Michal Alexovič, Yannis Dotsikas, Peter Bober, Ján Sabo. Achievements in robotic automation of solvent extraction and related approaches for bioanalysis of pharmaceuticals. Journal of Chromatography B 2018, 1092 , 402-421. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jchromb.2018.06.037
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    33. Nathaly Reyes-Garcés, Md Nazmul Alam, Janusz Pawliszyn. The effect of hematocrit on solid-phase microextraction. Analytica Chimica Acta 2018, 1001 , 40-50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2017.11.014
    34. M. Resano, M.A. Belarra, E. García-Ruiz, M. Aramendía, L. Rello. Dried matrix spots and clinical elemental analysis. Current status, difficulties, and opportunities. TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry 2018, 99 , 75-87. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trac.2017.12.004
    35. Germán Augusto Gómez-Ríos, Marcos Tascon, Nathaly Reyes-Garcés, Ezel Boyacı, Justen Poole, Janusz Pawliszyn. Quantitative analysis of biofluid spots by coated blade spray mass spectrometry, a new approach to rapid screening. Scientific Reports 2017, 7 (1) https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-16494-z
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